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Philippines Adopts Mandatory Biofuels Standard

23 January 2007

Philippines President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo recently signed into law a mandatory biofuels standard. Republic Act 9367 requires a 5% ethanol blend for gasoline within two years, increasing to 10% within four years under the approval of a new National Biofuels Board.

A 1% biodiesel blend for diesel is required within 3 months, to be increased to 2% within two years.

RA 9367 also zero-rates the specific tax on the biofuels component of blended gasoline or diesel.

January 23, 2007 in Biodiesel, Brief, Ethanol, Other Asia, Policy | Permalink | Comments (2) | TrackBack (0)

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An Act to direct the use of Bio-fuels, 13th Congress, Hose Bill No. 1347 of 2006

SECTION 1. Short Title. – This Act shall be known as the “Biofuels Act of 1 2006.”

SEC. 3. Definition of Terms.
As used in this Act, the following terms shall be taken to mean as follows:

d) Biodiesel – shall refer to Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) or mono-alkyl esters derived from vegetable oils or animal fats and other biomass-derived oils that shall be technically proven and approved by the DOE for use in diesel engines, with quality specifications in accordance with the Philippine National Standards (PNS);

e) Bioethanol Fuel–shall refer to hydrous or anhydrous bioethanolsuitably denatured for use as motor fuel, with quality specifications in accordance with the PNS;

=================================================
Therefore, BIO-DIESEL is made thru Esterification,
otherwise known as Coconut Methy Esterification (CME).
=================================================
CAUTION / WARNING
DUBIOUS PNS 2020:2003 & BIO-DIESEL TECHNOLOGY?
http://www.gov.ph/forum/thread.asp?rootID=73028&catID=9

Bio-fuels could be misleading notions in terms of finding/formulating a “genuine” bio, eco and/or environment-friendly fuel -- possibly a renewable source of an energy. It’s a misnomer indeed to come-up with an alternative energy that the same would contain inorganic petrol-base (methanol & ethanol) and
acidic/toxic Sodium/ Potassium Hydroxide Catalytic Reactants, that could lead to corrosion and damage on engine parts. This is not to mention the contamination of (layers) underground soils.

Bio-diesel is just for mixture at 5%-20% to petro-diesel. If it goes beyond 10-percent or 20-percent use, it will not be good for the vehicle. “We cannot use 100 percent (B100) of coco fuel in the engine” according to Usec. Eduardo Mañalac, former Usec., of the Department of Energy, now is the President of PNOC.” Thursday, March 11, 2004 @10:12 PM GMT – 12-Baguio testing use of coconut fuel Ecology.

Bio-ethanol is just a mixture of 10% ethanol & 90% petro-gasoline. It would not be good also for the engine if the mixture would go beyond 35% because it will eat-up the rubber and plastic parts of the engine, thus increases the engine temperature.

Petroleum Based Fuel Adulteration?

On the product Standardization of Petrol-Fuel Oils, International TradeStandard Specification, the general requirement stipulates – “The fuel oil specified herein shall be hydrocarbon oils FREE from INORGANIC ACIDS and FOREIGN MATTER.”

QUESTION:
Are Methanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ester,
Potassium/Sodium Hydroxides are not INORGANIC -- FOREIGN MATTERS?

FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER [FAME] IFICATION or Trans[ester]ification

Transesterification
In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol. These reactions are often catalyzed by the addition of an acid or base.

Rancidification
Rancidification is the decomposition of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis and/or oxidation. Hydrolysis will split fatty acid chains away from the glycerol backbone in glycerides. These free fatty acids can then undergo further auto-oxidation.Oxidation primarily occurs with unsaturated fats by a free radical-mediated process.

Redox (Redirected from Oxidation)
Redox reactions include all chemical processes in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed.

This can be a simple redox process, such as the oxidation of carbon to yield carbon dioxide, it could be the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane(CH4), or a complex process such as the oxidation of sugar in the human body, through a series of very complex electron transfer processes.

The term redox comes from the two concepts of reduction and oxidation. It can be explained in simple terms:

Oxidation describes the loss of an electron by a molecule, atom or ion.

Reduction describes the gain of an electron by a molecule, atom or ion.

Combustion of hydrocarbons, e.g. in an internal combustion engine, produces water, carbon dioxide, some partially oxidized forms such as carbon monoxide and heat energy. Complete oxidation of materials containing carbon produces carbon dioxide.

Rescue a Plante under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble...

GOD will always forgives,
Man sometimes forgives,
Nature will never forgive,
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Please, I'm a business manager in Amsterdam, I'm currently working on energy projects. I have about 20,000 hectares of land in Ghana, which I would like to use for growing cassava for Ethanol projects.
For this project, I'm looking for interested partners to set up the Ethanol plant in Ghana.
The government of Ghana is working on Renewable energy legislation, so permits and environmental regulations won't be a problem.
Best,
Osafo.

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