Three Tri-Fuel Hydrogen/E85 Pickups on Display at North Dakota State Fair
22 July 2006
|Door of H2ICE Silverado highlights its role in the Wind to Hydrogen project. Click to enlarge.|
The University of North Dakota’s Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), along with a group of utility and other private sector partners from around the state, will be showcasing a variety of hydrogen-fueled vehicles at the North Dakota State Fair 22-29 July.
Among the vehicles on display are three prototype tri-fuel (hydrogen, E85, gasoline) internal combustion engine (ICE) Chevy Silverados, converted by AFVTech. The vehicles are part of a DOE-sponsored Wind Hydrogen project, which uses wind-generated electricity to power an electrolyzer for the production of hydrogen. (Earlier post.)
An important element of the wind hydrogen project is the development of various control schemes by which the electrolyzer can interface with the electrical output of wind turbines to optimize fuel production, particularly during low electricity demand periods.
North Dakota has been called the “Saudi Arabia of Wind.” An analysis several years ago by GE Research concluded that North Dakotan wind has the potential to supply 1/3 of the electricity consumption of the lower 48 states. Furthermore, the state could become a clean fuel supplier to Minneapolis and Chicago by piping hydrogen.
The three Silverados were production flex-fuel vehicles converted by AFVTech to support hydrogen combustion—making them, in essence, a tri-flex-fuel vehicle. (Earlier post.)
|H2ICE Silverado Emissions|
AFVTech’s H2ICE conversion system is a sequentially controlled fuel injection system. AFVTech has developed this fuel system with the goal of achieving full OBDII and EPA compliance. Initial tests concluded that the H2ICE prototype emits .004% of the CO2 emissions of a gasoline vehicle and even lower hydrocarbon emissions.
The modifications to the base vehicle include ported and polished heads; stainless steel valves; powdered metal valve seats; hydrogen injectors; and custom programming. The engines are normally aspirated.
AFVTech’s design target was to hit Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions levels. In their first measured test procedure, the converted engines achieved emissions levels that met or exceeded tier 2 Bin 6 for NOx.
Running on hydrogen, the pickups deliver combined cycle fuel economy of 23 miles per gallon (US) gasoline equivalent without the air conditioning running, and 18 mpgge with the air conditioning on. Acceleration from 0 to 60 mph takes 21.4 seconds.
Other hydrgoen vehicles on display at the fair include:
- eP-Ice Bear, the world’s first fuel-cell ice resurfacer
- Toro Workman, a fuel-cell electric utility vehicle
- Hyster forklift, a fuel cell-powered forklift
- GEM neighborhood electric vehicle
- UND fuel cell vehicle
Consortium members of the Wind Hydrogen Project include Basin Electric Power Cooperative, Verendrye Electric Power Cooperative, Velva; the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Stuart Energy and the North Dakota State University (NDSU) North Central Research Extension Center, Minot.
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