August 31, 2011
DOE awarding up to $12M to three projects to support development and production of drop-in biofuels
The US Department of Energy (DOE) is awarding up to $12 million to fund three small-scale projects in Illinois, Wisconsin, and North Carolina that aim to commercialize novel conversion technologies to accelerate the development of advanced, drop-in biofuels and other valuable bio-based chemicals.
Using innovative thermochemical processes, the projects seek to improve the economics and efficiency of turning biomass into replacements for petroleum-based gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and other products. Thermochemical processes use heat and catalysts to convert biomass, in a controlled industrial environment, into liquid and gaseous intermediates—or substances formed as a necessary stage in manufacturing an end product—which can then be chemically converted into fuels and other products.
The new funding will further diversify DOE’s research and development portfolio in a breadth of fuels and chemicals derived from domestic cellulosic biomass, such as grasses, wood, and agricultural residue. The following projects were selected:
LanzaTech of Roselle, Illinois will receive up to $4 million to develop a cost-effective technology that converts biomass-derived ethanol into jet fuel using catalysts. (Earlier post.) It will also produce a valuable bio-product called butadiene that could be used to improve the overall economics of the fuel production process. (Earlier post.) The objective of the project is to integrate and optimize process steps to drive down the price of biomass-derived jet fuel.
Research Triangle Institute of Research Triangle Park, North Carolina will receive up to $4 million to integrate two processes: a thermochemical process that produces a bio-crude intermediate from biomass, and a hydroprocessing technology that effectively and efficiently upgrades the bio-crude into gasoline and diesel. The project will demonstrate the long-term operation and performance of this integrated process with the goals of lowering costs and maximizing yields.
Virent Energy Systems, Inc. of Madison, Wisconsin will receive up to $4 million to convert biomass into oxygenated chemical intermediates using an innovative thermochemical technology and upgrade the intermediates to a hydrocarbon, which can then be refined and blended into gasoline and jet fuel, as well as high value chemicals. Project objectives include demonstrating high yields of drop-in fuels and chemicals, confirming that this new process is viable and ready for scale-up, and gaining sufficient knowledge to design a larger-scale facility.
Virent recently completed a successful road test of its biogasoline in Europe. (Earlier post.)
Reaction Design optimizes CHEMKIN-CFD for ANSYS FLUENT 13
Reaction Design, a leading developer of combustion simulation software, announced that the CHEMKIN-CFD module for simulating detailed chemistry in multi-dimensional reacting flows is now optimized for use with ANSYS FLUENT 13. CHEMKIN-CFD is used by more than 100 organizations worldwide and is available to ANSYS FLUENT licensees at no charge.
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an integral part of the design process in applications that involve chemically reacting flows, but incorporation of detailed chemistry into simulations has been limited due to the computational speed and robustness of the conventional chemistry solvers available in today’s CFD packages.
CHEMKIN-CFD addresses the problem of the computational stiffness of CFD by both employing proprietary solution algorithms that speed time-to-solution and coupling the chemistry and the flow. In addition, it provides solution stability in situations where traditional CFD approaches lack accurate chemistry and are limiting the usefulness of results.
Based on the proven chemistry solving power of CHEMKIN-PRO technology, CHEMKIN-CFD features an advanced chemistry simulation methodology that efficiently and robustly couples accurate chemical kinetics to flow simulations. CHEMKIN-CFD for ANSYS FLUENT 13 supports both serial and parallel operation and, in addition to working with the Laminar/Finite-Rate option when solving for gas-phase chemistry, it also supports the FLUENT EDC turbulent-kinetics interaction model.
The EDC model provides support for turbulence-chemistry interactions with detailed chemical reaction mechanisms. Once installed, CHEMKIN-CFD can be invoked from a menu option in ANSYS FLUENT.
The energy, transportation, and materials processing sectors are expanding into new frontiers, which often include challenges such as extreme environments, or radical changes in the scale of operations. Standard analysis methods do not demonstrate the effects of these changes with sufficient resolution. There is an increasing need for accurate simulation that supports higher complexity and greater chemistry detail. When incorporated into design workflows, CHEMKIN-CFD allows ANSYS FLUENT 13 users to enhance products, reduce development costs, and improve speed to market.—Bernie Rosenthal, CEO of Reaction Design
Study finds tailor-made fuels from biomass could significantly reduce emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases
|Optimized fuel properties with regard to different emissions Janssen et al. Click to enlarge.|
Tailor-made fuels from biomass have the potential to reduce emissions of criteria pollutants as well as greenhouse gases significantly in low temperature diesel combustion, according to a new open access study by a team from the Institutes for Combustion Engines and for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University (Germany) published in the ACS journal Energy & Fuels.
The beneficial effect of modern, tailored biofuels in mobile applications is directly related to the molecular structure of the biofuel as a product of an optimized production process, Janssen et al. note. In the study, they identify desirable fuel characteristics and define optimized biofuel components using a model-based analysis. Among their general conclusions:
Generally, a tailor-made fuel should have a low critical air / fuel ratio. This implies the fuel molecule should consist of a simple chain, without double bonds or ring structures and should be oxygenated. Thus, soot emissions can be reduced significantly while HC and CO emissions are not negatively affected.
In order to reduce HC and CO emissions at low engine loads, fuels with a shorter ignition delay are appropriate. In contradiction to that, the fuel should have a longer ignition delay at high engine load, where particulate matter emissions become a dominant role.
With a mixture of 70 % 2-methyltetrahydrofurane (2-MTHF) and 30 % di-n-butylether it was possible to identify a tailor-made fuel that meets the defined requirements at high part-load points. With this fuel blend, particle emissions can be avoided almost entirely even at greatest EGR rates. Disadvantages are slightly higher noise, HC, and CO emissions at lower part load.
(2-MTHF can be synthesized via molecular transformation of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone and 1,4-pentanediol—i.e., it can be produced from biomass.)
|Methods of converting new types of biofuels in the TMFB Cluster of Excellence. Janssen et al. Click to enlarge.|
For the first part of the study, they carried out a literature survey focusing on the impact of cetane number, boiling characteristics, aromatic and oxygen content on the diesel combustion process, and analyzing combustion behavior, engine efficiency and emission performance. From this, they conducted a model-based analysis of desired fuel properties using a database with 34 different fuels (both single molecules and fuel mixtures).
The fuels covered a wide range of different fuel properties:
- Cetane number from 30 to 70
- Temperature, where 50 % of the fuel volume is vaporized (T50 %), from 100 to 250°C
- Aromatic content from 0 to 30 %
- Oxygen content from 0 to 10 %
|Investigated load points. Janssen et al. Click to enlarge.|
All fuels were analyzed in four load points, three of which are within the NEDC range for an inertia weight class of 1590 kg, the fourth being of interest for future downsizing concepts.
All fuels were analyzed with a single injection and at a constant center of combustion which was chosen differently for the respective load points, with the start of injection was adjusted for each case accordingly. The tolerance for the center of combustion is +/- 0.1°CA. The constant ISNOx (indicated specific NOx emissions ) level was obtained by adjusting the EGR rate accordingly. The other calibration parameters such as intake manifold pressure, fuel injection pressure, and charge air temperature had been optimized in earlier studies for a realistic 4-cylinder engine with a two-stage boosting device, all in compliance with Euro 6.
From this work, they chose 2-Methyltetrahydrofurane (2-MTHF) to be investigated in the engine. Since the self-ignition properties of 2-MTHF did not fit all the requirements, they used a blend component. Since generally ether molecules show high self-ignitability, they selected di-n-butylether and blended it 30 % by volume to design fuel that met the defined requirements.
The single-cylinder engine used for the diesel engine tests had a swept volume of 0.39L. A compression ratio of 15:1 was used to keep the NOx emissions low in spite of increased charge density, following typical Euro 6 development strategies. The combustion system reached a specific output of 80 kW/L at maximum peak firing pressures of 220 bar. A
A common rail system with a maximum fuel injection pressure of 2000 bar was used as injection system. To optimize the flow characteristics, one intake port was designed as a filling port, the second one as a classic swirl port.
To optimize the flow characteristics, one intake port was designed as a filling port, the second one as a classic swirl port. Creating charge movement was supported by seat swirl chamfers on both intake valves. The combustion chamber geometry was designed with a conventional recess shape which was further optimized together with the nozzle geometry (8-hole, ks = 1.5) in order to achieve the best possible air utilization. The low compression ratio of 15:1, early injection and high injection pressures as well as improved EGR cooling held particulates down, with the engine meeting Euro 6 standards.
This work was performed as part of the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass”, which is funded by the Excellence Initiative by the German federal and state governments to promote science and research at German universities.
Andreas Johannes Janssen, Florian Werner Kremer, Jan Henning Baron, Martin Muether, Stefan Pischinger, and Jürgen Klankermayer (2011) Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass for Homogeneous Low Temperature Diesel Combustion. Energy Fuels doi: 10.1021/ef2010139
McMaster University receives nearly $2.2M for oil sands tailings research
Researchers at McMaster have received nearly C$2.2 million (US 2.25 million) to examine environmental processes in Alberta’ oil sands which could help speed up the land reclamation process for Syncrude.
The project team, led by Lesley Warren, a professor in the School of Geography & Earth Sciences, was recruited by Syncrude Canada Ltd. to investigate bacterial sulfur reactions occurring in its composite tailings. Composite tailings are the byproduct of the surface mined oil sand extraction process. They are high in alkalinity and salinity, and extremely low in organic matter.
Syncrude will invest more than $1.14-million over the three-year research project, with an additional $1.05-million from a Collaborative Research & Development grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC).
We are examining the biogeochemistry of the composite tailings, or more specifically, the role of bacteria in sulfur cycling. The sulfur reactions occurring in the deposits cannot be explained solely by chemical reactions, so we need to understand the whole process better and determine how bacteria are driving the reactions.—Lesley Warren
The research is critical to Syncrude because the company is in the process of creating a pilot 17-hectare fen wetland, as well as its 50 ha watershed, as part of oil sands reclamation of a former mine at Mildred Lake, north of Fort McMurray. The pilot fen will be established by placing peat, as well as plant and tree material recovered from future mining areas, over composite tailings and sand.
The research team will also include Brian McCarry, professor and Chair of the Department of Chemistry, and Greg Slater, associate professor in the School of Geography & Earth Sciences and up to 16 graduate and undergraduate students, post- doctoral fellows and research technicians.
NIST team reports that iron-doped magnesium shows promise for on-board hydrogen storage
A team from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) reports that with appropriate levels of iron (Fe) doping, magnesium (Mg) can rapidly and reversibly absorb up to 7 mass fraction (%) hydrogen at moderate temperatures and pressures useful for hydrogen storage applications. A paper on their findings is published in the International Journal of Hydrogen Energy.
Grains of pure magnesium are reasonably effective at absorbing hydrogen gas, but only at unacceptably high temperatures and pressures can they store enough hydrogen to power a car for a few hundred kilometers. A practical material would need to hold at least 6% of its own weight in hydrogen gas and be able to be charged safely with hydrogen in the same amount of time as required to fill a car with gasoline today.
Powder grains made of iron-doped magnesium can get saturated with hydrogen within 60 seconds, and they can do so at only 150 degrees Celsius and fairly low pressure, which are key factors for safety in commercial vehicles.—Leo Bendersky, NIST materials scientist
The NIST team used a new measurement technique they devised that uses infrared light to explore what would happen if the magnesium were evaporated and mixed together with small quantities of other metals to form fine-scale mixtures. The team found that iron formed capillary-like channels within the grains, creating passageways for hydrogen transport within the metal grains that allow hydrogen to be drawn inside extremely quickly.
Hydrogenation kinetics and thermodynamics of Mg–4Fe at.% (+/− 1 at.%) thin films capped with Pd at temperatures ranging from 363 K to 423 K were studied by a number of different methods: in situ infrared imaging, volumetric pressure-composition isotherm (PCI) measurements, and ex situ X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The hydride growth rate was determined by utilizing wedge-shaped films and infrared imaging; assuming formation of a continuous hydride layer, the growth rate was found to range from ≈3.8 nm/s at lower temperature to ≈36.7 nm/s at higher temperature.
The apparent activation energy of the thermally activated hydrogenation kinetics was measured to be 56 kJ/mol; this value suggests that at low temperatures hydrogen diffusion along grain boundaries of MgH2 is the mechanism controlling the hydride layer growth. Reproducible PCI measurements of 600 nm-thick uniform films showed a pressure plateau and large hysteresis; from these measurements enthalpy and entropy were estimated as 66.9 kJ/mol and 0.102 kJ/(mol*K), respectively, which are both slightly less than values for pure magnesium (as either films or bulk).
The extremely rapid and cyclable kinetics of Mg-4 at.% Fe films suggest that properly grown Mg–Fe powders of 1–2 μm size can be fully charged with hydrogen within 1 min at temperature near 150 °C (423 K), with possible practical hydrogen storage applications.—Tan et al.
Bendersky adds that the measurement technique could be valuable more generally, as it can reveal details of how a material absorbs hydrogen more effectively than the more commonly employed technique of X-ray diffraction—a method that is limited to analyzing a material's averaged properties.
Z. Tan, C. Chiu, E.J. Heilweil and L.A. Bendersky (2011) Thermodynamics, kinetics and microstructural evolution during hydrogenation of iron-doped magnesium this films. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 36, pp. 9702-9713, doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.04.196
California gasoline consumption down 4.1% in May; price per gallon up 35%
California gasoline consumption declined 4.1% in May compared to May last year, marking the second consecutive month of declines at equal to or more than 4%, according to figures from the California State Board of Equalization (BOE).
In California, gasoline consumption in May 2011 was down to 1.24 billion gallons compared to May 2010’s total of 1.29 billion gallons. The California average price for a gallon of gasoline was up $1.09 to $4.23 in May 2011, a 35% increase over May 2010’s average price of $3.14 per gallon. The national average price of a gallon of gasoline rose $1.07 to $3.96 in May 2011, a 37% increase over May 2010’s national average price of $2.89 for a gallon of gasoline.
California’s diesel fuel consumption figures for May 2011 show an increase of 4% to 213 million gallons compared to May 2010’s total of 205 million gallons. However, the May 2010 diesel figures included 13.2 million in refunds. After adjusting for the refunds, diesel consumption decreased 2.6% in May 2011.
The California average price for a gallon of diesel was up $1.15 to $4.36 in May 2011, a 36% increase over May 2010’s average price of $3.21 per gallon of diesel. Nationally, the average price for a gallon of diesel rose 98 cents to $4.05 in May 2011, a 32% increase over May 2010’s national average price of $3.07 per gallon of diesel.
Gasoline and diesel fuel figures are net consumption that includes the State Board of Equalization’s audit assessments, refunds, amended and late tax returns and the State Controller’s Office refunds. The BOE is able to monitor gallons through tax receipts paid by fuel distributors in California.
New Audi S models to feature new downsized 4.0L V8 with cylinder deactivation, energy recuperation and start-stop
Audi will present its new S models for the first time at the 2011 Frankfurt Auto Show (IAA). The new S6, S7 and S8 feature a new 4.0L TFSI V8 with cylinder deactivation (cylinder-on-demand), energy recuperation and start-stop system). This is a downsized platform from the prior 5.2L naturally aspirated V10.
The S6 and S6 Avant use the 309 kW (420 hp) version of the new 4.0 TFSI. The twin-turbo V8 provides a constant 550 N·m (406 lb-ft) of torque from 1,400 to 5,300 rpm. It accelerates the S6 from 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) in 4.8 seconds and the S6 Avant in 4.9 seconds. Both models have an electronically governed top speed of 250 km/h (155 mph).
Compared to the 5.2L V10 engine in the previous model, the 4.0L turbo reduces fuel consumption by as much as 25% percent. Average fuel consumption is 9.7 liters per 100 km (24.3 mpg US) in the S6 and 9.8 liters (24.0 mpg US) in the S6 Avant.
A number of technologies contribute to this top result, including the energy recuperation and start-stop systems as well as the new cylinder-on-demand cylinder management system. When the V8 deactivates four cylinders under part load, the Active Noise Cancellation system (ANC) is activated. Four microphones integrated into the headlining record the noise in the cabin, which is then analyzed by a computer. If the computer detects intrusive sound elements, it broadcasts an antiphase sound through the speakers of the sound system. This sound combines with the intrusive sound and largely cancels it out.
Independent of this, active, electronically controlled engine bearings use targeted counterpulses to attenuate low-frequency vibrations. A sound actuator, flaps in the exhaust system, the engine shroud and a newly developed two-mass flywheel with a centrifugal force pendulum in the seven-speed S tronic also contribute to the sound and smoothness of the engine.
The Audi S7 uses the same engine as the S6 and S6 Avant, with fuel consumption of 9.7 liters of fuel per 100 km (24.25 mpg US). The S7 features a lightweight body of a hybrid aluminum construction, weighing roughly 15% less than a comparable all-steel body.
The Audi S8, which will be launched on the market in spring 2012, features a new 4.0 TFSI which generates 382 kW (520 hp) and delivers a constant 650 N·m (479 lb-ft) of torque to the crankshaft between 1,700 and 5,500 rpm. Acceleration from zero to 100 km/h (62 mph) takes 4.2 seconds, and top speed is electronically capped at 250 km/h (155 mph).
Fuel consumption averages 10.2 liters per 100 km (23.06 mpg US), a decrease of nearly 23% despite a 51 kW increase in output compared to the preceding 5.2L V10. The new S8 also features cylinder-on-demand, recuperation and start-stop systems.
Nanoslide twin-wire arc spraying moving from AMG to series-production Mercedes-Benz diesel engines; reduced friction and lower fuel consumption
|Nanoslide uses twin-wire arc spraying to melt iron/carbon wires and spray the material onto the internal cylinder wall. Final finishing resulting in a mirror-like surface with fine pores. Click to enlarge.|
After five years and use exclusively in AMG engines, twin-wire arc spraying technology will now also be used in the series production of Mercedes-Benz diesel engines to reduce friction and increase wear resistance. Mercedes-Benz was the developer of what is now known as Nanoslide technology.
The Nanoslide procedure melts wires of iron/carbon alloy in an electric arc; the melted material is deposited onto the cylinder wall by a gasflow as a layered, ultra-fine to nano-crystalline coating. The Nanoslide coating is then given an extremely smooth finish by a special honing process, after which it has a thickness of only 0.1 to 0.15 millimeters and has a mirror-like surface.
The honing process also exposes pores in the material which are able to retain oil and thereby ensure optimal lubrication of the piston assembly. The result is not only low friction, and therefore greatly reduced mechanical friction losses compared to grey cast-iron cylinder liners (up to 50%), but also extremely high wear resistance.
Other advantages include lower engine weight, less fuel consumption and lower emissions.
In July 2005 Mercedes-AMG GmbH presented a 6.3 L V8 which was the world’s first series production engine to feature cylinder walls with a twin-wire arc sprayed coating. Since 2006 this cutting-edge cylinder coating technology has been a key component of all 6.3-liter AMG engines. The procedure has proved highly successful in more than 75,000 high-performance AMG engines to date. The Nanoslide process involves numerous new inventions and ideas, and is protected by more than 90 patent families and over 40 patents.
Mercedes-Benz now is the first manufacturer to have further developed this technology for use in a V6 diesel engine.
Mercedes-Benz uses the collective term BlueEFFICIENCY to describe a range of different measures designed to reduce fuel consumption and emissions: sophisticated aerodynamics, weight-saving measures and intelligent control of ancillary units are a few examples. Nanoslide now becomes part of the BlueEFFICIENCY portfolio.
Nanoslide reduces the engine weight by 4.3 kilograms compared to the preceding engine, and brings an additional fuel saving of 3%. The V6 diesel engine in the ML 350 BlueTEC, for example, develops an output of 190 kW (258 hp) from a displacement of 2987 cc, and generates 620 N·m (457 lb-ft) of torque. With BlueTEC with AdBlue exhaust treatment, this M-Class model already meets the emission values planned for 2014 in accordance with the Euro-6 standard. With a combined consumption of 6.8 liters of diesel per 100 kilometers (35 mpg US), the ML 350 BlueTEC improves on the figures of its predecessor by 2.1 liters, or 24%. CO2 emissions have dropped from 235 to 179 grams per kilometer, in part due to the new Nanoslide technology.
Volvo Buses developing a fast-charging plug-in hybrid bus; charging equipment at end stations of bus lines
Volvo Buses is currently developing a plug-in hybrid bus that can drive long distances silently and exhaust-free on only electricity. Three buses will be tested in Gothenburg, Sweden, supported by the European Union.
The plug-in hybrid bus, supported by authorities including the Swedish Energy Agency, is essentially the same Volvo hybrid bus as today (earlier post) but equipped with a large battery pack an on-board charging equipment.
The concept is based on placing battery charging stations at the end stations of the bus lines. By charging the battery there for five to ten minutes, it could significantly extend the time that the bus is able to operate only on electricity.
(In April, a collaboration between the companies Hybricon AB, Opbrid SL, e-Traction BV, Umeå Energi AB and the Umeå City Corporation began testing a fast rechargeable hybrid bus. The “Arctic Whisper’s” batteries will be fast charged by the Opbrid Bůsbaar (earlier post) for 5-10 minutes at the end of its route to achieve nearly 100% all-electric operation but with the reliability of diesel. Earlier post.)
This could support distances of up to 10 kilometers (6.2 miles). It can be controlled so that the bus operates on electricity in densely populated areas or in particularly sensitive environmental areas, while the diesel engine can be used on other parts of the route.
Volvo Buses expects to have a prototype bus ready for testing in 2011. The next step will be taken in autumn 2012, when a field test will commence in Gothenburg using three chargeable hybrid buses. The buses will be put in service with passengers.
The field test project will be implemented in cooperation with Business Region Göteborg, the Traffic Office inGothenburgCity, Västtrafik and Göteborgs Energi, which will be responsible for the charging stations. Last week, the project was granted a subsidy of €1.4 million (US$2 million) from the EU’s program that supports environmental ventures, Life+.
Volvo Buses has so far sold more than 250 conventional hybrid buses, which are reducing fuel consumption by up to 35%.
Siemens and Volvo Car Corporation launch electric mobility partnership
|The permanent magnet synchronous motor from Siemens has its first application in the Volvo C 30 Electric. Click to enlarge.|
Volvo Car Corporation and Siemens intend to jointly advance the technical development of electric cars through an extensive strategic cooperation. The focus is on the joint development of electrical drive technology, power electronics and charging technology as well as the integration of those systems into Volvo C30 Electric vehicles (earlier post).
The first electric cars of this model fitted with Siemens electric motors will be on the test tracks as early as the end of this year. Beginning in late 2012, the Swedish carmaker will deliver a test series of up to 200 vehicles to Siemens, which will then be tested and validated under real-life conditions as part of a Siemens internal test fleet.
|Drive and motor frame. Click to enlarge.|
Siemens is developing a scalable product family of permanent magnet and asynchronous motors for electric vehicles with continuous power rating from 30–80 kW. The Siemens electric motors developed for Volvo have a peak power output of 108 kW (62 kW continuous) with a rated torque of 119 N·m (88 lb-ft) and maximum torque of 220 N·m (162 lb-ft). The motor weighs 50 kg, and is packaged in a specially developed, crash-tested frame with the transmission—a compact, single-stage planetary gear from Getrag with differential and drive shaft through the hollow shaft—and inverter in front of the vehicle.
|The Siemens inverters for automotive applications are compatible with all permanent magnet and asynchronous motor types. They are scalable for different power classes up to 80 kW at 400 V. Click to enlarge.|
The inverter design will be jointly optimized to meet all safety requirements in an automotive application. In addition, Siemens will provide efficient and fast on-board and off-board charging systems.
The partnership gives Siemens the chance to extend its industrial leadership in electric drive technology into the automotive market, while Volvo will be relying on proven and efficient Siemens technology for the electrification of its future vehicles.
Cooperation with Volvo is an important milestone in the development of top-quality components and systems for electric cars subsequently intended for series production. It is our long-term goal to establish Siemens as a global system provider both inside and outside of electric vehicles. We see ourselves as a comprehensive electric mobility pioneer.—Siegfried Russwurm, Siemens Board member and CEO of the Siemens Industry Sector
Volvo Car Corporation starts small-scale production of the Volvo C30 Electric this year, and next year the company will start selling the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid.
This means that we are moving from prototypes and small volumes towards series production, starting with the plug-in hybrid. Our upcoming new Scalable Platform Architecture paves the way for electrification throughout our model range.—Stefan Jacoby, President and CEO at Volvo Car Corporation