Engine Manufacturers Develop Test Specs for B20 Biodiesel
16 June 2006
The Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) has released a test specification for biodiesel fuel to facilitate testing and evaluation of the performance of B20 biodiesel blends in new diesel engines.
The EMA specifications establish technical requirements for blends of petroleum fuel and biodiesel fuel that can be used to assess the effects of such biodiesel fuels on engine performance, durability and emissions.
The Test Specifications for Biodiesel Fuel define a biodiesel-blend fuel with the properties and characteristics that engine manufacturers believe are needed to ensure good performance. Engine manufacturers consider the specifications a critical and necessary first step in further testing and evaluating fuel blends with biodiesel content greater than 5%.
...before the nation moves to increase the biodiesel content of the diesel fuel supply, engine manufacturers and biodiesel producers must fully evaluate biodiesel fuels. The development of a test specification for a blended fuel with 20% biodiesel content is intended to jump-start the testing and evaluation process.
...Considering the tremendous investment that engine manufacturers and the nation have made to develop today's low-emitting and energy efficient diesel technology, we cannot just assume that biodiesel is better. We have to know that a biodiesel blend fuel meets all engine requirements and its use results in equivalent performance and emissions.—Jed Mandel, EMA President
The EMA Test Specifications for Biodiesel Fuel establish a baseline B20 biodiesel blend that can be used for further testing and evaluation. EMA encourages vehicle owners interested in using biodiesel blends to request that the fuel meet the EMA specifications and that biodiesel fuel providers also produce blends meeting the EMA requirements and BQ 9000 production standards.
The association notes that the EMA specifications are not an approved national fuel standard, and should not be used as such.
The specifications are for biodiesel blends of up to 20% by volume (B20), which are made with biodiesel meeting either ASTM D6751 or EN 14214, and which also meet the following requirements:
|EMA Test Specifications for Biodiesel|
|Item||Performance Characteristics||Requirements||Test Procedure|
|D1 Blends||D2 Blends|
|1||Flash point, °C, min.||38||52||ASTM D93|
|2||Water and sediment, vol%, max.||0.05||0.05||ASTM D2709 or D1796|
|3||Physical Distillation, T90, °C, max||343||343||ASTM D86|
|4||Kinematic viscosity, cSt@40C||1.3~4.1||1.9~4.1||ASTM D445|
|5||Ash, mass%, max.||0.01||0.01||ASTM D482|
|6||Sulfur, wt%, max.||Per reg.||Per reg.|
|7||Copper strip corrosion rating, max.||No. 3||No. 3||ASTM D130|
|8||Cetane number, min.||43||43||ASTM D613|
|9||Cloud point||Equal to or lower than tenth percentile min. ambient temp in geog. area and seasonal timeframe as defined by D975.||ASTM D2500|
|10||Ramsbottom carbon residue on 10% distillation residue, wt%, max.||0.15||0.15||ASTM D524|
|11||Lubricity, HFRR@60C, micron, max||460||460||ASTM D6079|
|12||Acid number, mg KOH/g, max.||0.3||0.3||ASTM D664|
|13||Phosphorous, wt%, max.||0.001||0.001||ASTM D4951|
|14||Alkali metals (Na+K), ppm, max.||Nd||Nd||EN14108|
|15||Alkaline metals (Mg+Ca), ppm, max.||Nd||Nd||EN14108|
|16||Blend fraction, vol. %||+/- 2%||+/- 2%||EN14078|
|17||Thermo-oxidative stability, insolubles, mg/100mL, max.||10||10||Modified ASTM D2274|
|16||Oxidation stability, Induction time, hours, min.||6||6||EN14112 (Rancimat)|
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