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Hydrogen-Enhanced Combustion Engine Could Improve Gasoline Fuel Economy by 20% to 30%

5 November 2005

Hece
An HECE test engine

Work being done by ArvinMeritor, IAV (Ingenieursgesellshaft für Auto und Verkehr) and MIT on enhancing gasoline combustion with a small hydrogen gas stream is pointing toward a potential estimated improvement in gasoline fuel economy of 20% to 30%, depending upon the baseline engine.

Writing in the October issue of MTZ (Motortechnische Zeitschrift), Utz-Jens Beister from IAV and Rudy Smaling from ArvinMeritor describe their progress with the Hydrogen-Enhanced Combustion Engine (HECE) concept, as applied to an SUV-class 3.2-liter V6 test engine.

The premise of HECE, on which the research collaborative has been working for a number of years, is that the addition of a small amount of hydrogen to the cylinder charge can allow homogeneous charge ultra-lean-burn combustion engines to operate much leaner than otherwise possible.

That in itself is not a new discovery. What brings HECE closer to operational reality is the ArvinMeritor/MIT on-board, compact plasma reformer (earlier post) that can take a fraction of the conventional fuel, reform it in real-time and add the resulting hydrogen-rich gas to the remaining fuel-air mixture flowing into the engine.

In the plasma fuel reformer, air is metered into a plasma generator located upstream of a combustor. High voltage is applied to the air stream, forming high-temperature plasma. This high-temperature plasma torch flows into the combustor, initiating vigorous combustion of a rich fuel-air mixture. Within the plasma fuel reformer, partial oxidation reactions occur in the high-temperature gas phase created by the plasma, eliminating the need for a reforming catalyst.

Hecelimits
The shift of combustion limits with hydrogen-enhanced combustion.

Adding hydrogen gas to the homogeneous fuel charge improves the ignitability of the mixture, and increases flame speed and combustion stability. In theory, the combination of a lean-burn engine with the plasma reformer could support an ultra-lean and turbocharged engine that would reduce NOx emissions to the point of not requiring aftertreatment in the exhaust stream.

Researchers at the Sloan Automotive Laboratory at MIT also discovered that both hydrogen and carbon monoxide (both products of the partial oxidation process of the reformer) act as octane enhancers. Adding the reformed fuel gas to the engine thus also supports a substantial increase in compression ratio.

Once an engine is developed that operates ultra-lean, is turbocharged—or super-charged—and is better able to withstand engine knock, engine downsizing while maintaining performance becomes a credible option that can lead to significant additional fuel economy and performance benefits.

—Beister and Smaling

Such an ultra-lean-burn, high compression-ratio, turbocharged HECE could exhibit the following characteristics:

  • Extremely low engine out NOx emissions requiring little or no exhaust emissions control

  • Reduced pumping losses (~5-10% efficiency gain)

  • Improved thermodynamics (~10-12% efficiency gain)

  • Reduced friction (downsizing) (~5-8% efficiency gain)

ArvinMeritor is targeting release of the HECE for approximately 2008.

Resources:

November 5, 2005 in Concept Engines, Fuel Efficiency, Fuels, Hydrogen | Permalink | Comments (83) | TrackBack (1)

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So the small amounts of hydrogen used in this system are reformed onboard out of the gasoline fuel? Am I right that this system does not need an external hydrogen fuel supply?

That’s correct. The on-board reformer takes a little bit of the gasoline and converts it to the hydrogen-rich gas. No external H2 supply is used.

Thats so cool. Sci-fi stuff, accept without the fiction.

20-30% more efficient? Isn't that called a `diesel'?

-mt

"Adding hydrogen gas to the homogeneous fuel charge improves the ignitability of the mixture, and increases flame speed and combustion stability."

Correct me if i am wrong, how can H2 improve flame speed when H2 has a slower flame speed then gasoline?

"High voltage is applied to the air stream, forming high-temperature plasma."

So can a car alternator supply this kind of high voltage?

This development combined with the very interesting work Honda is doing on HCCI systems could continue to drive serious improvments in the basic ICE.

Were these technologies compatable (HCCI adds say 30% efficiency plus H2 injection adds another 20% efficiency) and soon you're seeing some very impressive numbers even before you add your start-stop and/or hybrid systems.

This could get your average passenger car from 25 mpg to 50 mpg without hybrid, and perhaps beyond 60 mpg with hybrid. Now put it on a diesel...

Lance: Yes, if all the most efficient technologies were integrated in the same diesel engine, a compact car could easily do 80 + m/gal. This car already (almost)exist, a small super sleek roadster made in Germany, but only a few hundred were produced. It's called the JetCar and you may look it up on the WEB.

I ride to the shops every once in a blue moon on my bike just because its close enough. Otherwise all car.

Never do I see anybody jogging or even walking their dog.
Some dude in a magazine said that the generation before us walked something like 30 times more. Its not like they didn't have cars back then.

Maybe half the problem with the modernised world is people rely too much on automobiles when alternatives are just as good.

In conclusion, a further 10% saving in fuel if you do your daily meager shopping using a backpack and a bicyle.

I believe the H2 system is for spark ignition ICE, because they mentioned improving flame speed. With hydrogen rich gas less fuel is needed to make the mixture explode inside the cylinders.

HCCI engines suppose no need to worry about flame speed because the ignition happened almost simultaneously(and here's where the efficiency come from).

H2 system on a HCCI engine. IMHO, will increase the efficiency by having a higher compression ratio. Because with H2 gas maybe the mixture can withstand greater compression before auto ignite.

Now put tat thing on a start stop hybird. And adjust the powerplant to drink diesel.

It can be done, nothing can't. All we need is lots of money and time.

20 years?

Harvey:

The JetCar is sort of a motorbike with roof. Just like the discontinued VW 1L if i remember correctly.

rexis:

It is a beautiful, aerodynamic, very light weight 4-wheel, very sleek, 2-passenger roadster with a 800 cc 3-cyl diesel engine, 6-gear transmission, max speed 160 Kmh, trunk space 181 liters, fuel consumption 2.5 liter/100Km, Co2 = 66 g/Km

Hydrogen injection in ICE engines has been around since at least 1920, patented. Many companies produce electrolyzers for vehicles, spark ignition and diesel. Hydrogen Boost offers hydrogen injection and other mileage enhancement devices and procedures. We have achieved 100 mpg on three vehicles. Two are 4-5 passenger cars in mileage competition type driving conditions and the third is a two wheeled enclosed vehicle called a personal transport vehicle seen on the bottom of this page www.hydrogen-boost.com/tech-info.html driving at normal highway speeds.
50-60 mpg in my Hydrogen Boosted Saturn SL1 is common.

While I've long argued that the hydrogen fuel cell technology is a waste of time, I haven't argued against hydrogen as a fuel or fuel-enhancer applied to Hybrids. The 'Plug-in' hybrid drive train is still the most practical and advantageous vehicle technology. Vehicles need weight to perfect handling, stability and crash tests. Adding the weight of plug-in batteries is desirable for this vehicle safety factor and creates an invaluable homepower supply. Energy corporations do not wish to have their cash cow gored and so oppose Plug-in Hybrids.

I argue that 'Start-Stop' Hybrids should not be classified as true hybrids. The 'start-stop' feature produces minimal fuel economy and emission reduction. It is the automobile industry's idea for maintaining bumper-to-bumper gridlock.

As I presently own a gasoline powered vehicle, to utilize the hydrogen fuel cell technology, would necessitate the purchase of a new vehicle, which I am not prepared to do.
For this reason, I have been searching for an alternative and practical way to use hydrogen as a fuel. A Canadian company has developed an on board hydrogen generator to inject a hydrogen additive to the fuel line and enhance the mileage by as much as 20-25%, using only water in a holding tank. This has been the closest anyone has come, so far,to what I am looking for, however, I would like to cut the gasoline out of the equation altogether. Everyone seems to be plunging into developing a better fuel cell- why is no one looking at a way to develop an on board system to efficiently produce only the hydrogen necessary to fuel an internal combustion vehicle as it runs. No hydrogen storage tanks-liquid or compressed-just water tanks. I read about a car an Israeli company is developing but the changing of a large coil at regular short intervals seems to be required and seems quite cumbersome. It involves service stops to vacuum out metabolic waste as well. Perhaps if someone was to use a voltage inverter on one of these mileage enhancing devices he may come closer to my dream.

"Produce the hydrogen required to fuel the vehicle on board; just water tanks" So what do you plan to use as a power source? Or would this be a highly advanced perpetuummobile?

Yes, from water and using power from the existing generator. Such a small amount of hydrogen is needed that this is possible. See this post at The Energ Blog about the hydrogen fuel injection(HFI)system.

I work for a company that installs HFI units on diesel trucks and on the right engine it works brilliantly however older Cat engines do not seem to be taking to this system that well! Interesting to see a company like Arvin-Meritor developing hydrogen fuel systems for use in gasoline applications!

i did not catch it ... how can h2 being produced on-board ????

I wonder if the high pressure burn will burn valves/cylenders etc.

Wow! I just read most of what is blogged here and... wow. We the people are Not the brightest bulbs on the shelf, are we? Most of what has been written here is true, as I know it first hand. However the inf. here is fragmented in each comment posted. Put it all together, do a little research, spend about 3 years of your life experimenting, experimenting and designing, and designing, and you too can have this device for your vehicle that will not only reduce emmissions, but also increase your mileage as well. Look forward to hearing about it hopefully this year.. 2006 IF we, the small guy, don't get shut down by the EXXONs of the world! 25 billion dollar profit in the last quarter!! Damn!

I have personally experimented whith hydrogen for ten years now, and finally, It looks as if the govt is gonna back us little guys for a change.

Well here goes. I have a kit perfected, you can expect an increase of 20 to 40% in your milage and reduce your toxic exaust way below Cal. Standards I am seeking investors or a grant to mass produce my kit. It should cost less than 500 per vehicle and will not burn vales, it will clean your internal combustion engine (I.C.E.) and make your fuel burn better, a cleaner engine that is stronger and envirionmentally friendlier too.
jerrymaulden@peoplepc.com

I have followed links all over the internet and read posts by yea- and nay-sayers. Here's the skinny. It takes more fuel to create the hydrogen than the energy released by its burn. However, its presence in the fuel mix changes the dynamics of the combustion in the cylinder, causing it to complete more rapidly, and therefore creating high pressure for a greater percentage of the power stroke. This accounts for the increase in HP and overall energy efficiency.

These conclusions are well documented by tests at JPL and numerous universities around the world.

Nuf said?

Adding only hydrogen to a conventional I.C.E. will destroy the engine because of its differences with gasoline. It will however make a good additive to the combustion equation.
My question is will adding hydrogen into the air intake manifold of the I.C.E. be acceptable or will the high heat from the cylinder head valve inlet ignite the hydrogen upon combustion chamber entry. I am worried this will cause a backdraft into the hydrogen feed source. it is one of the final details i am working on for my fuel cell design.

PS Jerry Mauldin email me and we'll trade design notes

Hello All,

Yes.Hydrogen generated ONBOARD from the engine fuels and added in small quantities to both diesel and gasoline fuels
greatly change the FLAME SPEED and also the COMBUSTION KINETICS.This calls for advanced injection timing and spark advance to take advantage of higher thermal efficiencies.The CLEAN BURN reduces almost all emission components including 25% reduction in NOx from the diesels with much improved power,smoother engine.The fuel economy greatly improves from minimum 10% to maximum 30% depending upon base engine condition.Generally advanced fuel injection timing create knock problems and also increase NOx level .Hence the modern trend is to add Exhaust Gas Recirculation with Turbo Charger and retard injection timing to reduce NOx.This results in fuel penalty and the EGR reduces the engine life such as valves etc.The CLEAN COMBUSTION greatly reduces the EMISSION LOAD on the exhaust catalytic convertors,diesel soot traps,diesel soot oxidising catalyst and prolongs the regeneration cycle.Also with the size of the exhaust gas treatment system can be reduced due to clean combustion and the engine back pressure is improved.Costlier NOx adsorber catalysts that necessarily require Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel can be dispensed with and we can conviniently use diesel with 300 ppm sulfur level.

Over thousands of units manufactured by HYDRODRIVE in INDIA are now retrofitted to cars,SUVs,Buses,Trucks,Ship Engines,Diesel Power Generators.Known as " HYDRODRIVE ELECTRONIC CATALYTIC CONVERTOR cum ONBOARD FUEL SYNTHESIZER" having U.K Patent Grant,Indian Patent Grant with rights recorded in the USA,CANADA,JAPAN,CHINA,PHILIPPINES and in other countries it is also working with many vehicles and engines in India,Philippines,China and in few sian Countries.

It just costs onlt Euro 150 only and is retrofitted after the diesel fuel filter and before the fuel pump intake.The vehicle's existing battery power is just sufficient to PLASMA CATALYSE the fuels.

This REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY still puzzles the world fuel system leaders and fuel system manufacturers like BOSCH,DENSO,LUCAS,DELPHI who have introduced CRDI TECHNOLOGY recently.

While CRDI technology changes the FUEL'S MOLECULAR LAYER due to HIGHER PRESSURE,the PLASMA CATALYSIS of fuel generates EXCITED SPECIES and HYDROGEN IN MINUTE QUANTITIES altogether CHANGE FUEL PROPERTIES and the COMBUSTION KINETICS.

MORE DETAILS ARE AVAILABLE AT:

http://www.hydrodrive.8k.com/Electronic Catalytic Convertor.htm
http://www.freewebs.com/newcombustionkinetics/index.html

http://www.hydrodrive.8k.com/toc.htm

http://www.freewebs.com/hydrodriverevealations/index.html

The ONBOARD HYDROGEN generation and ADDITION TO THE FUELS by PLASMA CATALYSIS will be MUCH ECONOMICAL and PRACTICAL SOLUTION for the SEVERAL BILLIONS OF CARS for improving their FUEL ECONOMY and EMISSION REDUCTIONS.

When HYDROGEN is generated from HYDROCARBON FUELS,only as on date it is immaterial HOW HYDROGEN is used for CLEAN COMBUSTION as this technique does not require hydrogen storage and the cost of hybrid components.

I have one more question. I want to install LPG kit in my car.
I suppose that hydrogen additive to lpgas increase mileage too. I'm right or no?

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