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“Platooning” Reduces Drag and Cuts Fuel Consumption and Emissions

An automated way of allowing cars to drive much closer to each other in heavy moving traffic—“platooning”—could cut congestion and reduce fuel consumption and emissions by reducing aerodynamic drag, according to researchers from Jadavpur University in Kolkata, India. Their work is described in a paper in the current issue of the International Journal of the Environment and Pollution.

Traffic congestion is a growing problem across the globe and is becoming acute in areas of rapid economic growth, such as China and India. Congestion exacerbates the already growing problems of rising fuel consumption and emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases.

Automated highway systems are one of the approaches being explored to mitigate congestion, and platooning—the synchronized movement of two or more vehicles as a unit, travelling at the same speed with relatively small inter-vehicle spacing—is one of the possible aspects of such an automated system.

Debojyoti Mitra and Asis Mazumdar at Jadavpur University assessed drag on a maximum four-vehicle platoon model inside the university’s wind tunnel using several car and bus models as platoon members. Intra-platoon spacing was 2/5th the length of the vehicle—e.g., cars 5m in length were spaced 2m apart. Air velocity was 23 m/sec (82.8 km/h or 51 mph).

They found that the platooning of vehicles at close spacing reduces the drag coefficients of all platoon members, regardless of the vehicle’s shape. The higher the number of vehicles in the platoon, the lower the drag coefficient.

The leading car in the platoon experiences the highest drag as you would expect but no more than if it were driving alone. The second car has a much lower drag coefficient than the first car in a two-car platoon. The middle car experiences the lowest drag in a three-car platoon and the third car in the platoon, starting from the front, experiences the least drag in a four-car platoon.

—Debojyoti Mitra
Drag coefficients (CD) in a four-vehicle platoon
  Car platoon Bus platoon
Vehicle 1 0.331 0.868
Vehicle 2 0.273 0.602
Vehicle 3 0.225 0.424
Vehicle 4 0.284 0.521

To make such an approach practical from a safety point of view, sensors and safety controls that allow vehicles to drive at such a small separation would be required.

Resources:

  • Mitra, D. and Mazumdar, A. (2007) ‘Pollution control by reduction of drag on cars and buses through platooning’, Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 90–96.

Comments

Shiggle

Didn't I see this in the 90's on "Beyond 2000"? Yes, I did. In CA, they have a long stretch of highway with sensors to test this kind of system. Wow, these guys are talking like they discovered this. Whatever, seems like it's not going to happen anytime soon.

Richard

Yes I saw it on Beyond 2000 as well. They had radar sensor set up and monitored the distance automatically. It was pretty cool, although I wouldn't expect it to work without much coordination of sensors etc. What would happen if the middle car needed to exit unexpectedly? Would override be allowed? Interesting though.

Emphyrio

This idea is for the birds - they invented it and that's where it should stay. Just wait until the Microsoft Windows controlled system goes down with hundreds of cars 2m apart at 50mph. Horrific. What is so difficult about just making cars like the Prius with a Cd of 0.26?

Unbelievable.

HealthyBreeze

Well, the Hypermilers swear by this stuff. The safer way to do it is to follow a big rig at less than 5 car lengths. They have a a bigger lower pressure plume behind them, and they usually go slower, so you use less fuel that way too, if you're at the bottom RPMs of your highest gear. I think you guys are right though...many problems with making this routine.

marc

it took these guys how long to figure this out? nascar has known about it for years...it's called drafting.

i have a better idea to reduce congestion - fewer cars.

DS

This is old news!! In NJ we call this tail-gating.

joseph


Ric Romero wants his tag back!

With AI auto-pilot this will become practical but with human tailgaters this will be a nightmare!

Robert Schwartz

We got us a convoy!

NeilPackrat

Robert: re convoy: LOL, land sakes alive, are you showing your age!

Stan Peterson

This is a description of 21st century new mass transit. It has the ability to remove the last vestiges of the antique mass transit that no one wants to use, any longer than absolutely necessary.

Such a mass transit system will truly take you from Point A (where you are) to Point B (where you want to go).

Current antique mass transit does not do that. It makes you go to another place near where you are (Point A') to (Point B') near where you want to go. Further it only allows you to do that at certain hours and frequencies. Having watched Manhattan business absolutely stop because businessmen must absolutely catch the train home. There are people that can't take the mass transit to the ballpark, because the train doesn't run by the time a night game ends. Ditto for a night out on the town.

And it is coming much sooner than many of you think.

The necessary pieces are being adapted and showing up in cars. For example high priced vehicles already have "intelligent cruise control" that maintain spacing between cars. This option will spread to cheaper and cheaper cars over time.

The NHTSA has established 2012 as the year when all vehicles will be required to have stability control. This would also include ABS as well as automated way to apply the brakes to prevent skids and rollovers.

Add to that the GPS navigation system becoming more common already and not just a luxury car option, and it is not hard at all to envision a distributed system with little centralized control needed to create "trains of closely spaced cars".

Modern wireless internet access would provide the infrequently needed central advisories. Local Wifi would allow communication between adjoining cars in the trains to communicate between adjoining cars joining or leaving automated close spacing mode.

Furthermore the new mass transit has the option (eventually!) for unmanned driving. Rather than take you to a parking lot near where you want to be, it could drop you at the front door. It could return to pick you up on schedule or if summoned, when a change of plan occurs.

Just like a chauffeur driven limousine. And that is what people would want from a "modern mass transit" system. Privacy, independence in destination, and time of leaving or arriving.

It will happen at first in the multi-passenger "diamond lanes" of freeways. I could certainly see the first such attempts by the mid-teens, and quite common by 2030.

Chris

Trains anyone? Why not attach a hitch on each car so they can all hook up to each other. Wait a minute! They're called trains! I still can't understand why N.America started removing trains and tracks while Europe (yay for them) started putting them in. I think they've got something there.

Australia has something called truck trains, each truck carries a load of 8 or so trailers. Seems logical to me. Break the train up into 8 seperate trucks and your wasting fuel on the extra drag produced by each of the other 7 trucks (obviously less efficient). I say get rid of trucks all together and use trains, that way we could free up the congestion on our highways too!

Seems to me we have to get away from the "I want it now syndrome". Retailers can get products in, in less than 2 days. If we switched back to rail, consumers won't buy so much useless stuff. It'll even help reduce global warming.

Lad

Emphyrio:

"Just wait until the Microsoft Windows controlled system goes down..."

How do you know the operating system isn't a MAC or Linux? Did you make an assumption?

K

Yes, it can be done. The computing and sensors are good enough.

Should it be done? Probably not now. The delays in waiting for the convoy to form and the problems when drivers change their minds about exiting, etc. might be formidable.

Not all vehicles can accelerate and brake at the same rates and not every one will meet its own design specs.

For large trucks on long hauls it might be much more practical. And a good place to try first. In Australia I understand that a run of 500 miles w/o encountering traffic or dealing with exits is not unusual.

Kevin

This is ridiculous. It's common knowledge as stated already, all forms of racing, bicycles, cars, skis, running have exploited the benefits of "drafting" or "slipstreaming" since the dawn of motion. And just as in NJ, MA is the same way, I'm about to head out into a 400 car "platoon" right now, so if I'm 399th, does that make my Cd 0.0?

(just kidding about the last question by the way, a fecetious extrapolation of this groundbreaking data)

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