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May 2009

May 31, 2009

New Glasses for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Cell Seals

Virginia Tech professor of materials science and engineering Peizhen (Kathy) Lu has developed new barium oxide-, calcium oxide-, magnesia-, and alkali oxide-free glasses that can be used as sealants in both solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOFC/SOEC).

SOFCs operate by separating oxygen ions from air, which pass through a crystal lattice and oxidize a fuel—usually a hydrocarbon. The chemical reaction produces electrons, which flow through an external circuit, creating electricity. Composed of ceramic materials, SOFCs can operate at temperatures as high as 1,000 °C (1,832 °F). An SOFC can also be designed to operate with reversed direction of current flow as a solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) to split steam to produce hydrogen.

To produce enough power or hydrogen for a particular application, SOFC/SOEC modules are stacked together. Suitable sealant material is required to avoid the mixing of fuel (hydrogen or hydrocarbon) and oxidants (oxygen and air) in solid exide fuel cell, and steam and reactant gases in solid oxide electrolyzer cell, to avoid leaking of the gases.

Seals are a key barrier for the high efficiency and long-term integrity of both cells. Although glasses are the best solution for these particular applications, it is very difficult to design a glass to fulfill all the required properties simultaneously. Lu has invented a new self-healing seal glasses that can be used to seal the modules and the stack.

In addition to being BaO-, CaO-, MgO-, and alkali oxide-free, the invented glass seals also contain little amount of or no B2O3. All the developed glasses in this invention have glass transition temperature in the range of 680-750 ºC, thermal expansion coefficient in the range of 10.5-12.5x10-6/ºC from room temperature to glass transition temperature, and dilatometric softening temperature in the range of 720-820 ºC. The glasses are thermally stable up to 850 ºC. The sealing temperature of the developed glasses does not exceed 1000 ºC. The invented glass is suitable for the cells operating at 700-900 ºC for long term.

Virginia Tech Intellectual Properties is licensing the invention.

The US Department of Energy has provided $365,000 in funding for Lu’s SOFC and solid oxide electrolyzer cell research so far.


  • K. Lu and M. K. Mahapatra (2008) Network structure and thermal stability study of high temperature seal glass. J. Appl. Phys. 104 074910 doi: 10.1063/1.2979323

May 31, 2009 in Brief | Permalink | Comments (1) | TrackBack

Mitsui Chemicals Begins Operations of Pilot Plant for Methanol Synthesis from CO2

Mitsui Chemicals (MCI) has begun operating its pilot plant for synthesizing methanol from CO2. (Earlier post.) The pilot plant will produce approximately 100 tonnes of methanol per year as a base material for plastics from the CO2 released during ethylene production at the Osaka Works petrochemical complex.

In MCI’s CSR Report 2008, Masaki Ueyama, from MCI’s ENergy & Utility Unit Planning and Coordination Division, said the MCI estimates that it can convert half of the CO2 emissions sequestered from its plants into methanol.

The process relies on hydrogen obtained from water photolysis and ultra-high activity electrocatalysts consisting of zinc oxide and copper.

May 31, 2009 in Brief | Permalink | Comments (1) | TrackBack

Possible Feedback Mechanism Between Tropical Cyclones and Global Warming

Tropical cyclones could be a significant source of the deep convection that carries moist air upward to the stratosphere, where it can influence climate, according to a new study by researchers at Harvard, published in the AGU journal Geophysical Research Letters.

Using 23 years of infrared satellite imagery, global tropical cyclone best-track data, and reanalysis of tropopause temperature, David Romps and Zhiming Kuang found that tropical cyclones contribute a disproportionate amount of the tropical deep convection that overshoots the troposphere and reaches the stratosphere.

Tropical cyclones account for only 7% of the deep convection in the tropics, but 15% of the convection that reaches the stratosphere, they found. The authors conclude that tropical cyclones could play a key role in adding water vapor to the stratosphere, which has been shown to increase surface temperatures.

Because global warming is expected to lead to changes in the frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones, the authors believe their results suggest the possibility of a feedback mechanism between tropical cyclones and global climate.


  • David M. Romps and Zhiming Kuang (2009) Overshooting convection in tropical cyclones. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L09804, doi: 10.1029/2009GL037396

May 31, 2009 in Brief | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

DOE Issues RFI for Fuel Cells For Combined Heating and Power and APU Applications; Reflective of New Direction for Hydrogen Program

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has issued a Request for Information (RFI) (DE-FOA-0000111) seeking input from stakeholders and the research community on proposed technical and cost targets for fuel cells designed for residential combined heating and power (CHP) and auxiliary power unit (APU) applications. This is a Request for Information and not a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA); therefore, DOE is not accepting applications and is instead providing an opportunity for stakeholders to submit feedback on targets for residential Combined Heat and Power and Auxiliary Power Unit applications.

The RFI reflects the steps being taken by the DOE’s Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program to rebalance its portfolio in alignment with the DOE’s new position of focusing on fuel cell applications for near-term impact, and less on the long-term development for application in transportation, said Dr. Sunita Satyapal, Acting Program Manager, during the recent Hydrogen and Vehicle Technology combined Merit Review meetings in Washington, DC.

Although the proposed 2010 budget for the DOE reduces funding for hydrogen fuel cell vehicle work (earlier post), the Recovery Act is providing a $42 million boost for nearer-term applications of fuel cells in other areas.

We are rebalancing our portfolio, focusing on fuel cells rather than just hydrogen for long term transportation. We will be technology-neutral, and look at diverse fuels—not just hydrogen, but natural gas, biogas, and other fuels that are readily available and for diverse applications, that can have near-term impact.

In addition, if you look at our program structure, we will focus on fuel cell system R&D. Again, this is technology neutral. This would include materials R&D as well as subsystems. It’s still R&D, so for example, we’re talking about reducing catalyst cost, improving membrane durability. Some of that R&D will still be applicable to long-term transportation, but will also be applicable and help jump start some of these other applications.

—Dr. Satyapal, at the DOE Merit Review meetings

The newly-posted RFI is one example of how the Hydrogen program will gather stakeholder input for the new program focus, Dr. Satyapal said.

We’ve really been focused on transportation, and now we’re expanding. It’s a good opportunity to provide input. We will have targets that we’ll post, feedback on the relevance of recommendation, and the current status of technologies compared to future R&D. We’ll incorporate all that feedback as we look at redefining the portfolio and establishing and formalizing that portfolio.

—Dr. Satyapal

The RFI. The purpose of the RFI is to solicit feedback from stakeholders and the research community on DOE’s proposed performance, durability, and cost targets for CHP and APU fuel cell applications.

High-temperature fuel cells, including (but not limited to) solid oxide fuel cells, are a key focus area of DOE’s R&D activities for stationary power generation because of their fuel flexibility, high efficiency, and potential for use in CHP applications. DOE anticipates that residential CHP fuel cells will use primarily natural gas fuel to provide electrical power, heating, and hot water.

APUs for heavy duty vehicles/trucks also represent a potential early market opportunity for fuel cell deployment. DOE expects truck APU fuel cells to use primarily diesel fuel to power environmental controls and peripheral electrical devices.

DOE is currently working to identify appropriate technical and cost targets for fuel cells for residential CHP and APU applications. The RFI includes preliminary targets developed with earlier stakeholder input, including a workshop in June 2008 at the Program’s Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation meeting. DOE says that responses to the RFI should address one or more of the following:

  • Relevance of the proposed targets
  • Probability that the proposed targets could be achieved as scheduled
  • Recommendations for testing conditions and protocols
  • Adequacy of target table footnotes and/or need for additional supporting information
  • Need for thermal cycling or on/off cycling durability targets
  • Apportionment of CHP energy between electrical and thermal energy
  • Recommendations for additional targets
  • Status of fuel cell technologies in comparison to targets and potential areas of R&D
DOE Proposed performance, durability, and cost targets
for fuel cell systems for residential CHP using natural gas
 Est. 2008 status201220152020
Power output 1-10 kW 1-10 kW 1-10 kW 1-10 kW
Energy efficiency at rated power1 ~38% DC 42.5% DC 42.5% AC 47.5% AC
CHP energy efficiency > 75% 80% 85% 90%
Cost2 ~$750/kW $550/kW $500/kW $350/kW
Transient response (10-90% rated power)   < 1 min 20 s 5 s
Start-up time from 20 °C ambient 720 min 240 min 60 min 30 min
Average steady-state degradation < 2%/1000 h 1%/1000 h 0.5%/1000 h 0.25%/1000 h
Transient power degradation < 1% 0.50% 0.25% 0.10%
Operating lifetime ~5,900 h 16,650 h3 24,975 h 4 49,950 h5
System availability 97% 97.5% > 97.5% > 97.5%
1DC net/LHV or AC net/LHV. 2015 and 2020 targets include DC-AC conversion efficiencies.
2Factory cost defined at 50,000 unit production (250 MW in 5-kW modules).
3Approximate hours in 2 yrs of operation at 95% availability.
4Approximate hours in 3 yrs of operation at 95% availability.
5Approximate hours in 6 yrs of operation at 95% availability.

DOE Proposed performance, durability, and cost targets
for fuel cell systems for APUs using diesel fuel
 Est. 2008 status201220152020
Power output 1-10 kW 1-10 kW 1-10 kW 1-10 kW
Energy efficiency at rated power1 ~16% DC 25% DC 30% DC 37.5% DC
Power density 17 W/L 25 W/L 30 W/L 35 W/L
Specific power 12 W/kg 15 W/kg 25 W/kg 35 W/kg
Cost2 ~$750/kW $550/kW $450/kW $300/kW
Transient response (10-90% rated power)   < 1 min 20 s 5 s
Start-up time from 20 °C ambient 720 min 90 min 45 min 10 min
Average steady-state degradation 2.6%/1000 h 1.5%/1000 h 1%/1000 h 0.5%/1000 h
Transient power degradation ~1% 0.75% 0.5% 0.25%
Operating lifetime ~3,000 h 12,480 h3 18,720 h 4 31,200 h5
System availability 97% 97.5% > 97.5% > 97.5%
1DC net/LHV.
2Factory cost defined at 50,000 unit production (250 MW in 5-kW modules).
3Approximate hours in 2 yrs of operation at a weekly cycle of 5 days on and 2 days off.
4Approximate hours in 3 yrs of operation at a weekly cycle of 5 days on and 2 days off.
5Approximate hours in 5 yrs of operation at a weekly cycle of 5 days on and 2 days off.

May 31, 2009 in Fuel Cells, Research | Permalink | Comments (9) | TrackBack

May 30, 2009

Vehicle Electrification a Key Strategic Initiative for Magna; Steady Increases in Capabilities and Technology Portfolio Over Past Few Years

Canada-based international auto supplier and contract assembler Magna International, now with a Memorandum of Understanding for the acquisition of Opel from General Motors (earlier post), sees vehicle electrification as one of its key strategic initiatives. Accordingly, it has been steadily increasing its capabilities with hybrid and electric vehicle technologies over the past several years.

At Magna’s Annual General Meeting, held earlier this month, Magna Co-Chief Executive Officer Siegfried Wolf noted that Magna has the capability to develop and produce many of the key components that are new and unique to electric vehicles. A key competitive advantage for the company, he said, is its “ability to integrate these new technologies into the complete vehicle and to develop complete vehicle concepts for pure electric mobility.”

At last year’s meeting, I highlighted our efforts towards electrification of the vehicle. We have come a long way in a year’s time. Our mila ev concept presented at the Geneva motor show was newly developed from the ground up as a unique full electric vehicle platform without the need for modification, retrofitting or conversion. The platform is ready for use, for every OEM specifically to design. Or in simple words, we deliver the rolling chassis, the OEM puts an exterior design on top.

Overall we are developing a strong position in electric vehicles, with Magna Steyr as the core of our complete vehicle competence, together with Magna’s Electronics, Powertrain and Cosma groups.

—Siegfried Wolf

The most complete series production example yet of this increasing capability was the announcement by Magna and Ford at the North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) in January that the two were jointly developing a new Ford battery electric C-platform global small car for 2011. (Earlier post.) Magna is providing the electric traction motor, transmission, motor controller, Lithium-ion energy storage system, battery charger and related systems.

Magna will also share in the engineering responsibility to integrate the electric propulsion system and other new systems into the vehicle platform architecture.

In March 2009, Magna Electronics, an operating unit of Magna International Inc., and BRUSA Elektronik AG, a developer and supplier of high-efficient power electronics and electric motors, formed a collaboration on electric and hybrid vehicle applications. (Earlier post.) The two companies said that the collaboration enhanced both their positions in developing and supplying components and systems to the emerging global automotive market for electric and hybrid vehicles.

Shortly prior to the BRUSA announcement, Magna introduced the mila ev concept at the Geneva Motor Show 2009. The core of the mila ev is a fully integrated electric vehicle platform which could be used by an OEM as the basis for production-vehicle development of a full battery electric vehicle, or with natural gas, fuel cell or hybrid drive, Magna said. The mila ev is driven by a 67 hp (50 kW) electric motor powered by a lithium-ion battery pack developed by Magna Steyr. (Earlier post.)

In October 2008, Magna Electronics, an operating unit of Magna International Inc., acquired BluWav Systems LLC (formerly Wavecrest Laboratories), a developer and supplier of controls, motors and energy-management systems for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles. (Earlier post.)

BluWav had concentrated on five main product areas: Motor design; Motor control hardware, software, and drive electronics; Vehicle requirements analysis, system optimization, and performance validation; Vehicle control systems; and Energy storage systems.

In 2007, Magna Steyr brought its HySUV hybrid concept to EVS-23 in Anaheim. (Earlier post.) The converted Mercedes ML 350 features an electric four-wheel drive module (E4WD) developed by Magna Powertrain and Siemens VDO and lithium-ion storage system developed by Magna Steyr.

Earlier in 2007, Peter Pichler, Product Manager for Battery Systems at Magna Steyr, said that the company was developing a series of lithium-ion energy storage systems for a range of hybrid electric vehicle applications including mild (10-30kW); full (30-70kW—also for use with a fuel cell vehicle); and heavy duty (70-200 kW).(Earlier post.)

At that time, he said that Magna Steyr will put its lithium-ion packs into series production in 2009, and that it was developing a pack for plug-in hybrids using prismatic cells with a 2010 target.

May 30, 2009 in Batteries, Electric (Battery), Hybrids, Vehicle Manufacturers | Permalink | Comments (12) | TrackBack

Japan Auto Production Falls 47.1% in April, Exports Drop 64.7%

Production of light-duty vehicles, trucks and buses in Japan fell 47.1% year-on-year in April, marking the seventh consecutive month of declines, according to the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA). Japan’s exports of cars, trucks and buses fell 64.7% in April from the year-earlier month, also falling for the seventh straight month, JAMA said.

Production of passenger cars was 415,804 units, down 47.2%. Production of cars with engine displacement of more than 2,000cc plummeted 62.4% to 183,403 units. Production of small cars with displacements less than 2.0L but greater than 660cc (minicars) fell 30.8% to 133,596 units. Production of minicars was down 7.8% to 98,805 units.

Passenger car exports were down 64.4% to 184,548 units.

May 30, 2009 in Brief | Permalink | Comments (15) | TrackBack

Fuji Heavy To Start Selling Diesels In Japan In 2011

Nikkei. Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd., the maker of Subarus, is planning to introduce diesel light-duty vehicles in the Japan market as early as 2011.

The automaker will introduce passenger cars powered by a diesel version of its unique boxer engine, aiming to develop diesel models of its existing car lines. Tougher environmental regulations for nitrogen oxides and particulate matter in vehicle exhaust are set to be implemented in Japan from 2010. Fuji Heavy hopes to improve the diesel engines already in use in Europe to meet the new domestic regulations.

In the eco-car segment, the company will begin leasing the plug-in Stella electric car to corporate users in July. With the help of Toyota Motor Corp., it plans to release hybrid vehicles early in the next decade.

FHI has been introduced diesel versions of the Legacy, Forester and Impreza in Europe since 2008; cumulative sales reached 30,000 units at the end of April. The diesel Legacy accounts for 54.1% of the model’s sales in Europe.

May 30, 2009 in Brief | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

Magna to Acquire Opel

BBC. The German government has agreed to Magna International acquiring Opel from GM. The deal was announced early Saturday morning in Berlin by Germany’s finance minister.

The German government is expected to provide an immediate loan facility of 1.5bn euros ($2.1bn, £1.3bn). But 2,500 jobs in Germany could be lost and a UK minister has accepted “there is excess capacity” in GM’s operations.

Finance Minister Peer Steinbrueck told journalists outside the chancellery shortly after 0200 local time on Saturday that a deal had been agreed. “A solution has been found to keep Opel running,” said Mr Steinbrueck, after six hours of talks between German politicians, US government officials and executives from GM and Magna.

Although details of the final deal have not been release, some of the terms reportedly include:

  • GM operations in Europe will be placed under the care of a trustee to shield them from GM&rsqou;s anticipated filing for bankruptcy protection early next week.

  • Magna, backed by a Russian bank Sberbank and truckmaker Gaz, has said it will put more than €500 million ($700m; £435m) into Opel which employs more than 25,000 people in Germany.

  • Before the announcement of the deal Magna said it planned to cut about 10% of Opel’s workforce in that country. Fiat had said it would cut 10,000 jobs.

  • GM may keep a 35% stake in the company, while 10% would be owned by Opel employees.

May 30, 2009 in Brief | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

May 29, 2009

Ford Team Given 2009 National Inventor of the Year Award for Plasma Transferred Wire Arc Engine Coating Technology

Application of PTWA Coating to Ford ZETEC 1.4 Liter VCT Engine. Click to enlarge.

The Intellectual Property Owners Education Foundation is awarding the inventors of the Ford-patented Plasma Transferred Wire Arc (PTWA) technology used to apply coatings on engine cylinder bores the 2009 National Inventor of the Year Award. Ford presented a paper on PTWA at the SAE 2008 World Congress. (Earlier post.)

Ford’s PTWA thermal spray coating process for aluminum engine blocks replaces heavy cast iron liners, thereby improving fuel efficiency by reducing engine weight and internal piston friction losses. Ford has 95 issued and pending patents related to the new PTWA coating technology and will introduce it on its North American powertrain lineup within the next year.

A PTWA-applied cylinder coating. Click to enlarge.

While an aluminum engine block offers a substantial weight savings to a vehicle, most aluminum engines require heavy cast iron liners because of aluminum’s low wear resistance, somewhat offsetting the block’s initial leaner weight.

The PTWA process, developed by Ford in collaboration with Flame-Spray Industries, replaces these heavy liners with a low-friction, wear-resistant coating that makes the engine lighter and more efficient. The plasma-sprayed coating offers several advantages, including:

  • Engine weight reductions—the coating can reduce the weight of a V-6 engine, for instance, by approximately six pounds.
  • Reduced friction between the piston rings and cylinder bore, which has been shown to deliver measurable friction reduction.
  • Improved oil and fuel economy.
  • Improved engine performance due to better heat management.

In addition, the PTWA coating process has been used to recycle damaged and worn aluminum and cast iron engine blocks by applying the wear-resistant coating to the cylinder bore surface. Remanufacturing engines using the PTWA process requires 50% to 80% less energy to produce compared with a new manufactured engine block.

Thermal spray coatings have been used for years in the aerospace industry for increasing the durability and performance of aircraft turbine engines. Ford researchers began collaborating with Flame-Spray Industries and other suppliers in the 1990s to transfer this efficient, lightweight aerospace technology to a low-cost, high-volume application suitable for the auto industry. One of the challenges was to create a robust coating applicator since commonly-used thermal spray devices were not capable of coating cylinder bores of automotive engine blocks.

The innovative PTWA spray torch technology was a significant enabler of making this high-volume coating process more reliable for automotive applications, while offering the economies of scale for low-cost coating of engine cylinder bores.

May 29, 2009 in Engines | Permalink | Comments (3) | TrackBack

USGS CARA Concludes 13% of World’s Undiscovered Oil, 30% of Undiscovered Gas in the Arctic

Map of the assessment units (AUs) of the CARA is color-coded for mean estimated undiscovered oil. Only areas north of the Arctic Circle are included in the estimates. Black lines indicate AU boundaries. Source: USGS CARA. Click to enlarge.

The US Geological Survey (USGS) has completed a geologically-based assessment of the oil and gas resource potential of the Arctic, the Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA). (Earlier post.) The researchers in the effort concluded that about 13% of the world’s undiscovered oil and 30% of the world’s undiscovered gas may be found there, mostly offshore under less than 500 meters of water. A paper on the work was published in the 29 May issue of the journal Science.

Undiscovered natural gas is three times more abundant than oil in the Arctic and is largely concentrated in Russia, the researchers concluded. Oil resources, although important to the interests of Arctic countries, are probably not sufficient to substantially shift the current geographic pattern of world oil production, they said.

The Arctic Circle encompasses 6% of Earth’s surface. One-third of that area is above sea level, one-third is in continental shelves beneath less than 500 m of water, and the final third is deep ocean basins historically covered by sea ice.

Many onshore areas have already been explored; by 2007, more than 400 oil and gas fields, containing 40 billion barrels of oil (BBO), 1,136 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of natural gas, and 8 billion barrels of natural gas liquids had been developed north of the Arctic Circle, mostly in the West Siberian Basin of Russia and on the North Slope of Alaska.

Deep oceanic basins have relatively low petroleum potential, but the Arctic continental shelves constitute one of the world’s largest remaining prospective areas. Until now, remoteness and technical difficulty, coupled with abundant low-cost petroleum, have ensured that little exploration occurred offshore. Even where offshore wells have been drilled, in the Mackenzie Delta, the Barents Sea, the Sverdrup Basin, and offshore Alaska, most resulting discoveries remain undeveloped.

—Gautier et al.
Map showing the AUs of the CARA color-coded for mean estimated undiscovered gas. Source: USGS CARA. Click to enlarge.

The CARA only considered accumulations with recoverable hydrocarbon volumes larger than 50 million barrels of oil or 300 billion cubic feet of gas (50 million barrels of oil equivalent, 50 MMBOE). The project excluded unconventional resources such as coal bed methane, gas hydrates, oil shales, and heavy oil and tar sands. The project did not consider technological and economic risks; resources were assumed to be recoverable even in the presence of sea ice or oceanic water depths.

A new map delineating the Arctic sedimentary successions by age, thickness, and structural and tectonic setting provided the basis for defining assessment units (AUs), which are mappable volumes of sedimentary rocks that share similar geological properties. The CARA defined 69 AUs, each containing more than 3 km of sedimentary strata—the minimum thickness necessary to bury petroleum source rocks sufficiently to generate significant petroleum. The CARA team analyzed each Arctic AU to determine the geologic properties most likely to control the sizes and numbers of undiscovered petroleum accumulations.

On an energy-equivalent basis, we estimate that the Arctic contains more than three times as much undiscovered gas as oil. The estimated largest undiscovered gas accumulation is almost eight times the estimated size of the largest undiscovered oil accumulation (22.5 BBOE versus 2.9 BBO) and therefore more likely to be developed. The aggregated results suggest there is a high probability (>95% chance) that more than 770 TCF of gas occurs north of the Arctic Circle, a one in two chance (50%) that more than 1547 TCF may be found, and a 1 in 20 chance (5%) that as much as 2990 TCF could be added to proved reserves from new discoveries. For comparison, current world gas consumption is almost 110 TCF per year. The median estimate of undiscovered gas is a volume larger than the volume of total gas so far discovered in the Arctic and represents about 30% of global undiscovered conventional gas.

—Gautier et al.
Estimated undiscovered oil resources, in billion barrels of oil, north of the Arctic Circle in the AUs. Vertical lines indicate the range of estimated oil resources from a 5% probability to a 95% probability. Horizontal lines correspond to mean estimated oil volumes. Source: USGS CARA Click to enlarge.

Overall, the CARA team concluded that the Arctic region contains 22.8 billion barrels of oil with 95% probability, 275 billion barrels of oil with 5% probability, and 95.5 billion barrels of oil with mean probability.

The CARA team concluded that the largest total concentration of petroleum was in the Alaskan Platform (AU code AA1), with a 95% probability of 13.866 billion barrels, a 5% probability of 47.426 billion barrels, and a mean probability of 27.851 billion barrels of oil. The largest single concentration was estimated to be 4.288 billion barrels (mean) in the North Barents basin (EBB3).


  • Donald L. Gautier et al. (2009) Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the Arctic. Science Vol. 324. no. 5931, pp. 1175 - 1179 doi: 10.1126/science.1169467

May 29, 2009 in Natural Gas, Oil, Polar | Permalink | Comments (20) | TrackBack

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