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Peugeot’s Diesel 3008 Hybrid4

24 August 2010

3008hybrid4b
Peugeot’s 3008 Hybrid4. Click to enlarge.

Peugeot has provided more details on its diesel 3008 Hybrid4, due to go onsale in Europe in the spring of 2011. (Earlier post.) The hybrid crossover, to be produced in France (in Sochaux and Mulhouse), will be the first full hybrid diesel to hit the market.

The 3008 HYbrid4 is powered by a 2.0-liter HDi FAP 120 kW (163 bhp) diesel engine with an electric motor offering a maximum power output of 27 kW (37 bhp). A maximum torque of 500 N·m (369 lb-ft) is available, split 300 N·m (221 lb-ft) at the front from the HDi diesel engine and a maximum of 200 N·m (148 lb-ft) at the rear generated by the electric motor.

The design of the powertrain (engine powering the front wheels, motor powering the rear) enables 4-wheel drive, an all-electric mode, and fuel consumption of 3.8 litres/100 km (62 mpg US), with 99 g/km of CO2. On higher specification versions, emissions can rise to 104 or 108 g/km of CO2 in the combined cycle.

A selection knob on the center console enables the driver to choose between four different operating modes:

  • “Auto” mode: the electronics automatically control the entire system, including transitions between the HDi diesel engine and the electric motor. This allows optimal driving with a mix of low fuel consumption and dynamic driveability.

  • “ZEV” mode (Zero Emission Vehicle) provides access to an all-electric mode. In this case, activation of the HDi diesel engine is programmed to coincide with more sustained phases of acceleration. This requires the high-voltage batteries to be sufficiently charged. The vehicle then becomes a “city run-around” par excel

  • Four-wheel drive mode (4WD) instructs both power trains to operate together as far as possible; the rear wheels are then driven by the electric motor and the front wheels by the HDi diesel engine.

  • “Sport” mode favours quicker gear changes at higher engine speeds than normal mode.

Components of the powertrain include:

  • The 2.0 litre HDi FAP 120 kW (163 bhp) diesel engine. With a capacity of 1997 cm³, this Euro 5 engine develops a maximum power of 120 kW at 3750 rpm and a maximum torque of 300 Nm at 1580 rpm. It uses the latest generation ECCS (Extreme Conventional Combustion System) combustion chamber design, a variable-geometry low-inertia turbocharger, a high-pressure injection pump allowing a maximum pressure of 2000 bar in the common rail and solenoid injectors with eight apertures. This is combined with the latest generation “octosquare” Eolys additive-enhanced particulate emission filter (FAP) system.

  • Electronically-controlled 6-speed manual gearbox (BMP6). The HDi diesel engine is linked to an electronically controlled manual six-speed sequential gearbox. Its electronic control enables significant savings in fuel consumption in automatic mode compared to a traditional automatic gearbox or even a traditional manual gearbox. With HYbrid4 technology, the rear electric motor becomes active during gear changes. This results in smooth gear changes for optimum comfort.

  • Latest-generation STOP & START system. This system places the HDi diesel engine in standby when the vehicle is at a standstill (at traffic lights, a stop sign or in a traffic jam, etc) and when the vehicle is being driven in electric mode. This high voltage STOP & START system with 8 kW output can also generate the electricity needed for operation of the electric motor under all circumstances if required (four wheel drive mode).

  • Rear suspension. The rear electric module, transferable across several different platforms, comprises a multiarm rear suspension within which are housed the electric motor and the reduction gearbox. In terms of vehicle dynamics, the ESP of the 3008 HYbrid4 incorporates an improved traction control system (ASR) able to exploit the car’s four wheel drive capabilities to the full on challenging surfaces.

  • Electric motor. The synchronous permanent magnet electric motor, located at the rear of the vehicle, provides a constant 20 kW (27 bhp), and has a peak output of 27 kW (37 bhp). It generates a constant torque of 100 Nm, or a peak of 200 Nm.

  • PTMU (Power Train Management Unit). The PTMU is an electronic controller that automatically manages the different operating modes of the HDi diesel engine. An inverter and a converter are used to control the electric power. The inverter controls the torque of the electric motor by regulating the current from the high voltage battery pack. This operates in a voltage range of between 150 and 270 volts. The converter converts the 200 volts from the high-voltage battery pack into 12 volts to supply the vehicle’s onboard systems. On the 3008 HYbrid4, these components have been made as small as possible to optimize the installation in the vehicle.

  • High-voltage NiMH battery pack. The NiMH batteries are located under the trunk sill, near the electric motor. This high-voltage battery pack comes in addition to the standard 12V battery under the bonnet, which carries on performing its normal duties. In the medium term, Peugeot notes, this battery technology remains the most appropriate in terms of cost and industrialization for vehicles produced in large volumes.

  • Energy recovery. An energy recovery system enables kinetic energy to be transformed into electrical energy to recharge the NiMH batteries during deceleration (release of the accelerator and braking).

To develop its HYbrid4 technology, the PSA Peugeot Citroën Group teamed with Bosch on the electric motor, the power electronics, the reversible high-voltage alternator (STT) and other systems managing the dialogue between these components and the braking and trajectory correction systems (ABS and ESP). Sanyo is the provider of the NiMH batteries.

August 24, 2010 in Diesel, Hybrids | Permalink | Comments (18) | TrackBack (0)

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Comments

'On higher specification versions, emissions can rise to 104 or 108 g/km of CO2 in the combined cycle.'

?? I thought the 2.0 litre HDI was the top spec. Anyone got any idea what they are talking about?

@Dave
The higher specifications may include chunkier tires (it is a crossover, not just a HEV).
The performance (99gms/km) is not great for a diesel hybrid, but then it may be quite a large vehicle, and it is their first attempt to sell one.
I wonder how much it will cost, and what its performance will be.

Nonetheless, I welcome hybrid diesels as they should yield lower NOX ad particulate pollution in urban areas.

The question is will anyone be able to afford them.

Whoa, we're talking expensive. Two separate, complete drivetrains. Two electric machines. Battery pack. Power electronics. Not exactly elegant.

I dunno...elegant enough for me. It aint going to be a $41K Volt. And its probably the simplest way to get all-wheel drive when needed. If it starts at $22-25K, thered be a lot of interest.

A total 200 hp and 63 mpg is interesting, but at what price.

There could be manufacturing flexibility, like dropping the electric part or all electric with more batteries in place of the engine.

For those who do not need 4WD and want a little lower price tag and a lighter vehicle, the 27-kW electric motor can be mounted where the transmission clutch or torque converter normally is.
Only two-speed planetary transmission will be needed for 3rd and 4th gears, or for 4th and 5th gears, since at slow speeds, the combination of generator and motor in serial connection can simulate low gears. At cruise speed, the engine is clutched to the transmission, similar to the torque-converter lock-up clutch in an automatic tranny, to prevent electrical loss.

MahonJ and Kelly,

the 3008 is already on sale in Australia, but evidently not in the US. It is being sold with petrol and diesel options. The hybrid must be coming later. It is definitely in the compact SUV class. Too small for my family, not that I would buy an SUV anyway due to the inherent inefficiencies associated with the shape and extra weight.

I'm not believing 63 mpg. Not until they explain how they calculate it, and whether they're assuming fully charged battery distance added to 1 gallon of diesel distance.

It sounds like the Electric motor is soley for low-speed torque and regenerative braking.

@fred: 3008 pricing starts @ 16,000 pounds sterling (equivalent to about $25K at today's exchange rate). That would no doubt be for the cheapest, bare-bones model. I'm guessing this upscale hybrid model might compete with Chevy Volt pricing if it ever makes it to these shores.

I admit it's kinda cool, but it just seems over the top to me. They even added an electric machine to the front drive train, negating much of the appeal of the through-the-road hybrid model (namely, requiring minimal changes to the ICE end of the car).

@Roger: Sounds like you're proposing essentially a diesel Prius drivetrain with a lock up CVT, which is pretty far from this concept. Not that that's a bad idea...

@Nick Lyons,
Yes, 1st and 2nd gears are simulated by the serial electric generator to motor. At the point for shifting to 3rd gear, a clutch will connect the engine mechanically to the motor and transmission for direct torque transfer. 4th gear is done by the two-speed planetary gear set, which has various clutches and band to accomplish all the above. Reverse gear is done by reversing the motor direction without requiring any reversing gearing. This set up reduces the cost and weight of a torque converter and multiples other transmission gear stages, which can partially offset the cost and weight of the electric drive train and battery, as well as reducing the friction as inherent in much more complex transmission units.

At low speed and low power requirement, the engine still can run at its optimal speed and load by both provide electrical power to the motor AND charging the battery. Then, once the battery is charged, the engine is shut off, and the vehicle is on full electric mode powered by the battery alone.

The advantage of having a mechanical 3rd and 4th gear over that of the Prius HSD that has no mechanical fixed gear ratio is that you can pull trailer with it without overheating the electric motor/generators, by cruising in the 3rd gear. In the Prius, trailer towing is not recommended.

They're using the Sanyo rather than the Panasonic NiMH batteries - will they have the battery failure problems of the recent Honda Civic Hybrid?

I'd say "Expensive by design".

In addition to battery, rear e-motor may take up a lot of cargo space. Other hybrids usually install e-motor under the hood.

... With HYbrid4 technology, the rear electric motor becomes active during gear changes. This results in smooth gear changes for optimum comfort.

It's torque-fill feature. Ford patented similar thing, with motor driving the same wheels as ICE. It's helpful in low-speed off-road driving (especially climbing), on road it's more for comfort.
Wondering if when driver/system changes gear in a corner on a slippery surface, then suddenly system activates rear wheels during the shift, can it help destabilize the car (its rear end)?
Hopefully stability control system takes care of all possibilities.

@ Roger,

If you'd use such system w/ two-speed transmission (3rd and 4th or 4th and 5th), what gear ratio between them would be appropriate to make it a practical and economical vehicle?

If instead of two, you'd use 3 gears, how much would it increase the price (in %)?

the auris hybrid of toyota do 75 mpg, and is cheaper
18k .

This type of configuration (standard front end ICE drive + added rear end e-drive) could use a smaller ICE and lend itself to multi-national upgrade programs of most existing front drive ICE vehicles.

Upgrading exiting ICE vehicles to 4WD PHEVs could cost about $15K each but as little as $7K when local/national incentive programs are considered.

When done at the factory during new car assembly it should not cost much more than $10K, i.e. about $2K for buyers when incentives are fully considered.

Who would object to pay an extra $2K for 4WD and 63 mpg?

@MG,
Because of the electric boost ability, a wider ratio like 1:2 would give faster acceleration when using a smaller generator-motor set (to cut cost). However, a 1:1.7 or less is more practical when using planetary gear set, and would do just fine.
Adding another gear, like a 3-speed transmission, would necessitate another planetary gear stage and a whole host of clutches, band, and actuator, and may increase
the cost by as much as $500-$1000 USD.

The two-speed transmission solution would not give quite as fast slow-speed acceleration like the Peugeot's 6-speed plus a separate drive axle, but, usually, slow-speed acceleration takes proportionally little time in comparison to acceleration at higher speeds, such that 0-60 time won't be affected by much, perhaps 1/2 a second slower, but for a lot less cost.

6-speed close-ratio tranny is great for non-hybrid, but in a full HEV with decent battery and motor that can provide power boost at high gear, there is little need for the extra complication. Plus, the diesel engine provides a lot of torque at cruise rpm, and this engine is quite powerful for the size of the car, making close-ratio tranny less necessary.

Roger, thanks for the explanation.

BTW, big trucks use low-range/high-range gears switch that is IMO a two-speed transmission.

Is that also planetary type you suggested, and could it be used (if different) for hybrids (passenger cars)?

You talk about $25K but it's far from that in europe ! In France the estimation is 35500 € that means about $45K !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Not the same business

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