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VW’s New 90 kW Version of the TSI

10 May 2007

Vw14tsi1
Exhaust side of the new 1.4-liter engine. Click to enlarge.

Volkswagen’s new 90 kW 1.4-liter TSI, introduced at the Vienna Motor Symposium, represents the company’s latest step in developing cost-effective, fuel-efficient gasoline engines. (Earlier post.) 

The 1.4-liter 90 kW TSI engine replaces the 1.6-liter 85 kW naturally-aspirated FSI engine in all vehicles while providing improvements in performance and fuel consumption and meeting Euro 5 standards.

The new engine, in combination with the new VW 7-speed dual clutch gearbox with dry clutches, enables a 22% improvement in fuel consumption compared to the predecessor powertrain in the Golf, and hits a 139 g CO2/km target in the European driving cycle.

Features of the new engine include the further development of the combustion process and fuel injection, an optimized turbocharger in conjunction with optimized charge exchange and a newly developed design for water-cooling charge air.

Due to the moderate downsizing—about a 30% reduction in displacement compared to the 4V naturally-aspirated engine with the same torque—the new 90 kW engine can use just a one-stage turbocharger. For the engines in the family that have a higher specific output, VW adds a second, mechanical, charger stage—i.e., Twincharging.

Vw14tsi2
Torque curve of the 1.4 TSI compared to the 1.6 FSI. Click to enlarge.

VW reworked the engine to enable doing without tumble flaps (for technical simplification and cost reduction) as well as the use of a one-stage turbocharger with a turbine temperature limit of 950° C.

The new intake port design generates the charge movement necessary for good homogenization of the mixture and fast fuel burn. VW also introduced port masking for the first time in this engine family.

Vw14tsi3
Injector spray design. The system for the 90 kW engine is at bottom. Click to enlarge.

The 1.4-liter engine uses a new type of multi-hole, high-pressure injector with 6 fuel jets. The injection spray cone does not have the typical round or oval shape, but instead optimizes the spatial distribution of the spray. (See drawing at right.) The strongest individual stream, formerly directed downwards towards the piston, has been moved upwards into the middle of the spray. This reduces the moistening of the piston during the very early start of injection at full load as well during as late points of injection shortly before compression stroke TDC in the double-injection catalytic converter heating mode.

Vw14tsi4
Position of spray cones in the combustion chamber. Click to enlarge.

Consequently, the injection can take place earlier, lengthening the time for forming the fuel mixture and improving the homogenization. Very low hydrocarbon emissions are one result.

The Magneti Marelli injectors enable the construction of individual length-to-diameter ratio (l/d) for each jet so the penetration can be optimized for each spray cone. VW also altered stream direction to avoid undesirable interaction between streams.

Comparing the 1.4L 90 kW TSI and the 1.6L 85 kW FSI
New 1.4L 90 kW TSI1.6L 85 kW FSI
Displacement 1,390 cm
Bore and stroke 76.5/75.6 mm 76.5/86.9 mm
Stroke-to-bore ratio 0.988 1.136
Cylinder distance 82 mm
Connecting rods 144 mm 138 mm
Compression ratio 10.0:1 12.0:1
Nominal output 90 kW (121 hp)
@ 5,000 rpm
85 kW (114 hp)
@ 6,000 rpm
Maximum torque 200 Nm (148 lb-ft)
@ 1,500-3,000 rpm
155 Nm (114 lb-ft)
@ 4,000 rpm
Sp. torque 143.9 Nm/L 97 Nm/L
Fuel RON 95 RON min. 95
Emissions standard Euro 5 Euro 4

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May 10, 2007 in Engines, Fuel Efficiency | Permalink | Comments (20) | TrackBack (0)

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Comments

This is another positive step forward in the steady efficiency improvements of the gasoline engine. Real world 22% improvement? We'll see.

What's clear is that the gas engine is enjoying a real golden era, kind of like the diesel did some few years ago. That torque curve is looking quite diesel like too.

Perhaps continuing gas engine progress will put a damper in diesel sales, as the efficiency difference narrows, but the diesel's production costs remain substantially higher.


I would like to see an engine like this optimized for E100.

@ pauln -

the 22% improvement refers to the European NEDC driving cycle, which like its US and Japanese counterparts tends to understimate real-world fuel consumption. However, the older 1.6L engine it is being compared to was also tested on the same cycle. Therefore, while the 139gCO2/km number will be hard to achieve in the real world, the 22% improvement might be. Of course, part of the efficiency gain will likely be lost due to the fact that the newer vehicle models the new engine will be installed in will be a little larger and heavier than their predecessors.

GDI, VVT and intercooled turbocharging plus downsizing all contribute substantially to these results. Even greater gains are possible with spray-guided stratified GDI (cp. M-B CLS 350 CGI, BMW 335i) but you then need an expensive NOx store cat to meet emissions. For now, VW/Audi are sticking with homogenous GDI and standard three-way catalysts.

All of this is now bringing gasoline engines within earshot of the gravimetric fuel economy of diesel engines, especially in part load. If all fuels were taxed equally per unit of energy, the A, B and C in Europe would switch back to gasoline.

However, consumers buy their fuel by volume and in Europe, a liter of diesel is not taxed as heavily as a liter of gasoline. This tax break was originally intended to benefit farmers. It has now led to demand for diesels even in the A and B segments, which obviously drives up development costs. In a small car, the greater weight of a diesel engine has a noticeable effect on weight distribution, so the chassis ends up over-engineered for the gasoline variants. Torque steer can be an issue. The warm-up period is longer, which impacts real-world fuel economy, oil change intervals and emissions for diesel-powered city runabouts.

In the upper vehicle segments (except sports cars), diesels make a lot more sense. Corporate customers tend to pay more attention to staff retention and resale value than fuel economy, so many of these larger diesel cars have more power under the hood than they would if gasoline were the only option. This reduces the CO2 benefit of choosing a diesel in the first place.

Finally, refineries in several European countries already have to import diesel (from e.g. Ukraine, Iran) and sell their surplus gasoline (to e.g. the US).

Clearly, the status quo is skewing the market to an unhealthy extent, for finance ministries, supply security and the climate alike. Harmonization efforts based on minimum tax rates per fuel grade are underway in the EU but require unanimous decisions by 27 member states. It's good to see Europe's automakers are improving gasoline engine fuel efficiency by leaps and bounds in spite of the slow pace of tax harmonization.

I am unfamiliar with the fuel specification of "Ron 95"- what octane rating does this equate to for those of us here in the US? 87,91,??? Hopefully its not "premium", for which we are charged a premium.

I applaud all advancements in efficiency. I see great potential for the technologies VW has applied to direct injection gasoline engines.

I can't wait to see smaller (right-sized) direct injection, VG turbocharged engines powering ever lighter vehicles in the US market.

However, I still would like to see diesel penetration in our market. Mainly because the thermodynamic efficiency gap between Otto (spark ignition) and Diesel (compression ignition) (currently 40% in favor of Diesel) may decrease, diesels will always prove more efficient.

Additionally...
Diesel engines can exploit low grade sources: vegetable oils, animal fat, recycled cooking oils, etc. Diesel is less expensive (everywhere but the US) because it is cheaper to produce; it requires less refinement vs. gasoline. While nice for us, this is a more tangible benefit for the poor of the world. Furthermore, because diesel fuel has a higher energy content- one can go further on a given volume of fuel. Finally, diesel's higher flash point makes it a safer fuel in the event of collisions.

Only in the US is diesel sold with a remarkable detrimental tax burden (almost 50% higher than gasoline tax). Diesel fuel in Europe sells at up to a 20% discount over the lowest grade of gasoline. Thus, everywhere else in the world (except the US), the many benefits of diesel engines will continue to prove popular.

Hi All,

Some of that 22 % efficiency improvement is the 7 speed transmission. With that many gears, the ratio range can be larger, and make a better match for the engine at lower speeds, and cruise at a lower RPM/higher Torque. The better low-end ratios reduce the time the engine has to run at high torque during accellerations, as well as allowing the engine to be at a higher efficiency more often.

The Prius electric CVT makes good use of this concept. Which is how the 110 HP is so effective in that car.

Both engines, especially turboe’d one, are optimized for fun driving with manual gearbox, i.e. sharp acceleration on demand without downshift. Mated to 7 speed DSG with very quick downshift, low-RPM torque is of lesser importance, and turbocharger is just unnecessary. Would be interesting to see specs for 1.6L unit tuned for high RPM/high HP. Should be about 160 hp @ 7200 RPM.

Both engines, especially turboe’d one, are optimized for fun driving with manual gearbox, i.e. sharp acceleration on demand without downshift. Mated to 7 speed DSG with very quick downshift, low-RPM torque is of lesser importance, and turbocharger is just unnecessary. Would be interesting to see specs for 1.6L unit tuned for high RPM/high HP. Should be about 160 hp @ 7200 RPM.

22% thats pretty impessive in one step , according to Mr Lutz this
drivetrain should cost some $3000 dollars more than its predecessor!

I think Mr. Lutz complained it would cost upwards of $6,000 to deliver this kind of an improvement in fuel efficiency.

Sensationalism! Lutz = circus announcer

Richard,

RON 95 is roughly the equivalent of 91 (R+M)/2 octane regular. Gas stations in Europe also sell RON 98 fuel, which is slightly more expensive. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Octane_rating

Interesting placement on the GCC page,

This article shows that VW is reducing fuel consumption through better design, the article immediately on the right shows GM increasing power through better design.

My comments on that page stand. For as long as GM refuses to carry out an all out attack on fuel consumption, and Lutz bull****s the press about how dificult and expensive it is to meet new CAFE, GM will continue to shrink, meanwhile other manufacturers will move ahead.

And as for the argument that GM can survive on the Iraq war, that will last as long as Bush lasts, plus maybe one day!

It is strange that none of the really good technology from GM
worldwide seems to filter back to good old GM in America,

Wouldnt it be more interesting to see ICE's developed to be as effcient as possible to generate electricity?
What size ICE is needed to generate the power needs of
an electric car? It just needs to run constantly and
supply a potential power source. Perhaps in conjunction with a small Super Cap to even out the ripple?
Just seems like there should be some why not thoughts in ICE motor development.
I know power is lost during conversion but how much is preserved from lack of acceleration and deaccleration, engine size and torque required?
Just asking

As long as people continue to buy the biggest SUV/pickup without any thought, the good stuff that, unfortunately costs more, will not make to the US. What a shame.

People have no idea what they are missing driving dinosaurs around.

Nice to see that this technology is becoming mainstream in the rest of the world.

Need I remind the forum that in The UK, diesel has always been and it seems will continue to be priced higher than petrol. Sometime 10p (18c) a litre higher.

I think in most western Europe the difference is marginal between the price of diesel and petrol, it certainly has not been 20% less in most countries for the past 10 years.

Either way, fuel bills are so high that a diesel motor will pay the difference back very quickly, even in the UK. I await a new VW 1.4PD unit to go up against the Toyota 1.4D4D.

To Rip off Britain:

Here in Belgium, diesel has always been about 25% cheaper than petrol for at least 20 years. Yesterday, I paid 95 Eurocents per liter for diesel, while petrol was priced 1 Euro 23 Eurocents ... . I think this is roughly the same margin (diesel 25% cheaper) as in France, the Netherlands and Germany.

...VW and other companies could have developed such patrol engiens at least 10 years ago. But they put all the effort and resouces in those Diesel engines. Its rather sad.
I just spent a week in Richmond/London. Its not even the city centre but the air just smells like at an building site. Just Diesel smell. Even a friend from Berlin whom I met in London was complaining about this.

Hopefully, the car sellers have got the task to sell more patrol cars than Diesels in Europe.
But I think, the car industry still want to sell these highly profitably Diesel driven cars.

I would like to known when this motor will be in use
in Italy.
Kind regards, Remo Castelli.

ATTN.Sir;

YOUR COMPANY NAME HAS BEEN RECOMMENDED TO US BY A RELIABLE SOURCE AS THE LEADING EXPORTERS AND MANUFACTURERS.

MOREOVER, WE ARE THE LEADING AGENT IMPORTERS OF SAME HERE IN LOME - TOGO AND OTHER WEST AFRICAN REGIONAL MARKETS BASED ON COMMISSIONS FROM THE SUPPLIER AND WE HAVE THE ESTEEM FIRMED TO ESTABLISH A LONG TERM BUSINESS RELATIONSHIP WITH YOUR COMPANY.

THEREFORE KINDLY FURNISH US WITH YOUR PRODUCT RANGES AND PRICE LIST, FOR OUR KIND STUDY AND ALSO TO ENABLE US SUBMIT IT TO OUR CUSTOMER FOR THE PLACEMENT AVAILABLE ORDERS.

PLEASE IF YOU WOULD NOT MIND WE WILL LIKE TO KNOW IF YOU HAVE SHIP IN TOGO BEFORE, OR ANY OTHER WEST AFRICAN COUNTRIES.

PLEASE YOUR URGENT RESPONSE IS HIGHLY APPRECIATED, WHILE BELIEVING THAT THIS WILL MARK A LONG TERM BASIS FOR BOTH OUR TWO COMPANIES IMMEDIATELY.

FINALLY IF YOUR COMPANY IS FOUND CAPABLE OF HANDLING THE CONTRACT YOU WILL BE REQUESTED TO VISIT THE BOARD PAYMENT REGIONAL OFFICE IN GHANA TO SIGN AND LEGALIZE THE CONTRACT DOCUMENTS WITH THE FEDERAL HIGH COURT OF GHANA.

THANKS WITH REGARDS.

DR. PATRICK KOFFI/ DIRECTOR
PACIFIC INTL. COMPANY LTD.
21 RUE DE BELGIQUE LOME - TOGO.

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