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Mercedes-Benz Presents the Combined SI-CAI “DiesOtto” Concept Engine

Mercedes-Benz provided some details on its DiesOtto engine project: a 1.8-liter, turbocharged, four-cylinder gasoline direct injection engine that supports a switch to controlled auto ignition (CAI) under certain operating conditions.

When starting and under full load, the fuel/air charge is ignited by a spark plug, as in a conventional spark-ignition (SI) engine. The switch to controlled auto ignition mode occurs under partial load conditions, i.e. at low and medium engine speeds.

Despite its reduced displacement—downsizing being one of the major factors for reducing fuel consumption —the research engine delivers an output of 175 kW/238 hp and a maximum torque of 400 Nm (295 lb-ft), with projected fuel consumption of less than 6.0 l/100km (39 mpg US). This, Mercedes-Benz said, could power a vehicle the size of its current S-Class.

Our next goal will now be to make the gasoline engine as economical as a diesel. All the preconditions for this are provided by our DiesOtto concept, which incorporates the foremost strengths of both the gasoline engine and diesel engine.

—Prof. Dr. Herbert Kohler, Head of Group Research & Advanced Engineering Vehicle and Powertrain; Chief Environmental Officer of DaimlerChrysler

Volkswagen has also earlier seized on the term “DiesOtto” to reflect its Combined Combustion System (CCS) work (earlier post). A number of automakers, engineering firms and universities are exploring ways to combine CAI/HCCI with conventional combustion systems as a way to increase the fuel economy of gasoline-fueled engines. (Earlier post.)

Some of the issues involved in engineering such combined systems include the design of control systems for cycle-to-cycle control, ways to enlarge the operating range for the CAI mode, and transient response.

Features of the Mercedes-Benz DiesOtto engine include:

  • Downsizing with fewer cylinders and a smaller displacement;

  • Turbocharging for enhanced performance;

  • Direct gasoline injection;

  • Controlled auto ignition;

  • Variable valve control;

  • A variable compression ratio; and

  • An optional microhybrid module with an integrated starter/generator.

The low temperature combustion reduces engine-out NOx. All further emissions control in the DiesOtto engine is by means of a standard three-way catalytic converter.

Mercedes-Benz noted that some of the technologies in the concept engine—such as gasoline direct injection—are already in production, while others will emerge in the mid-term. The company again emphasized that it is working on hybrid options for its models.

(A hat-tip to Rafael!)

Resources:

Comments

Bud Johns

Well, talk about using ALL of today's technology.......when they said 39 mpg it must have been in a larger car, I would think it could do better than that. 295 ft lb of torque is huge for this size engine.

Rafael Seidl

@ Bud Johns -

For reference, the smallest gasoline-powered variant of the S-Class as sold in Germany today is called the S350. It features a 3.5L V6 rated at 200kW/350Nm that gets 10.2 L/100km.

With the microhybrid masking the turbo lag to some extent, a DiesOtto would be comparable in daily driving where low-end torque matters most and, improve fuel economy by a whopping 40%. People don't drive S-Classes to hoon around, so they'll never even notice that the rated power rated power is 12% lower. Indeed, anyone looking at a DiesOtto will most likely be cross-shopping it against a comparable conventional diesel, if one is available.

The real problem with downsizing is one of consumer perception: marketing departments have spent decades convicing customers that more displacement and more cilinders equals more power and more prestige. Saving fuel first and foremost implies pinching pennies. S-Class owners are not misers, though many are businesspeople who didn't get rich by throwing money down the drain. Still, once this technology does go into production, expect the sales pitch to focus on reduced CO2 emissions and/or improving energy security, depending on the customer's political persuasion.

bill

Forget the hybrid, just concentrate on getting this beauty finished, I would chose a DiesOtto over a hybrid model regardless of cost.

I wonder if the lofty outputs will make it to a production model. Very impressive.

Angelo

"I would think it could do better than that. 295 ft lb of torque is huge for this size engine."

Really? That's a 1.8 liter engine that is within 5ft/lbs of the new BMW 3.0 Twin Turbo with GDI. That sounds pretty good to me.

Bob Bastard

I wish the 5.7L V8 in my truck performed like that.

extracomment

Rafeal has some cute throw away lines but not much substance.

Any engine running two distinct combustion modes is not a smart idea. I find these outrageous claims of achieving Diesel efficiency nonsense. The fact is that this engine can neither run as lean and at as high a CR as a Diesel engine for as much of the speed and load range.

As Rafeal knows only too well Germans regularly drive at full load on the autobahns so this concept is still not as good as the current Diesels, rather much worse for real world autobahn fuel consumption.

In any event this will make a good display at the IAA and have many people believing that it is the next big deal in engine technology. I pity the poor devils who have to bring this to serial production...

Rafael Seidl

@ extracomment -

"Any engine running two distinct combustion modes is not a smart idea." On what do you base this claim? HCCI in part load adds cost but it does not take anything away from the conventional SI mode, which supports higher RPM than the diesel fuel used in conventional CI can.

Even at 200kph (125mph), you "only" need approx. 200hp to overcome wind resistance. It's only when you decide you need to accelerate even higher that you actually need to redline an engine rated at well above 200hp. As you approach rated power, the primary fuel economy advantage of a conventional diesel - the lack of a butterfly valve - becomes a moot point. The higher compression ratio does still help some and so does the fact that diesel fuel contains ~10% more energy by volume. In terms of fuel mass flow, there is little difference between an SI and a CI engine at these high power levels.

However, in combined cycle driving a DiesOtto will get close to the fuel economy of a comparable conventional CI engine without the expensive exhaust gas aftertreatment requried for T2B5/LEV II and the future Euro 6 level. That, combined with the need to match the demand mix for fuels with what refineries can produce at reasonable cost, is why there will be a place for the DiesOtto alongside the conventional diesel.

Roger Pham

extracomment,

here's some extracomments for you:
GDI (with modestly higher compression ratio) can run lean and powerful due to stratified-charge arrangement. Remember that at a given compression ratio, Otto cycle (isochoric combustion) is significantly more efficient than Diesel cycle (isobaric combustion). A GDI SI does not need to have as high a compression ratio as a Diesel in order to attain the same thermal efficiency.

In fact, the high compression ratio of the Diesel increases engine friction at part load in comparison to an Otto cycle engine at part load. HCCI at part load gives you dual benefit of Diesel efficiency without associated Diesel's costly disadvantage. This is a very impressive development!

If you don't much care for all the extra power of this Mercedes engine, you can go the Ford approach in the previous HCCI article and use low-cost port fuel injection and conventional 3-way exhaust catalytic converter (instead of more expensive Blue-tec to reduce NOx and particle filter for PM in Diesel and for GDI engine operating in lean stratified charge mode).

litesong

With the near(?) future coming out parties for Electric Vehicles(EVS) with viable increasing electric storage density, ICE must produce lower emissions & higher MPG. However, ICE still loses in so many ways to EVs. Tho my old Ford Festiva gives double the average MPG of ICE vehicles, EVs will still be superior. My next car will be a full EV(maybe I'll convert my Festiva to EV). ICE manufacturers had their chance to care about pollution their engines poured into the planet, but they didn't produce engines to take care of the planet. Too late to get me excited about efficient ICE engines now.

Mad Max

I wonder if this technology could be integrated with ethanol injection to increase efficiency further

http://www.greencarcongress.com/2006/05/ethanol_direct_.html

Bud Johns

Litesong, let me just say that I've driven a Prius since Jan 7 '04. That being said, major advances in ICEs can only help in every respect. PHEVs need an ICE or some source of power too. All THAT being said, everybody look out for GEN III Prius. I expect it to shock everyone right to the shorts.......just a prediction, don't have privy to inside info.

Bob Bastard

HCCI technology has actually made it into street legal vehicles before. Honda has played with it in 2-cycle street/trail bikes. They call it "Activated Radical combustion," and like the Mercedes design, it switches between SI and autoignition. I believe it was used in the exp-2 as well as the NX400, and the CRM250AR which was/is a production bike. They claim the emissions were better than the current 4-stroke offerings. I realize that the dynamics with 2-cycles and 4-cycles are quite different, but I have to wonder why Honda hasn't been publicly pursuing HCCI technology in LDV's considering the experience they already have with motorcycles, and the fact that they seem to be lagging Toyota on the hybrid front. Honda has built fuel efficient vehicles since day one, and if I'm not mistaken, they still sell the most fuel efficient fleet in the US, but they seem to be conspicuously absent from the news these days with regard to fuel saving technology in passenger cars.

Bill

Honda's bringing 2.2 and 3.5 diesel engines to the U.S. in 2009/2010.

The 2.2, at least, looks to be plenty fuel-efficient:

http://www.autobloggreen.com/2007/06/07/2009-honda-accord-diesel-to-hit-52-mpg/

>conspicuously absent from the news these days with regard to fuel saving technology in passenger cars.

cidi

GDI (with modestly higher compression ratio) can run lean and powerful due to stratified-charge arrangement. -- Roger Pham

With the same requirement for "costly" NOx treatment.

Remember that at a given compression ratio, Otto cycle (isochoric combustion) is significantly more efficient than Diesel cycle (isobaric combustion).

But not running stratified charge (where you would have all that excess air sucking up energy).

That said, a good development.

mo

GDI stratified are having about the same particulate matter issues to be aftertreated as diesels have.
(hungry for HCCI news from GM &Co - might make it into those attractive small blocks)
mo

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