May 31, 2005
Reuters. D1 Oils, the UK-based biodiesel producer with a global distributed production strategy (earlier post) raised another US$47 million (£25.8 million) in a second share placement. The company went public last October, raising US$21 million ( £11.5m). Since then its has increased its production targets sevenfold in seven months.
D1 also announced a joint venture with a Sichuan Yangtze River Technology in China to develop a biodiesel refining and feedstock supply business with a target to produce 500,000 tonnes of biofuel a year. Up to 2m hectares of land has been made available to the project. (ShareCast)
The company also announced an expansion of its Saudi presence (earlier post) with a second joint venture with Abdullatef Al-Rajhi International. D1 had planned to plant up to 100,000 hectares in Saudi Arabia, but that has now increased by 300,000 hectares.
D1 also reported a loss of US$5 million (£3 million) during 2004.
Edmunds.com interviews BMW’s Professor Raymond Freymann, the managing director of BMW Group Research and Technology. An aeronautical engineer by training, he has been at BMW for almost 20 years.
As the company has often said, BMW is bullish on hydrogen long-term, although not necessarily on fuel cells. Hence their emphasis on internal combustion engines fueled by hydrogen. BMW will be offering a bi-fueled (H2 and gasoline) 7 Series within two years—earlier post).
We think the future is not so radical. All of our consideration is on internal combustion engines. We’re not sure fuel cells will happen—other than as the power source for everything driven electronically, such as air conditioning, in-car entertainment, lights, etc. For this application, the fuel cell makes perfect sense. But as the power source for driving the car? That is a huge step.
Rather, we think the internal combustion engine, fuelled by liquid hydrogen is perfect. The technology exists. The internal combustion engine also offers much better power density and efficiency than fuel cells. Fuel cells have such a long way to go. I'm not sure anyone would be able to pay the bills.
Hydrogen will work best in direct-injection engines with supercharging. The thermal efficiency of a hydrogen internal combustion engine will be more than 50 percent. Gasoline engines currently operate below 40 percent and diesels just above 40 percent. The hydrogen engine will have more power and more torque. And no pollution. Initially, maybe we will make [hydrogen] from natural gas, but eventually all hydrogen will be produced using renewable energy—such as solar power.
Freymann predicts a peaking of diesel popularity in Europe as direct-injection gasoline engines gain greater presence. And he is somewhat dismissive of current hybrid designs (“two engines...simply add weight to the car, and add money to the car”).
Freymann indicated that BMW is working on a gasoline-electric hybrid, however, but using supercapacitors boosted by regenerative braking, rather than batteries.
[The super capacitors] are lighter and store less power, but unlike batteries we can use all their power—all 100 percent. An electric engine has a lot of torque at low revs—that is its main benefit—so it’s ideal for fast initial acceleration. At higher revs, once you’ve begun to accelerate, nothing can beat an internal combustion engine. Our hybrid approach combines the best characteristics of both engines.
BMW has worked on ISAD (Integrated Starter Alternator Damper)-like hybrid systems for a number of years, as chronicled in the IEA Implementing Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Technologies and Programmes Overview Report 2000.
IEA Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Implementing Agreement website
With this year’s UN World Environment Day (5 June 2005) approaching, the director of the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forests and Lanscapes (SAEFL), Philippe Roch, has called for specific action to improve air quality, reduce noise and provide ample green spaces in Switzerland’s towns and cities.
Among the proposed policy and regulatory actions:
- Particulate emissions in urban areas should be halved, and dramatic reductions are required in the amount of soot released by diesel engines. The guiding principle: no diesel-powered vehicles without a particulate filter.
- To alleviate noise problems in residential neighbourhoods, 30 km/h (18.6 mph) speed limits should be introduced as widely as possible.
The call for mandatory PM filters for all diesel engines comes as the Swiss parliament is due to debate a proposal to suspend the 2003 regulation mandating compulsory installation of diesel filters in construction machinery. (Swissinfo)
Autoweek reports that Volkswagen may introduce a mild hybrid Jetta in the United States in two years.
VW did not forecast sales volumes or discuss the costs. The company said it has not decided which supplier would provide the technology.
Volkwagen has had a tepid attitude toward hybrids in the past, seeing them as niche products for the US market (earlier post), and preferring to focus instead on the benefits of the diesel platform (earlier post).
(A tip of the hat to Joe!)
all4engineers runs an interesting, albeit short, interview with Richard Parry-Jones, Ford’s Executive Vice-President for product development, on Ford’s views and activities around different powertrains.
Parry-Jones touches on electric vehicles (“very, very limited”); hybrids (significant, but not taking over); hydrogen and diesel.
A few snippets:
[On Hydrogen Internal Combustion engines] A second reason is that there is no guarantee that fuel cells will work. I think they will, but I would not swear my daughter’s life on it. And hydrogen/internal combustion provides a back-up. If we get into an energy crunch, we have another way to go. It’s not as efficient as fuel cells, but it’s not a bad idea.
[On hydrogen fuel] There are no easy wins. If you reduce natural gas to create hydrogen, the cost of fuel is approximately five times higher than using oil. The cost of oil will rise to the point where that becomes viable. But longer term, to really address CO2, we need to find a sequestering technology to sequester the carbon after we liberate the hydrogen, and if we go even longer term, we have to find renewable sources of energy.The oil crunch I talk about is not just around the corner. It will be 40 years at least to work this out. But we have to find a replacement for the energy, not just the oil.
[On Diesel] I believe clean diesels can play a role in this [North American] market, not starting with passenger cars in my opinion, but coming down from pickups.
[On the 2.7-liter diesel shown in the Mercury MetaOne concept diesel hybrid (post)] No [we can’t bring that engine to North America]. There is a new regime coming along, Euro V, and probably an Euro VI after that, which have increasingly stringent levels for particulate and NOx emissions. The North American legislation, after low-sulphur fuel becomes available in 2006, is going to be Tier 2 Bin 5, which is more stringent than Euro V. Although we could sell that engine today in North America, we won't be able to keep it. We and anyone else who wants to sell in North America is going to have to invent some new technology. I tell our engineers, don't moan about it, fix it.
Mazda has updated its global environmental charter for the first time in 13 years. The revised plan defines the expanded scope of environmental initiatives for the entire Mazda group and reinforces the company’s worldwide corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts.
Mazda’s basic stated policy consists of three principles:
To contribute to society by creating environmentally friendly technologies and products.
To use the Earth’s resources and energy sparingly, and never overlook environmental considerations when conducting its business.
To play its part in improving the environment, hand in hand with local communities and society at large.
Mazda then takes those principles into guidelines for action:
Creation of environmentally sound technologies and products. We are committed to the challenge of creating clean technologies, including those facilitating cleaner exhaust emissions, a reduction in CO2, the development of clean-energy vehicles and alternative energy vehicles, and the protection of the ozone layer. We will encourage the creation of products that are environmentally sound throughout their lifespan, from the planning and development stages through to manufacturing, use, and recycling/disposal.
Comlurb, the municipally owned trash collection company serving Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, has begun using O2Diesel’s proprietary ethanol-diesel fuel blend in its fleet of trash-hauling vehicles.
Comlurb’s use of O2Diesel represents the first time that ethanol-diesel fuel has been used in a commercial on-road truck application in Brazil.
Comlurb, one of several municipal fleets, was selected by Rio de Janeiro as the pilot fleet to verify the suitability of O2Diesel for all municipal fleets. The initial verification process is expected to last approximately three months, and involve 15 diesel-powered trucks. Comlurb operates 300 diesel powered vehicles consuming around 2 million gallons of diesel fuel annually. The O2Diesel fuel used by Comlurb is blended and delivered by state-owned Petrobras/BR, the largest oil and fuel distribution Company in Brazil.
O2Diesel uses 7.7% ethanol, with up to 1% proprietary additive and a cetane improver. Cetane is a measure of a fuel’s ignition delay—the period between the start of injection and start of combustion of the fuel. Higher cetane fuels will have shorter ignition delay periods than lower cetane fuels, and shorter delay is better.
Universidade de São Paulo: Use of O2Diesel Fuel in Sao Paulo City’s Urban Fleet
May 30, 2005
In a letter to UK Prime Minister Tony Blair, leaders from thirteen major UK and international companies are offering to support the Government in developing new, longer-term policies for tackling climate change.
The companies, members of the Corporate Leaders Group, argue that there is a need for urgent action to be taken now to avoid the worst impacts of climate change, and offer to work in partnership with the Government towards strengthening domestic and international progress on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. They also pledge to engage other British businesses, the UK public and governments and businesses internationally to back this effort.
[...]we have spent the last four months working together to develop the advice in this letter. We have done so because, like you, we are convinced that we need to take urgent and informed action now if we are to avoid the worst impacts of climate change. Enabling a low-carbon future should be a strategic business objective for our companies and UK plc as a whole.
[...]As business leaders, our concern is with how we can help bridge the gap between today’s economy and the radically different low-carbon future that will be needed to deliver this target [60% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050].
[...]Our companies and many others have already made significant investments in low-carbon technologies, processes and products. But what we have done so far is not nearly sufficient given the size of the challenge facing us. We need to create a step-change in the development of low-carbon goods and services by rapidly scaling up our existing investments and starting to invest in new technologies. To achieve this, we need a strong policy framework that creates a long-term value for carbon emissions reductions and consistently supports and incentivises the development of new technologies. Without such policies, our companies are not able to justify to our boards or investors the necessary high up-front investment in low-carbon R&D, technologies and processes.
Rocky Mountain News. Blue Sun Biodiesel plans to open 10 new biodiesel fueling stations in Colorado on July 4.
The new stations, located in Vail, Glenwood Springs, Golden, Steamboat Springs and Grand Junction, among others, pump B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel).
Jeff Probst, president and CEO of Fort Collins-based Blue Sun, said the company would have 50 fueling stations by the end of this year.
Blue Sun has been bounced around a bit in its quest to build a production plant. Initially targeted to be adjacent to a proposed ethanol plant in Johnstow, Blue Sun next shot for Alamosa as the plant’s site.
The Alamosa site, which was to be part of a fuel terminal and operational by this May, fell through when complaints delayed the project.
Currently, Blue Sun is trying to close on a site in Monte Vista for the $4.4 million production plant.
The site is linked to the Alamosa fuel terminal by a railroad, which would be used to carry 3 million gallons of B100 per year from the plant to the terminal, where it will be mixed to produce the B20.
The new 240 kW (326 hp) engine deivers 650 Nm (479 lb-ft) or torque, with fuel consumption of 9.4 liters/100km (25.0 mpg).
This is an expensive, limited-market luxury car. The basic price of the A8 4.2 TDI quattro in Germany is €81,000 (US$101,000). But the developments and enhancements of the engine and exhuast system on this car (as on the Mercedes E420 CDI) highlight some of the possible technology paths and manufacturing enhancements that could be applied to smaller engines to increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions.
|Power Diesels: Audi vs. MercedesBenz|
|Audi A8 4.2 TDI||Mercedes E420 CDI|
|Displacement||4,134 cc||3,996 cc|
|Power||240 kW (326 hp)||231 kW (314 hp)|
|Torque||650 Nm (479 lb-ft)||730 Nm (538 lb-ft)|
|Power/liter||58 kW/l||57.81 kW/l|
|BMEP||286.3 psi||333.1 psi|
|Acceleration 0–100 km/h||5.9 sec||6.1 sec|
|Fuel consumption||9.4 l/100km||9.3 l/100km|
|Mileage||25.0 mpg US||25.3 mpg US|
|Emissions||Euro 4||Euro 4|
Audi engineers made a number of structural changes to the engine design to achieve the enhanced power. The new engine is made of vermicular graphite cast iron (GGV), reducing the engine weight by 15 kg from its predecessor, the 4.0 TDI. The 4.2 TDI is this one of the lightest diesel V8s ever. Cylinder spacing in the new engine block is 90 millimeters, giving the engine a compact overall lenth of 520 mm.
The surfaces of the cylinder bores are treated using UV laser exposure. This special honing process ensures significantly reduced oil consumption in the TDI engine, and, as a result, a significant reduction in particulate formation during combustion.