Fuel-cell hybrid buses in regular service in Switzerland
NEMA creates new EVSE working groups to address key gaps in EV standards

ACEA, CLEPA AND EURELECTRIC promote single standard for charging plug-in vehicles; EURELECTRIC not keen on fast charging

The European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA), the European Association of Automotive Suppliers (CLEPA) and the Union of the Electricity Industry (EURELECTRIC)—the association representing the common interests of the electricity industry at the pan-European level—have jointly agreed on the need for a single harmonized plug system (connector types/modes and communication) for the recharging of electric vehicles on both the vehicle and the infrastructure sides.

ACEA has updated its position paper to cover recent developments (earlier post, earlier post), and CLEPA is now co-signatory of the paper. EURELECTRIC has recently issued its own paper reflecting the same position.

European car manufacturers (ACEA) recommend installing Type2/Type Combo inlet/connector, as of 2017, for charging electric vehicles. For EURELECTRIC it is important that Europe decides to adopt a single connector, but it does not have a preference on the specific type as it does not influence the distribution of the electricity. EURELECTRIC takes note that different infrastructural choices are being made across Europe. This situation needs to be resolved now before it endangers further market deployment.

In response to customer requirements, a high-power charging option has to be offered. This charging option should, however, not be promoted as the main way to charge electric vehicles. Instead, EURELECTRIC believes that the bulk of the charging can be done through low-power charging when the vehicles are plugged into the grid every time they are parked.

—“Facilitating e-mobility: EURELECTRIC views on charging infrastructure”

Concerning the connector types/modes and communication, ACEA agrees on following key principles and recommendations:

  1. ACEA suggests Type 2/Type 2 Combo to be used in the EU as a standard for AC/DC charging both on the vehicle and public charging side as long as it meets required national safety requirements. (Phase 2 starting in 2017 for all new vehicle types on vehicle side.)

  2. ACEA
    The joint envelope profile. Source: ACEA. Click to enlarge.
    Standardization of the joint “envelope” profile paves the wave to a real global solution. Having in mind different operational conditions (namely from the side of grid and electricity power in grids), a simple single solution cannot work between US and EU. The joint “envelope” profile facilitates the exchange of Combo 1/Combo 2 solutions and will lead to significant simplification of charging mechanisms for consumers and cost reductions for the industry.

  3. No direct communication between vehicle and grid (i.e., communication without EV supply equipment, EVSE) is foreseen for the moment.

  4. Preference PLC communication between EV and EVSE shall be ISO/IEC 15 118 compliant.

  5. If in the future communication between EV directly to the grid will be established, it shall follow an international standard (to be defined, but it should be compliant at least with ISO/IE C 15118).

  6. International standards ISO/ IEC 15 118 and IEC 61851-23/-24 shall cover the needs of communication for most modes of charging.

  7. As for the communication technology, ACEA decided to concentrate all efforts on of IEEE 1901 Profile Green PHY on CPLT/PE.

  8. For the wireless communication, industry decided to select a PLC technology for the communication, wireless solutions should be developed in the future or for the moment will represent additional company specific extensions and business cases.

ACEA’s rationale is:

  • With plug-ins already entering the market, there is no possibility to have unified vehicle inlets for the moment. But having in mind the need to have standardized solution, European manufactures are committed to accept one “envelope” solution for vehicle inlet once it is set by legislation or standard (with sufficient lead time).

  • The proposed Type 2/Type 2 Combo provides background for unified solution for different AC and DC charging powers and enables compatibility among solutions.

  • Both for the vehicle inlet and public infrastructure side, Type 2/Type 2 Combo is the only solution for the moment in Europe that can combine standard AC and fast AC and DC charging in short future.

  • Type 2 fulfills all safety requirements of ISO/IEC and can be equipped with shutters as well.

  • From the perspective of automotive industry, Type 2/Type 2 Combo, is the only solution that can be used both on vehicle and public infrastructure side and is ready for all kinds of charging and can ensure interoperability EU-wide. Type 2 Combo provides an opportunity for a global solution and fits to the proposed “envelope” profile as well.

  • The proposed “envelope” profile creates a solution that streamlines EU and US charging systems. Type 2 is also open for future development and global harmonization of charging standards.

To ensure clear communication, ACEA is stressing the use of common language with following terminology:


For high-power AC or DC public charging, EURELECTRIC notes that two technologies are available: DC off-board charging (e.g., CHAdeMO) or AC onboard charging. CHAdeMO DC off-board charging is more common today, due to the introduction of the first generation of Japanese electric cars on the European automotive market. However, CHAdeMO is not internationally standardized, and European automotive manufacturers have expressed their intention to launch a passenger car with an on-board charger which would be compatible with a high-power range AC supply arrangement.

The combined charging system with the Combo connector being promoted by the European automakers can potentially deliver high-power charging of up to 100 kW in future. The Combo connector is currently under development and going through the IEC standardization process. It is expected to be available on the market by end 2012 depending on the progress made in standardization.

The future infrastructural solution for DC charging remains very uncertain: only CHAdeMO installations are available for the moment, but the European car manufacturers’ expressed preference for the Combo charging solution has left the future infrastructure solution open. Indeed, the technological choice between on- or off-board chargers will be determined by what suits the vehicles on the market and the relative cost of both systems for the infrastructure provider.

For the electricity industry, it does not matter much whether the conversion from AC to DC is done on- or off-board. In any case, high-power charging is likely to be a premium-priced service (peak demand pricing) for the electric vehicle driver, the use of which should be encouraged only when charging time is critical, i.e. in the middle of a journey. In such cases, limiting or interrupting charging for load management purposes (except for emergencies) is unlikely to be acceptable to electric vehicle customers. For the electricity industry, the limited possibilities of load management therefore make high-power charging less attractive.

—“Facilitating e-mobility: EURELECTRIC views on charging infrastructure”

The associations stress that these issues need to be solved urgently, before the rolling-out of the infrastructure starts in different European Member States on a wider scale.

The associations jointly and strongly urge the relevant European Institutions, and in particular the European Commission, to take appropriate measures to ensure the implementation of a single solution for the charging of electrically-chargeable vehicles in Europe, in line with the European industry proposal.

Standardization provides predictability to investors; it enables economies of scale, reduces costs for all stakeholders and is essential in increasing user acceptance. All relevant industries want to provide a simple and cross-border operational solution for European citizens, the organizations said.

Recommendations for mass-market deployment. Source: EURELECTRIC. Click to enlarge.



It would be rather easy to design standardized multi-purpose charger plug/receptacle that could grow with future higher demands.

Of course, such connecting system should be able to accept DC and 3-phase AC energy for future quick charge large battery packs of 100+ Kwh.

Design flexibility should allow manufacturers to use part of the approved system as lower cost options and/or to match various countries installed systems.

Adding up-to-date automated billing system to public charger is not much of a challenge. Gas stations have used it successfully for 20+ years.


This is a mess, this is a castastrophy sponsored by general electric, u.s.a goverment, exxonmobil, wall-street dealers, journalists, epa, china, opec, porsche, gm, toyota, etc. All this to keep petrol sales and oil price high. I knew that battery cars won't be cheap and build and sale in quantity. Nobody will ever travel with a bev on the roads. It's an impossibility as fast charge are not recommended and destroy the battery.

I said here numerous time in plain letters to begin hydrogen fuelcell commercialisation. IS IT CLEAR now or what.


The new Renault Zoe will come with a 43kW charger standard, you connect it to a 3-phase 208V supply at 32A. It should recharge the battery in 30 minutes or less.. and no fancy DC charger on a parking lot is needed.


In principle, it could be cheaper (initially and on-going) not to install heavy quick chargers on-board electrified vehicles unless the unit could have another essential use, in energy recovery?

Fixed, wired or wireless, 100 + KWh chargers (DC and/or 3-phase AC) each recharging a few dozen EVs a day will become an International standard before the end of the current decade. Being much cheaper and cleaner than current gas stations, they may be installed in more places, like in regular parking lots, street side parking, rest stops areas, office buildings, etc.


@ HarveyD.

No. Nissan and also this article


said that you cannot fast charge a lithium battery.


Fast charge batteries or storage units are a prerequisite to extended range highway capable future electrified vehicles. Will they be lithium or post-lithium types is a good question.

Verify your Comment

Previewing your Comment

This is only a preview. Your comment has not yet been posted.

Your comment could not be posted. Error type:
Your comment has been posted. Post another comment

The letters and numbers you entered did not match the image. Please try again.

As a final step before posting your comment, enter the letters and numbers you see in the image below. This prevents automated programs from posting comments.

Having trouble reading this image? View an alternate.


Post a comment

Your Information

(Name is required. Email address will not be displayed with the comment.)