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RFF papers explore differing outcomes of higher gasoline taxes on public transit and rural areas

12 August 2012

Spiller
Variation across different regions of the United States of relative compensating variation (CV, additional money required to stay at same utility level) aggregated to the county level given a 10 cent per gallon tax shows tremendous heterogeneity across and within states. Source: Spiller and Stephens (2012) Click to enlarge.

Economists view higher gasoline taxes as one solution to reducing gasoline consumption and thus air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and reliance on oil, while at the same time providing revenue to the government for highway repair and construction. While in general, higher gasoline taxes can reduce the amount of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and gasoline consumed, households vary in their ability to reduce their use of gasoline and mitigate the negative welfare impacts of higher gasoline prices, note Resources for the Future (RFF) post-doc researcher Elisheba Spiller and her colleagues in a pair of discussion papers exploring two different outcomes of higher gasoline taxes.

RFF is a nonprofit and nonpartisan organization that conducts independent research—rooted primarily in economics and other social sciences—on environmental, energy, natural resource and environmental health issues.

The first paper, “Does the Substitutability of Public Transit Affect Commuters’ Response to Gasoline Price Changes?” demonstrates that gasoline taxes can help make public transit investments more effective in metropolitan areas by leading individuals to choose public transit more often.

The second, “The Heterogeneous Effects of Gasoline Taxes: Why Where We Live Matters,” reveals that individuals outside of urban areas are less able to adjust to high gasoline prices, and thus are hurt the most by gasoline taxes. As an example, the authors find that a 10-cent increase in gasoline prices would have a 30% larger negative welfare effect on rural households versus their urban counterparts.

In the first paper, post-doctoral researcher Elisheba Spiller and her colleagues determine the extent to which gasoline price elasticity is affected by the availability of public transportation—a substitute for driving. To quantify the substitutability of public transportation, they predict individuals’ commute times by private and public transit conditional upon their observable characteristics and create a measure of substitutability between the two modes based on transit times.

This, in turn, allows them to measure the effect of public transportation on commuters’ sensitivity to gasoline prices.

The existing literature on the relationship between gasoline prices and gasoline consumption or driving consistently finds somewhat inelastic price elasticities of demand. However, many of these papers do not consider the role other transportation options may play in consumers’ decisions. This study analyzes the price elasticity of urban households when controlling for the substitutability of public transit. This substitutability is estimated as the ratio between the commute times an individual is predicted to face when traveling by private versus public transit. These predicted commute times incorporate observable attributes from detailed Census information to develop more accurate predictions and control for sorting.

The analysis supports the theory that commuters facing a better public transit system will be more responsive to changes in gasoline prices by reducing their yearly miles traveled in a private vehicle, thereby reducing their gasoline consumption. The statistical significance of the interaction term between the gasoline price and Time Ratio indicates that public transportation infrastructure has an effect on individuals’ choice of yearly miles traveled beyond the change induced by the gasoline price alone. In the theory of the model, this decrease is due to a substitution to public transit for work commutes, as these trips cannot be quickly or easily altered to avoid higher gasoline prices.

The significance of the interaction between gasoline price and the quality of the public transit system has important policy implications: a gasoline tax would have greater efficacy in reducing miles driven and gasoline consumed when public transportation is improved and thus provides a more viable transit option for workers. These findings illustrate the importance of effective use of government stimulus money, such as that included in the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Allocating money for public transit projects could make a gasoline tax, promoted for its benefits in reducing consumption, more effective. Our analysis indicates that the quality of public transit plays a role in commuters’ sensitivity to gasoline prices, and greater work on this issue could provide important insights into the value of constructing convenient public transit systems.

—Spiller et al.

In the second paper, Spiller and colleague Heather Stephens use disaggregated confidential household data to estimate spatial variation in household-level gasoline price elasticities and the welfare effects of gasoline taxes. They find that the mean elasticity of demand for gasoline is -0.67, but with tremendous variation across location and income.

We examine several policy scenarios that the government could implement to mitigate some of these negative welfare impacts. We find that by recycling the tax revenue based on the characteristics associated with the relative welfare effects from higher gasoline prices, the government can help those most affected by rising gasoline prices and could reduce the welfare impact on average by 53 percent. Additionally, unlike a flat revenue recycling policy, this program would still generate positive government revenues from the tax.

—Spiller and Stephens

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They seem to consider reducing miles driven as the only way to compensate for higher gas prices, ignoring the possibility of driving less aggressively and/or choosing a more fuel-efficient vehicle to substantially reduce gas use.

Good observations Christ. Yes, they identified one sure way but there are many other ways to reduce liquid fuel consumption.

We all know that driving above the speed limits increase: fuel consumption, accidents, property damages, fatalities, health care cost, monster traffic jams created by accidents etc etc.

One very effective, cost free, high revenue potential way to reduce over speed and bad driving is the installation of a few thousand automated radar-cameras. The $15K invested for each automated station is recovered many times each year with speeding and bad driving penalties and as much with other direct and indirect avoided cost. One well located station recovered $18,000,000 last year a reduced accidents nearby by over 50%.

Of course, 40+ mpg ICEVs, 55+ mpg HEVs, 85+ mpg PHEVs and 100+ mpge BEVs would also help.

One way to make public transit more attractive to commuters is to keep the criminal element off it.  People who are afraid of being assaulted or robbed will be loathe to leave their car at home; they will give up many other things before taking the bus.

If you double the cost of fuel with taxation, and simultaneously double the efficiency of vehicles, you should end up where you started.

The problem is the relative position of the two adoption curves. Cars tend to have a life of 10+ years, so it will take roughly 10 years to turn the population over.

You could stagger the tax increases so that they doubled the price over 10 years. This would get people into more efficient cars, as long as they believed the tax would go all the way to double the price.

In principal, this would give people enough time to adjust.
In practice, most US politicians would crack before the 10 years was up.

However, they managed it in Europe and Japan.

@Harvey, you forgot diesel.
Very popular in Europe, though not so good for urban air quality.
+ I agree, a combination of expensive petrol and automatic speed cameras will slow people down, but it does make life rather dismal (and an unwary drive very expensive).

mahonj...crime should never pay. Killing 100,000+ people/year with our gas guzzlers is criminal. Five to ten times the number of injured innocents (an culprits) is also a major crime. A few thousand low (negative) cost automated radar-cameras can reduce those crimes by 50+ % very quickly and reduce high cost polluting liquid fuel consumption at the same time.

E-P....security on board public transport in major cities is currently a problem but not every where. Less than 0.1% of the users create 99% of the problem. High resolution cameras could easily identify those people and they could be moved to places where they could not harm or frighten passengers anymore. Why isn't done already? Why the silent majority does not react more aggressively to neutralize those bums. A few million dollars invested into high quality monitoring systems would do a lot to reduce those crimes. Ex-bums could even be hired and trained as superior monitors because they already know most of the tricks. Alternatively, properly programmed computers could be used to identify the culprits automatically. Better leaders would quickly fix that problem. Most of those bums do not even vote, politicians should have to worry about their re-actions. Why the on-going in-action?

correction....last line fhousl read...should NOT have to worry....

security on board public transport in major cities is currently a problem but not every where.
Say that to the bus DRIVERS in Detroit who went on strike to protest attacks on themselves by passengers.
Less than 0.1% of the users create 99% of the problem.
I doubt your statistics; I'd believe the problem fraction in urban areas is at least 10%.
Why isn't done already? Why the silent majority does not react more aggressively to neutralize those bums.
Because the problem users are of "protected" complexions, and any measure which targets them is immediately branded "racist" and attacked as if it was the intro to the next Holocaust.

@E-P,
I'm sorry that you have some negative experiences with some racial minority group. I've not had such negative experience. In my teen year, we've lived in a black neighborhood and I've walked several miles to school daily each way and had not experienced any kind of crime nor violence nor harassment. There were bussing at the time so the school was racially mixed even though in a black neighborhood, and I've had one of the best education, and never experienced any school fighting nor violence. I came from a racially homogenous country, yet there were more violence in school, and one either must know martial arts or have a body guard. I had both! I thought that school in America was pretty civilized! My daughter went to a high school with large percentage of blacks and hispanics, and did not experience any crime nor violence. I went to college in a town of 50% hispanics, and I am now fluent in Spanish, but did not experience any crime nor violence. Most blacks and hispanics that I've come into contact with are decent and hard-working people, and they, too, are afraid of crimes just like any of us. They also need help with the crime problem in their neighborhood, instead of being casted aside, discriminated against, and ignored by the police.

Perhaps the mayors and police chiefs and criminal judges in major US cities must travel abroad to see and learn how inner-city crimes are being solved elsewhere in the world where the crime rates are much lower than some major US cities.

One can be tough on criminals in the US if one recruit a very diverse police force and police chiefs and judges and jurors and let people of each racial group handle criminals of their own race. Then, there can be no ground for the accused to claim racism, and justice can be done swiftly and efficiently. The problem is solvable if we would recruit the help and volunteers and solutions of and from the black and hispanic community, instead of giving up on them.

Roger, you are suggesting nations separated by race, aka apartheid.  Is that what you meant?  You can't have a black jury judging black robbers and rapists while white juries judge white cops, self-defense shooters and vigilance committees; they won't reach anything close to "equal protection of the law".  The OJ Simpson verdict proved that blacks won't hold a black man to the same standard of justice that whites would if he killed (or raped, or otherwise offended against) a white woman.

If people of their own race are handling their own crimes, they should also be handling their own taxes and economies.  I guess Indios and Mestizos should be in Mexico, and Africans in Africa.  Whoops, that sounds like the USA should be for white people only!

Good point, E-P. If a black person committed an offense against a white person, then the jurors should be mixed 50/50 W/B, and there should be at least one W and one B judge, and vice-versa. I knew you would mention this!

There was no suggestion of mine of any racial segregation. For minor offenses, it won't matter much who the judge or jurors are. Taxes and economies are objective matters and not subjected to judgement as in criminal justice. Crimes monitoring and tracking are handled in centralized facility by any one qualified. However, in serious crimes when loss of lives are possible, if and when the criminal(s) is(are) spotted and their race can be determined, then it would be best to let black cops deal with black criminals and so on to allow the cops to be as tough on the criminals as possible without race riots like the Rodney King beating and the recent Trevon Martin murder, etc... This is simply a tactical expediency and not any intention toward any type of segregation. If Trevon Martin was shot by another black security officer, then I don't think that there would be any major backlash against the officer, even when George Zimmerman, the white security officer who shot him was cleary beaten by Trevon, with a broken nose and a cut on the back of his head!!! Now, Zimmy is in a deep heap of trouble and had to go into hiding for a while...or go back to jail.

On a positive note, E-P, remember that America is the melting pot that comprises of the best and brightest in all the world arrived here with a manifest destiny from both sides of the continent. America produces the most talents of any other country in the world and remain the world's number one economy for the longest time. The diverse gene pool in the America is what makes this country great that will allow Americans, more than any another country, to adapt to changing conditions that others will succumb to. Each one of us, though, is responsible to keep the spirit going and to put in ideas and efforts to make this country great and to remain the most desirable place to live in the World.

UNITED WE STAND! Let's set aside our differences and unite for a common purpose.

For the first time in history, human being do not have to kill each other for resources any more. We are now able to harness free and limitless renewable energy, and we can recycle other materials until the end of time to maintain our economies. We have the means for birth control to avoid overpopulation so that our future generations do not have to prey on one another like we did in our sordid past!!! Through selective birth control now, and even genetic engineering in the future, we will be able to maintain and produce even higher-quality human beings in the future, that in the past had required painful natural selection and survival of the fittest to developed through generations of struggle and fighting and elimination of the weaker groups (eg. Sparta vs. Troy)!!

America has been a "melting pot" for centuries, yet troubles are rapidly increasing along with "diversity".

Each one of us, though, is responsible to keep the spirit going and to put in ideas and efforts to make this country great and to remain the most desirable place to live in the World.
Do you think that singing kumbaya is going to change the behavior of people like this and this?

The nation in general, and public transit in particular, is increasingly UNdesirable and downright DANGEROUS because of people like that.  If you can keep them off the bus, decent people will ride it; if you can't or won't, the criminal element will be just about the only ones riding.

The same goes for neighborhoods; if you let the criminals into the houses and borderline-retarded and violent into the schools, everyone who is able to move packs up and leaves.  This drives your sprawl and long commutes.  Only keeping the criminal element under wraps, such as effective house arrest, can reverse this phenomenon.

@E-P,
Your sentiment is shared by many, but if you would just look south of the US border at the drug-gang-related crimes, murder, extortion, and outright lawlessness, then you would be very glad you still reside in the USA!!! I've known of many hispanics with family members south of the US border got kidnapped for extortion once the drug gang found out that they have relatives residing in the USA. By contrast, the crime rates in the USA overall have been steadily declining for the past several decades, even in spite of the recent economic collapse. It speaks for the much-higher degree of civility here in the USA. Many people south of the US border fled here just to avoid crimes. They had to close down their business just because they can't afford to pay for the high extortion set by the crime bosses.

Therefore, it is imperative that we must fight hard to prevent economic and social degradation here in the USA. Job outsourcing must stop!!! Youth unemployment must be reversed, or else unemployed youths will join the gangs and then into a lifestyle they cannot escape. Welfare support must be limited to only one child per family, and recipients must remain on birth control in order to continue to receive support. This should limit the future number of youths with lower employment potential. This will also encourage the poors whose skills are not in much demands to limit the size of their family in case they may lose their jobs and has to rely on welfare from time to time. Those whose skills are in higher demand will have higher job security and will likely have more children and the future Americans then will have higher employment potential that will help improve America's prosperity and reduce the number of trouble makers. China's one-child policy are showing great results as evidence in China's growing economic power and technological achievement, as well as great success at the Olympics. This is because those in China who have money will pay a fine to have more children than one, while the poor cannot afford but one child per family. Over many generations, the number of capable individuals will increase in proportion without increase in population.

It will start with you and me to spread these concepts far and wide in order that we will see results in subsequent generations of Americans. Thank you for discussing our concerns about America's social and economic situation.

Great, Typepad is censoring me again.  Maybe reposting in smaller pieces will evade the filters.

if you would just look south of the US border at the drug-gang-related crimes, murder, extortion, and outright lawlessness, then you would be very glad you still reside in the USA!!!
It's being imported into the USA.  Read the news about gang riots in Anaheim lately?  The rampant corruption in Bell, CA?  Third-world peoples do not re-create themselves at the border; they make third-world nations, with all the characteristic ills, no matter where they go.
I've known of many hispanics with family members south of the US border got kidnapped for extortion once the drug gang found out that they have relatives residing in the USA.
In other words we should not have let them immigrate, for their own family's safety (independently of our own fiscal, social and ecological well-being, which is reason enough).
the crime rates in the USA overall have been steadily declining for the past several decades
Not really; the crime numbers have been cooked.
It speaks for the much-higher degree of civility here in the USA.
That civility is decaying as diversity corrodes American social capital; read the work of Robert D. Putnam.

You keep changing the subject away from dealing with crime, and the criminals who commit it.  It's as if you can't admit that people are moral agents; they can choose to obey or break the law, they can choose to support or subvert the social ethos which created what we know as America.  I think we should recognize that law-breakers should be kept away from potential victims.  How about giving me one small concession, Roger:  why don't we take people who commit assaultive crimes, including as juveniles and (especially!) in schools, and restrict them to specified social settings including a ban on riding public transit?  Let's make the trains, buses and schools safe, so nobody feels the need for their own just for safety.  Let's keep the criminals off the streets, so the public doesn't have to move another 20 miles just to be able to sit in their yard without being shot at.

The people under restriction will look like the people who commit crimes:  largely black and brown.  It's a self-selected group.  Do you have a problem with that?

It will start with you and me to spread these concepts far and wide in order that we will see results in subsequent generations of Americans.
What you're talking about is the LAST 50 years, two generations, of social policy and "progressive" rhetoric in the United States.  It has failed miserably.  It is time for a return to law and order.

@E-P,
Mexico used to be a safe and peaceful place to visit. In my younger days, I used to cross the border often to Mexico to enjoy shopping and spending time there. Now, things are much different, yet, same people, except much higher unemployment and too high birth rate with too much youth unemployment, and a democracy...uh Idiocracy with weak government...

Look at Cuba, also similar culture and people, but far lower crime rates than Mexico. One must give the Castro brothers credit for that!

why don't we take people who commit assaultive crimes, including as juveniles and (especially!) in schools, and restrict them to specified social settings including a ban on riding public transit?

Yes, totally agree with you. They were initially put in jail, and then, when released, were barred from certain locations. Furthermore, they will have a permanent record that can be easily searched on line, so that they can be discriminated against when applied for jobs or housing, etc.

Back to the topic of this article, IMHO, the fixed-route commuter trains and buses are obsolete in the setting of increasing urban sprawl. What is needed is a van or minibus for daily carpooling to work, and for on-demand door-to-door pickup and delivery. UPS and Fed-Ex have been able to pickup and deliver packages at affordable costs. A smart phone can be used to schedule pickup, to pay for the ride, and serve as identifier for each rider for public safety issue, and with precision localization ability, to identify to the driver exactly where to pick up the next rider. Of course, criminals will be barred from these type of services.

To schedule a trip to the doctor's appointment, for example, the rider will text in or phone in a request by giving the date and time of his/her appointment, and then will be offered certain available pickup time. The more the rider is willing to pay for the ride, the closer to appointment time they can get. A central processing station will coordinate all these requests to offer the shortest route for the driver to pickup all these riders who happen to have the destinations on a route. The riders can monitor the location of the pickup van in their smart phones in real time and can prepare to meet the van just as it arrives at the front door. A typical rider may have to spend more time on the ride than if he/she drives his/her own car, however, the rider can read a book, a newspaper, or work on the laptop en route, or eat breakfast, or take a nap and the smart phone will wake the rider up when close to destination, so that actually, less time will be wasted than if the rider will drive his/her own car and get stuck for one hour in traffic. If 1/2 of the urban population will choose this type of transit, then traffic jams will be things of the past, and we can shrink the size of parking lot by 1/2 and move everybody together to really solve the urban sprawl problem!

Social policy have failed when welfare program was setup in the 1930's without the restriction to one-child per supported family. In the 1990, under Pres. Clinton's initiative, welfare was reformed such that recipients must return to work within 2 years, and a restriction of 5 years total of welfare support, and one see that crime rates have been steadily decreasing. However, the social situation declines again when 5-6 millions good-paying manufacturing jobs was outsourced and never to return again! What can some people do except resorting to crimes to support themselves? The dismal future outlook may have spur an increase in rate of violent shooting and domestic violence!

Canada has one of the highest immigrant rate in the world with over 1% (about 300,000) of the total population every year. One must admit that it is creating havoc in many large cities. A very high percentage of unemployed poorly educated immigrant youth regroup in street gangs and live of crime for the rest of their shorter life. The one general exception are Asian immigrants, they sent their children to school, are excellent students and 99+ % become hard working honest citizens.

The lesson here would be to allow more immigration from Europe and Asia and free the rest.

one see that crime rates have been steadily decreasing.
They've been "decreasing" the same way that academic achievement in the Detroit and Atlanta public schools has been "improving":  recording fake stats.  You won't find stats for Black mob attacks listed in the crime figures; Chicago closed its beaches due to "heat risk" when the truth was that Black mobs were attacking people there.
However, the social situation declines again when 5-6 millions good-paying manufacturing jobs was outsourced and never to return again!
The untold story is that manufacturing was crippled by demands for "racial justice", and manufacturers could not turn a profit with the incompetent, unproductive workforce.

Manufacturing in the USA is still going strong, but it employs far less unskilled and semi-skilled labor and has moved to "right to work" states where unions can't use the threat of sabotage to back up their demands.

What can some people do except resorting to crimes to support themselves?
What does a Black man attacking a 6-yr-old White boy at an airport ticket counter have to do with supporting himself?  What about that Black woman with the unprovoked attack on the bus?  What about the murders and rapes where the perps don't even bother to steal anything?  It's pure predatory racial hate, Roger, accompanied by an animal level of lack of self-restraint, and you cannot have a functioning society with that sort of thing going on.

You cannot get rid of sprawl or have functioning transit if you don't address these issues.  Singing kumbaya is worse than useless; the perps are brutes, and only brute force will stop them.

@E-P,
1) There are "bad apples" in any color or race.
2) Better upbringing, disciplines, influence, role models etc. can reduce the ratio of "bad apples" to good ones. Social influence can bring out the good in people or the bad in people. There are goodness and badness in each one of us. Let's choose to bring out the goodness in everyone instead.
3) No one gets to choose to be born, let alone what race, skin color or nationality.
4) When H sapien moved out of Africa, they were of dark complexion, then those who moved up north loss the pigment so that they can absorb more UV rays to produce Vit D to avoid rickets. Through mutations, each groups that got separated from the main group developed just enough different physical and mental traits to better adapt to local conditions. We as H sapien have far more in common than differences.
5) Following from the above, we should treat all humans as brothers and sisters, because we really are. We should try to help and nurture and protect one anothers as well as our environent to become better beings...Stewardship! Let's try to bring out the best in everyone.
6) Try to spend a few days in the US Military to see how people of different racial background work together in unity, discipline and efficiency. I was an US Military officer and got a first hand experience of the above. I witnessed that black military personnels are just as disciplined, competent, and hard-working as any other races. It's all in the selection of people, indoctrination, training, and disciplined environment of the US Military.

It was mainly the welfare system that rewards single-parenthood and devoid of culture and no restriction on the number of children supported that is largely responsible for what you've described. A good-intended system that "subsidized illegitimacy!" by the liberal democrats. A better system would put emphasis on two-parent family that supports only one child per fafmily, as well as cultural indoctrination into American ideology of civility, tolerance, self-reliance, personal responsibility, and social conscience. On-going cultural indoctrination should be a pre-requisite for continual receipt of welfare support, as well on-going birth control. Perhaps more financial and psychological rewards can be given to welfare kids who do well in school. We can make a better society. We should not give up.

"For man does not live on bread alone..." we humans need culture just ad fish need water.

There are "bad apples" in any color or race.
Why, then, don't we all have to avoid the Italian ghetto?  Why, then, don't we read about Japanese people attacking women and children in schools, on buses, and everywhere?
Better upbringing, disciplines, influence, role models etc. can reduce the ratio of "bad apples" to good ones.
We've had 50 years of "kumbaya" social policy like that, and the problem has Only. Gotten. Worse.
No one gets to choose to be born, let alone what race, skin color or nationality.
But they do choose to respect "street cred", and make heroes of people who've been shot or gone to prison.  That's after 50 years of social programs to improve conditions, and 64 years after Shelley vs. Kraemer.

Even if we didn't have enough evidence to prove that THESE IDEAS DO NOT WORK BECAUSE THEY CANNOT WORK, we don't have another 50 years to play around.  The country is broke.

When H sapien moved out of Africa, they were of dark complexion, then those who moved up north loss the pigment so that they can absorb more UV rays to produce Vit D to avoid rickets.
There is probably more to it than that.  Both blind cave fish and the tame foxes bred by Dmitri Belyaev show changes in pigmentation which have nothing to do with vitamin D synthesis (UV being absent in caves).  The metabolic pathway for melanin also influences other traits, and the melanocortin system appears to modulate aggression in many vertebrates.
we should treat all humans as brothers and sisters, because we really are.
If you have a dysfunctional sibling who is physically abusive, you should send him to jail (if you don't send him to the hospital or morgue in self-defense first).  That's about where "human brotherhood" is.

Let's try to bring out the best in everyone.
Can we start by punishing, or at least discouraging, dysfunctional behaviors?  That would be a huge reversal of our active encouragement and subsidies since the 1960's!
Try to spend a few days in the US Military to see how people of different racial background work together in unity, discipline and efficiency.
I keep hearing stories from people who say they were liberals when they went into the military, and hard-core "racists" (race realists) by the time they got out.  Experience is a pretty good teacher.
It was mainly the welfare system that rewards single-parenthood and devoid of culture and no restriction on the number of children supported that is largely responsible for what you've described.
In other words, it was a system which encouraged dysgenic breeding.  You do realize that eugenics is the only way to reverse the effects, don't you?

@E-P,
The research into the melonocortin system is quite fascinating. However, we cannot change biology once a person is formed. What I've seen is that culture, education and discipline have made remarkable differences in outcome of behaviour and success in life for any human being.

Inner-city black people do not sing Kumbaya. They are besieged by bad influences from single-parent motherhood, criminal and drug-dealing elements as role models, discrimination that will lead to low-self esteem to rage and anger and into a vicious circle that they can't get out of. All those who can afford to move out of "da hood", and even the police and the city, have abandoned them.

Those who practice Kumbaya in smaller black communities are producing the black military officers, postal workers, construction workers, black doctors, lawyers, and successful politicians etc. Our current Commander In Chief is an example of how good upbringing has resulted in a very intelligent and hard-working man of color who is very dedicated to the socal cause of our country. If you ever watched the Oprah Winfrey show, you will see the intense intelligence and very good hosting skill and superb management skill as evidence in the "O" network and the "O" magazine. Opra and Bill Cosby are some of the highest earning celebrities of all time. Opra's fortune is in the billion.

Therefore, you can see that eugenic is not the only way to reverse the effects. Military-style boot camps and re-educational or indoctrinational camps will make a lot of difference. So will job opportunities and role models to steer away from doing crimes and drug dealing for a living.

However, eugenics is what happens naturally in the biosphere since the beginning of life on earth. The well-meaning liberals and modern living have screwed it up with the use of birth control to limit the proportion of highly-capable population, while via unlimited welfare support for additional children, allowing less-capable and less-employable population to grow in proportion. This is obviously unsustainable. Should be more careful to analyze the cause and effect when messing with mother nature.

On the other hand, any human-directed eugenic programs that intend to limit bio-diversity will also end up in failures. Bio-diversity in all species, human included, is very important for the survival of the species and of the ecosystem in general.

Damn, auto-censored twice. Trying smaller pieces...

What I've seen is that culture, education and discipline have made remarkable differences in outcome of behaviour and success in life for any human being.
Meanwhile, entire school systems full of minority children embrace thug culture, revolt violently against any sort of discipline, and view pursuit of an education as "acting White".  Paid for by TANF, WIC, Section 8, etc... meaning, you and me.
Inner-city black people do not sing Kumbaya. They are besieged by bad influences
No, Roger.  They are not "besieged" by anything; a siege is imposed from the outside.  These dysfunctional attitudes and behaviors are not just generated from within, they are strongly defended as being "keepin' it real", aka being "authentically Black".

I'm being auto-censored so heavily I can't even post the next 2 paragraphs with the hyperlinks deleted.  Typepad has some very strong political biases in its filters.

There's a lot more, but I literally cannot post it here.

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