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Wind-Powered Electrolysis of Coal Bed Methane Water for Hydrogen Production

15 June 2006

A Wyoming company has received a National Science Foundation Phase 1 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to determine the technical feasibility and economic viability of the electrolytic production of hydrogen from coal-bed methane (CBM) water using power generated from wind turbines.

In Ladd Energy’s concept, the electrolysis units would only operate when the wind blows. The hydrogen could be used industrially (in oil refining, for example), used in a stationary fuel cell to generate power, or eventually provided for vehicles.

Most CBM operators are desperate to get rid of their water. We are more than happy to take it and put it to good use, not only improving environmental quality but also making a profit at the same time.

—Ted Ladd

The extraction of the methane (natural gas) contained in coal seams (Coal Bed Methane) has boomed recently, and now accounts for approximately 7.5% of the total natural gas production in the US.

According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Rocky Mountain Region has extensive coal deposits bearing an estimated 30-58 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of recoverable CBM. The Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (2002) estimates 31.8 TCF of recoverable CBM in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming alone.

In the late 1980s there were fewer than 20 CBM wells in Wyoming; today there are more than 13,600 producing and shut in CBM wells across the state, according to the Wyoming State Geological Survey. The most active development is currently in the Powder River Coal Field.

Cbmwell
Schematic diagram of a CBM well. Click to enlarge. Source: Wyoming State Engineers Office.

To extract CBM, operators drill wells into the seam and pump out water to reduce the water pressure holding gas in the seam. The CBM readily separates as pressure decreases, allowing it to be piped out of the well separately from the water. Water moving from the coal seam to the well bore encourages gas migration toward the well.

The amount of water produced is high, although it varies from deposit to deposit. The Powder River wells have one of the higher water-gas ratios, according to the USGS, at an average 2.75 barrels per thousand cubic feet (MCF) of gas. On average, a Powder River CBM well produces about 400 barrels (16,800 gallons) of water per day per well.

Over time, the water ratio decreases and gas production increases as the beds are dewatered.

The product water must be disposed of; it is not re-injected into the field as in some oil production. The application of the water is determined in part by its composition—the type and amount of total dissolved solids (TDS). But CBM product water generally has a moderately high salinity hazard and often a very high sodium hazard based on standards used for irrigation suitability.

There are currently four primary approaches to dealing with CBM product water, according to Montana State University:

  • Discharge into a stream channel. Direct stream discharge is no longer permitted on new wells, but existing operations were grandfathered and are still discharging directly into streams.

  • Impounded in holding ponds. Most impoundments are not lined and do discharge to the subsurface. Some percentage of seepage flow from impoundments is likely to reach stream channels via subsurface flow.

  • Irrigation.

  • Other uses, such as dust control.

Ladd’s concept would use this product water, alleviating some of the disposal problem. He speculates that the salts in the water might be beneficial to the electrolytic process.

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June 15, 2006 in Coal, Hydrogen, Natural Gas, Wind | Permalink | Comments (10) | TrackBack (0)

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Comments

Maybe just turn the methane into methanol to power fuel cell vehicles like the NECAR.

They use this shit for irrigation? Oy.

So what happens to the enriched brine left over after electrolysis? Or is all of the water used and the minerals recovered as metals off the electrodes?

He speculates that the salts in the water might be beneficial to the electrolytic process.

Speculates, eh? Maybe he should try running some commercial electrolysis cells on water containing significant amounts of dissolved salt and calcium.

A more likely solution is purification of the water by electrodialysis, which can concentrate the salts to a greater extent than reverse osmosis. The Japanese use ED for extraction of culinary salt from seawater.

I took a peek at the USGS report, the water can used for drinking, if it passes the required standards, of course. Yikes.

It is all a bit disturbing, particularly the "grandfathered" locations. Dump it into the stream. Double Yikes.

I hope it works though. It sounds so enviromentally friendly, production of Hydrogen from a industial by-product, powered by wind. Sounds like a fun science project for the next couple of years. Hats off to Ted Ladd.

It seems these days anything that can be burned will be burned, other examples being coal fines and Orimulsion. This same coal industry assures that it will keep gases underground in the case of CCS. The article tells us that windpower will do the CH4 to H2 conversion by some electrical process. This sounds kinda groovy compared to steam reforming with CO2 byproduct. Yes methane is a worse GHG but not if it had stayed put.

The article tells us that windpower will do the CH4 to H2 conversion by some electrical process.

Um, no, it didn't say that. Now, you can turn methane into hydrogen and carbon black with electricity (there's a plasma process for doing this, for example) but that's not what is being discussed here.

They could use the water for solar thermal
electric generation in steam turbines and use the
distilled condensate for drinking and/or consumption.
Get desalinated water and non polluting electricity at the same time.

This is a good method but did you think to clean the waste water?

sorry if I afended you.

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