Delphi starts production of new heavy-duty common rail systems for EURO VI; 2700 bar injection pressure with 3000 bar capability
|Delphi F2e ultra high pressure heavy duty diesel common rail injector. Click to enlarge.|
Delphi Automotive has begun production of its advanced common rail technologies for heavy-duty diesel fuel injection equipment (FIE) that will meet the requirements of Euro VI and other demanding global emissions standards.
The systems were previewed as a development project at the IAA in 2008. Since then, the company has secured three contracts for these systems for a lifetime value expected to exceed €3.7 billion (US$4.7 billion), according to David Friday, Delphi Diesel Heavy-Duty managing director.
The new systems provide a choice of three architectures, allowing vehicle manufacturers to select the best solution for their engines: conventional remote pump common rail (F2r) and two common rail systems with distributed pumps; F2e for overhead cam-driven pumps; and F2p for pumps driven by a cam in the block. Working at up to 2,700 bar, they combine the proven high-pressure capability of Delphi’s EUI/EUP (electronic unit injector/ electronic unit pump) systems with the fast, high-pressure fuel delivery over the entire range of speed, timing and load that can be achieved with common rail.
The Delphi F2r Ultra High Pressure Heavy Duty Diesel Common Rail System is designed for medium- and heavy-duty diesel engine programs with high pressure requirements. The system features a highly efficient, compact pump with integrated transfer pump. The engine oil-lubricated pump provides long term durability at high pressure operation.
Fast response injectors with small quantity injection control offer precise combustion control with fully flexible injection capability and close-coupled multiple injection capability. A bespoke injector body, includes slim line valve stock for packaging flexibility; a wide range of nozzle options is available.
The F2e Ultra High Pressure Heavy Duty Diesel Common Rail System is the first ultra-high pressure common rail system to be mounted entirely within an engine’s cylinder head. In addition to offering a high performance solution for new engines, the F2e System also provides a cost effective upgrade path for existing Electronic Unit Injector (EUI) engines.
The F2e System utilizes two types of injectors. “Non-pumping” injectors act like traditional common rail injectors whereas “pumping” injectors also contain separate pumping elements driven by the overhead cam, which pressurize the rail. The number of pumping elements is no longer fixed to the number of injectors and may, therefore, be optimized according to the power requirement of each application. This pressurized rail provides the injectors with a constant source of ultra high pressure fuel at any engine speed, allowing fully flexible injection capability, particularly related to close coupled small quantities.
The Delphi F2e Ultra High Pressure Heavy Duty Diesel Common Rail System is suitable for nine to 16 liter heavy duty diesel engines that are used for on- and off-highway applications.
The Delphi F2p Ultra High Pressure Heavy Duty Diesel Common Rail System provides a cost-effective upgrade path to an ultra high pressure common rail solution for heavy duty engines based on current electronic unit pump (EUP) technology.
Driven by the engine’s camshaft or mounted in a separate cam box, the enhanced electronic unit pumps constantly charge up the common rail to ultra high pressures. Dependent on the power requirement of the application, this can be achieved by using any combination of electronic unit pumps between two and six per engine.
The pressurized rail provides the injectors with a constant source of ultra high pressure fuel at any engine speed, allowing the injectors to provide fully flexible injection capability, particularly related to close coupled small quantities.
The Delphi F2p Ultra High Pressure Heavy Duty Diesel Common Rail System is suitable for nine to 16 liter heavy duty diesel engines that are used for on- and off-highway applications.
For engine designers upgrading existing EUI or EUP power units, the two distributed pump systems offer a progression with minimal changes to engine architecture, Delphi suggests.
Between now and mid-2013, we will be entering production with each of these three systems for customers launching ranges of new and revised engines from 9 to 16 liters. Delphi secured three contracts for these systems for a lifetime value expected to exceed 3.7 billion euros [US$4.7 billion]. To achieve this while retaining Delphi’s outstanding record for consistent high quality, we have made significant investments in our facilities around the world, including our sites in Stonehouse and Sudbury in the UK.—David Friday
With the new systems entering production, Delphi has released information on the technology developed at its Heavy-Duty Diesel Technical Centre in Park Royal (London, UK) that enable compliance with Euro VI, NA13, Japan PPNLTR and Final Tier 4B, alongside improved fuel economy and simplified exhaust aftertreatment compared with alternative solutions to these demanding standards.
Delphi’s strategy has been to develop a novel, highly modular system, which brings multiple benefits. The distributed pump systems introduce the first application of specialized outlet metering valves in each pumping element. This provides flexible capacity to accommodate different engine ranges/families by adding or subtracting pumping elements and also accommodates selectable displacement by utilizing some or all of the installed pumping elements as required to match the immediate demand. The base design has also been future-roofed, providing engine designers with flexible upgrade steps as their requirements evolve, the company says.
The design flexibility and high-precision provided by this approach has also helped enable significant improvements in hydraulic efficiency.
Inefficiency not only increases fuel consumption and CO2 emissions but leads to heat generation in critical areas of the system, potentially causing fuel degradation and deposits, especially when running with high biofuel contents. gain, the partnership with our manufacturing specialists has allowed us to make incremental improvements in a number of areas, providing what we believe is now the most efficient system available.—David Draper, Delphi Diesel Systems engineering director
The high efficiency designs of the injectors and the pumping elements also result in smaller, lighter components and configurations, bringing further improvements in packaging and and reduced loads that allow further reductions in the cost and weight of selected engine components.
The injector is a good example of the partnership between our design and manufacturing teams. It is now a modular construction so that each segment can be manufactured from a material optimized for its function. Because the nozzle tip is now so small, we are able to use precious materials formed using super-clean powder metallurgy. This allows greater precision with reduced wear and greater resistance to high combustion temperatures. We have also achieved significant benefits from targeted use of new, multi-layer coatings.—David Draper
As production begins on these first applications, Delphi continues to work on the next generation of ultra-high-pressure systems for 2020 and beyond.