Argonne releases updates to GREET models; LiMn2O4 replaces cobalt for Li-ion batteries
30 July 2012
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has released updates to its GREET 2 2012 Vehicle-Cycle model and GREET 1 2012 Fuel-Cycle model used in lifecycle analysis of transportation options. The new release of the GREET 2 Vehicle-Cycle model includes the following major updates:
Steel production pathways are updated with detailed coke production model and blast furnace gas and coke oven gas handling. Hot rolled, cold rolled and galvanized rolled steel sheet production processes are included.
Wrought aluminum, cast aluminum, nickel and copper production pathways are updated. Plastic production pathways are updated with several additional plastics including High‐Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Low‐Density Polyethylene (LDPE), Linear Low‐Density Polyethylene (LLDPE), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), General Purpose Polystyrene (GPPS), High‐Impact Polystyrene (HIPS), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Acrylonitrile‐Butadiene‐Styrene (ABS), Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM), Nylon 66, Nylon 6, Liquid Epoxy Resin, Polycarbonate (PC), and Rigid and Flexible Polyurethane (PUR).
Li-ion battery production pathways using LiMn2O4 are added replacing Li-ion battery with Li2CoO2. Recycling pathways for LiMn2O4 are also included.
The energy use for vehicle’s parts production and assembly is updated.
The vehicle specifications have been updated to include three vehicle types: a passenger car, a sport utility vehicle, and a pick-up truck and five vehicle propulsion technologies: an internal combustion engine vehicle with a spark-ignition (SI) engine, a grid-independent hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with an SI engine, a plug-in HEV (i.e., grid-connected HEV) with an SI engine, a battery electric vehicle, and a fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) with a hybrid configuration.
The revision of the GREET 1 model includes the following updates:
Parameters for field burning of sugarcane straw and sugarcane ethanol production are updated. N2O emissions from filtercake and vinasse are included. Supplemental fertilizer inputs due to increased sugarcane collection are also taken into account. Parameters for sugarcane ethanol transport are also updated.
Alberta mix is defined and used for bitumen recovery and upgrading in oil sand operation.
The yeast dosage for cellulosic ethanol production is corrected from 24g/kg biomass to 2.49g/kg biomass.
Electricity export from cellulosic ethanol plants are now defined as kWh/ton biomass input instead of kWh/gal output.
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