European automakers define recommendations to standardize charging of plug-in vehicles; 2017 for harmonized application
23 September 2011
|Global technical specification on “envelope”—vehicle inlet—for global solution. Source: ACEA. Click to enlarge.|
The European automobile manufacturers, though ACEA, the automobile manufacturers’ trade association, have defined a comprehensive set of recommendations to standardize the charging of electrically-chargeable vehicles. The joint industry proposal will enable the use of one type of plug independent of car make, electricity provider or country.
The industry recommendations cover the entire link between the public charging infrastructure and the vehicle inlet including the communication between the two, and they address both slow and fast charging with direct or alternate current. As soon as approved by the relevant standardisation bodies, vehicle manufacturers will start integrating the uniform application in their production cycles.
ACEA is stressing the need to divide the upcoming timeframe into two fundamental phases: an ongoing period until approval of relevant standards (Phase 1); and the period following approval of relevant standards granting sufficient lead-time for implementation (Phase 2). The current agreement on recommendations covers Phase 1 as well as Phase 2; applies to passenger and light-commercial vehicles, and addresses only AC and DC charging.
Phase 2 foresees a uniform EU solution that enables the application of global charging standards, hence reducing the variety of solutions in the market. Harmonized rules for Phase 2 should apply to new vehicle types starting as of 2017, says ACEA. This provides the industry with needed lead time to implement these new solutions in their vehicle development programs and to make necessary adaptations to the infrastructure.
In line with the joint EU-US TEC (Transatlantic Economic Council) discussions, ACEA presents a definition of the global vehicle inlet “envelope” as a key step for global solution, enabling a simple switch between US and EU standards.
With respect to connector types/modes and vehicle/grid communication, ACEA agrees on following key principles and recommendations:
For a Phase 2 solution (i.e., starting in 2017 for all new vehicle types), ACEA suggests the Type 2/Type 2 Combo to be used in the EU as the standard for AC/DC charging both on the side of the vehicle and the public charging infrastructure, as long as it meets the required national safety requirements.
A single, simple solution cannot work between US and EU, in light of different operational conditions (i.e., differences between grids and electricity power on the grids). Standardisation of the joint “envelope” profile paves the way towards a real global solution. The proposed joint “envelope” profile facilitates the exchange of Combo 1/Combo 2 solutions and will lead to significant simplification of charging mechanisms for consumers, as well as cost reductions for the industry.
No direct communication between vehicle and grid is foreseen for the moment.
Preference PLC communication between EV and EVSE shall be ISO/IEC 15 118 compliant.
If, in the future, direct communication between EV and the grid is established, it shall follow an international standard (to be defined, but it should be compliant at least with ISO/IE C 15118).
International standards ISO/ IEC 15 118 and IEC 61851-23/-24 shall cover the needs of communication for most modes of charging.
As for the communication technology, ACEA decided to concentrate all efforts on IEEE 1901 Profile Green PHY on CPLT/PE, with a demand for further tests to confirm this direction.
For wireless communication, the industry decided to select a PLC technology. Wireless solutions should be developed further in the future and will, for the moment, reflect additional company specific extensions and business cases.
The auto industry advocates full implementation for new vehicle types from 2017.
This is a major step towards the broader introduction of electrically-chargeable vehicles in Europe and paves the way for a harmonised solution around the globe. We call on the European Commission, the standardisation bodies and the infrastructure providers to adopt these recommendations and to clear remaining issues as soon as possible.—Ivan Hodac, Secretary General of ACEA
Standardization of the connection between the electricity grid and electrically-chargeable vehicles is one of the prerequisites to help e-mobility gain a viable market share, ACEA noted. At present, a variety of solutions is used, leading to a fragmentation of the market across Europe and abroad.
Most stakeholders assume a realistic market share for electrically-chargeable vehicles in the range of 3 to 10% of new sales by 2020 to 2025, depending on how quickly the most immediate challenges can be addressed, ACEA said.
ACEA members are BMW Group, DAF Trucks, Daimler, FIAT S.p.A., Ford of Europe, General Motors Europe, Jaguar Land Rover, MAN Truck & Bus, Porsche, PSA Peugeot Citroën, Renault Group, Scania, Toyota Motor Europe, Volkswagen Group, Volvo Cars and Volvo Group.
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