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Berkeley Lab/UC Berkeley study shows EV batteries meet daily travel needs of 85%+ of US drivers even after 20% energy capacity fade; calls for new EOL criteria

31 March 2015

A new study by researchers from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley shows quantitatively that EV batteries can continue to meet daily travel needs of drivers well beyond the 80% floor for remaining energy storage capacity that is commonly assumed. An open access paper on their work, which applied detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars, is published in the Journal of Power Sources.

The study also sheds light on a number of other factors concerning battery use and energy and power fade, including that even EV batteries with substantial energy capacity fade continue to provide sufficient buffer charge for unexpected trips with long distances; that enabling charging in more locations, even if only with 120 V wall outlets, prolongs the useful life of EV batteries; and that EVs meet performance requirements even down to 30% remaining power capacity.

Continue Reading “Berkeley Lab/UC Berkeley study shows EV batteries meet daily travel needs of 85%+ of US drivers even after 20% energy capacity fade; calls for new EOL criteria”

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Toyota and Lexus roll-out low-cost automated braking safety packages on RAV4 Hybrid and RX crossover

30 March 2015

At separate press conferences Wednesday and Thursday at the New York Auto Show, Toyota will reveal the RAV4 Hybrid SUV, while Lexus unveils its all-new fourth-generation RX luxury crossover SUV. Both debuts will mark the arrival of new, multi-feature, integrated safety packages, each anchored by automated pre-collision braking and offered at a price below comparable systems across the auto industry.

Toyota Safety Sense (TSS) and Lexus Safety System+ (LSS+) are designed to support the driver’s awareness, decision making and vehicle operation over a wide range of speeds. Packaged together in an integrated system, their features help address three key areas of accident protection: preventing or mitigating rear collisions; keeping drivers within their lane; and enhancing road safety during night time driving. The systems are intended to address commonly occurring crash types according to traffic accident statistical analyses.

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Millbrook joins APC-funded consortium to develop fuel cell range-extended electric LCVs

30 March 2015

Millbrook, one of Europe’s leading independent test and technology centers for vehicles and vehicle systems, will join a UK industry consortium to develop a new class of light commercial vehicle (LCV) combining fuel cell technology with battery electric vehicles to provide significantly improved range and rapid refueling. The consortium, led by Intelligent Energy (earlier post), will receive a £6.3-million ($9.3-million) grant from the UK’s Advanced Propulsion Centre (APC) for the £12.7-million ($19-million) project. The other partners are Frost Electronics, Frost EV, CENEX, British Gas and DHL.

The three-year project will develop validated systems and vehicle conversion expertise ready for volume manufacture. The goal is also to provide fleet operators with a solution that enables vehicle operation for extended periods while being emissions-free at the tailpipe.

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ITM Power awarded US$4.3M for hydrogen refueling stations in London

30 March 2015

ITM Power has been awarded a total of £2.89 million (US$4.3 million) by the UK Hydrogen Refueling Stations (HRS) Infrastructure Grants Scheme, run by the Office of Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV). The award is to build two new HRS in London, sited with strategic partners and for the upgrading of four existing ITM Power refueling stations.

£1.89 million ($2.8 million) has been awarded to ITM Power and its partners to invest in two new HRS in London at strategic locations suitable for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) roll-out. Both HRS will incorporate on-site hydrogen generation using the company’s PEM HGas electrolyzer platform. ITM Power will work closely with OEM FCEV providers to determine the best locations for siting.

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LG Chem to supply EV batteries to Daimler for new smart EV

30 March 2015

Daimler AG has selected LG Chem as the supplier of lithium-ion batteries for the smart EV that will be newly launched in 2016. Under the contract, LG Chem will provide battery cells to smart EV; Daimler will assemble the cells into the vehicle packs.

By signing a supply contract with Daimler, LG Chem has become the world’s biggest automotive battery supplier, having at least 13 global automakers among the top 20 global brands. In addition to Daimler, top automakers Volkswagen, Ford, Hyundai, Renault, Audi, Chevrolet, Kia, and GM use LG Chem batteries for EV applications.

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Dalhousie team reports ternary blends of electrolyte additives greatly enhance performance of NMC Li-ion cells

30 March 2015

Batteries for electrified vehicles require much longer calendar and cycle lifetimes, as well as improved high temperature tolerance, than their portable consumer electronics counterparts. Electrolyte additives can be used to extend cell lifetime by suppressing parasitic reactions between charged electrodes and electrolyte by modifying the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) at the negative electrode or the passivation layer formed on the positive electrode.

Researchers at Dalhousie University (Canada) led by Dr. Jeff Dahn now report that Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 (NMC111)/graphite and Li[Ni0.42Mn0.42Co0.16]O2 (NMC442)/graphite pouch cells demonstrate greatly enhanced performance when ternary blends of electrolyte additives are added to the cells. Their work is published in a paper in an open access article in the Journal of the Electrochemical Society.

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Total natural gas vehicle sales in US down 6.5% in 2014 due to 34% drop in light-duty sales; medium- and heavy-duty up

29 March 2015

In 2014, light-, medium-, and heavy-duty natural gas vehicle (NGV) production/sales in the US totaled just over 18,000 vehicles, down 6.5% from 2013, according to NGVAmerica’s 2014 NGV Production/Sales Report. The report is based on the organization’s annual survey of OEMs and approved aftermarket suppliers.

The heavy-duty market segment grew at a healthy pace, up 30% over 2013. The medium-duty market segment also grew steadily, up 24% over 2013. The light-duty segment fell 34% from 2013, mostly related to a drop in orders from the gas and oil exploration and production (E&P) sector.

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BNL team develops very high capacity ternary metal fluoride cathode material for Li-ion batteries

28 March 2015

The team achieved three-times-higher storage capacity through the reversible redox reactions of copper and iron—breaking and reforming copper-fluorine and iron-fluorine bonds while absorbing and releasing lithium. Source: BNL. Click to enlarge.

A team led by researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has found that adding copper atoms to iron fluoride—a member of the class of materials called transition metal fluorides that are potential extremely high-capacity cathodes for future Li-ion batteries—produces a group of new fluoride materials that can reversibly store three times as many Li ions as conventional cathode materials. Measurements also indicate that these new materials could yield a cathode that is extremely energy-efficient. Their research is described in an open access paper in the journal Nature Communications.

The capacity of mainstream conventional cathodes (e.g., LiCoO2 or LiFePO4) is low (140–170 mAh g−1) and currently limits the energy density of most commercial cells, the researchers note. Although a number of alternative anodes (such as ​silicon and tin) show capacities well above 500 mAh g−1, few cathodes have been identified that can the high capacity. However, transition metal fluorides, which contain the element fluorine plus one or more of the transition metals, such as iron and copper, have much higher ion-storage capacities than traditional cathodes.

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Daimler Trucks NA SuperTruck achieves 115% freight efficiency improvement over 2009 baseline; 50.2% engine BTE

27 March 2015

DTNA’s SuperTruck was unveiled at the 2015 Mid-America Trucking Show. Click to enlarge.

Daimler Trucks North America’s (DTNA) SuperTruck program has achieved 115% freight efficiency improvement (gallons of fuel consumed per ton of goods moved per mile traveled)—surpassing the Department of Energy (DOE) program’s goal of 50% improvement and exhibiting the best results of all reporting OEMs. (Earlier post.) DTNA unveiled its SuperTruck at the 2015 Mid-America Trucking Show (MATS) in the Freightliner Trucks booth.

To measure freight efficiency, DTNA ran vehicle testing on highway routes in Oregon and Texas; one city route in Portland, Ore.; and anti-idle testing in both a cold chamber and hot chamber. These tests resulted in the combined 115% freight efficiency improvement over a 2009 baseline truck. Testing was also conducted at the DTNA Detroit engineering facility to demonstrate engine efficiency by achieving 50.2% engine brake thermal efficiency.

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Toyota progress report on TNGA; half of vehicles sold in 2020 to feature new platforms

27 March 2015

In 2012, Toyota Motor introduced its new development framework, the Toyota New Global Architecture. (Earlier post.) Designed to balance product advances with cost reductions, TNGA supports the grouping of the development of new vehicles to promote strategic sharing of parts and powertrain components. One goal is the reduction of resources required for development by 20% or more.

Toyota recently provided an update and an outlook on its progress with TNGA, focusing on new vehicle development (powertrain components and vehicle platforms) as well as production systems.

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Porsche presents more efficient Gen 2 919 Hybrid LMP1 racer for 2015

27 March 2015

Porsche has presented the second generation of its Le Mans Prototype 919 Hybrid race car. (Earlier post.) The new racer will compete in the 8 MJ category (8 MJ of recovered energy per race lap)—the highest of the current four energy categories in the LMP1 class. (The amount of liquid fuel that may be used in a lap decreases in proportion to the amount of electrical energy a driver is able to employ.)

Although the basic concept of the Class 1 Le Mans Prototype (LMP1)— a downsized turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine and two different energy recovery systems—was retained in the second generation, virtually every component was refined. System power now totals nearly 1,000 hp (746 kW). The goals for the next evolutionary stage were to make the vehicle more efficient, more rigid, easier to handle, lighter and yet more robust.

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SABIC introduces novel thermoplastic roof fairing concept for 3% improvement in heavy-duty truck fuel economy

26 March 2015

SABIC has introduced a thermoplastic roof fairing concept that can potentially reduce annual fuel consumption of a heavy-duty truck by at least 3%. SABIC’s design concept is aerodynamically optimized to deflect air by accelerating airflow through and across the top and sides of the roof fairing. The result is a significant drop in drag, up to 5.9%, improving the aerodynamic performance and fuel efficiency of a heavy-duty truck.

SABIC’s new thermoplastic roof fairing concept incorporates air ducts to reduce front end pressure and accelerate airflow both over the surface and through the fairing itself. Conventional roof fairings, in contrast, achieve aerodynamic efficiencies simply by maximizing airflow over smooth, closed surfaces.

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