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Chrysler introducing 2014 Ram 1500 pickup with new 3.0L diesel

28 June 2013

ET014_035EP
3.0L EcoDiesel. Click to enlarge.

Chrysler’s 2014 Ram 1500 will offer a new, 3.0-liter EcoDiesel engine, mated with the TorqueFlite eight-speed automatic transmission. Ram is now the only brand to offer a small-displacement diesel for its half-ton line of trucks.

Branded EcoDiesel, the new 3.0-liter powerplant is a turbocharged 60-degree, dual overhead camshaft (DOHC) 24-valve V-6 that produces 240 hp (179 kW) at 3600 rpm and 420 lb-ft (569 N·m) of torque at 2000 rpm. Equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst, diesel particulate filter, and selective catalytic reduction, it will be emissions-compliant in all 50 states.

The transmission features five clutch packs, but only two are open in any gear to maximize efficiency. Its torque converter features turbine torsional damping, enabling low lock-up speeds in all eight gears. Depending on the axle pairing, the transmission affords final-drive ratios ranging from 2.15 to 2.63.

The new turbo-diesel is designed and produced by VM Motori, a Chrysler Group diesel engine supplier since 1992. The engine, with its 16.5:1 compression ratio, is shouldered by a bedplate and cylinder block of Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI).

CGI is engineered to ensure graphite is more uniformly dispersed, which delivers higher strength, enhances durability and reduces noise, vibration and harshness (NVH)—a focus of many EcoDiesel design features, such as its structural aluminum oil pan.

The EcoDiesel’s 60-degree cylinder-bank angle and 1-2-3-4-5-6 firing order are optimized to manage inertia and firing loads, eliminating the need for a balance shaft.

The engine’s aluminum cylinder heads are heat-treated and feature individual bearing caps that help reduce friction and NVH. Durability is further ensured by the EcoDiesel’s forged steel crankshaft and connecting rods—which provide additional NVH benefits—and its aluminum alloy pistons. These pistons, which benefit from cooling oil jets, reduce reciprocating mass inside the engine for enhanced efficiency and performance feel.

The dual overhead cams with chain-driven roller-finger followers and gear-to-gear meshing afford efficient valve operation, working in harmony with the variable-geometry, electronically controlled, water-cooled turbocharger. Special attention to this relationship helps to virtually eliminate “turbo lag” by providing increased turbine power at low engine speeds.

The system incorporates a new “pre-filter” on the transmission cross-rail and an engine fuel filter. The result is enhanced prevention of injector corrosion, an enabler of long-term durability, as well as protection from the vagaries of regional fuel quality.

A front-end accessory drive with automatic tensioning single-belt drive highlights the engine’s versatility.

Injection system. The EcoDiesel V-6 features Fiat’s MultiJet II common-rail fuel-injection system with 29,000-psi (2,000-bar) of line pressure. High-dispersion nozzles and a new servo-valve enable fuel-injection events that occur with greater precision up to eight times per cylinder cycle for clean, smooth combustion.

The interval between two consecutive injections also is better modulated to mitigate noise and benefit fuel consumption and emissions reduction. This is known as Injection Rate Shaping.

The resulting flexibility affords optimal efficiency, power on demand and low-speed throttle response.

EcoDiesel’s fast-acting, high-temperature glow plugs operate at higher temperatures than conventional metallic glow plugs. The result is enhanced performance and durability.

Emissions. The new EcoDiesel V-6 achieves 50-state emissions compliance. A key enabler is the engine’s cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system, which is controlled by electric valves instead of the conventional pneumatic variety. The system also contributes to rapid start-up.

An advanced Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system also reduces emissions. It incorporates a novel Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) system that, unlike competitive systems, alerts the driver to low DEF levels while also allowing the engine to maintain full power. Other features include:

  • An insulated DEF tank with heated lines mitigates the effects of cold-weather operation;

  • A passive cooling system (one that does not require engine coolant) for the DEF injector;

  • Exhaust-system refinements to improve the utilization of DEF for NOx reduction while also mitigating harmful DEF crystalline build-up;

  • An exhaust-system design that requires less energy from the engine to achieve optimal emissions conversion temperatures; and

  • An exhaust-system strategy that reduces soot output while also improving fuel economy and meeting emissions standards

The DEF tank holds eight gallons of fluid. Duty cycle determines refills, but the average interval is about 10,000 miles. DEF is commonly available fuel stations and is also offered by Mopar, Chrysler Group’s dealer network and and Cummins dealers and distributors.

The standard engine oil cooler, when the EcoDiesel is used with 5W30 synthetic oil, contributes to a 10,000-mile oil-change interval. The use of B-20 biodiesel is validated and approved for the new 3.0-liter EcoDiesel.

Park-assist. Beginning in model year 2014, the Ram 1500 will offer a front park assist system, a first time offering on a full-size Ram pickup truck. The system uses four sensors located on the front bumper. The bezel-less, integrated sensors sequentially send out ultrasonic waves when the vehicle is driven in forward at low speeds. The system can detect objects as far away as 47.2 inches.

The sending sensor and adjacent sensors pick up the echo of a signal when it bounces off an object. Triangulation is used to determine relative distance, based on elapsed time between the outgoing signal and its return.

Readouts located in the cluster display (and audible chimes) notify the driver of front/rear object proximity.

Fuel savings systems. Fuel-saving systems on the Ram 1500 include a stop-start system, thermal management system, pulse-width modulation and active aerodynamics, including grille shutters and air suspension.

Pulse-width modulation (PWM) is a fuel-saving technology for the Ram 1500, which reduces parasitic electrical load. The technology not only eliminates unnecessary load on the alternator but also improves the durability of benefitting systems. Fuel delivery and the forward cooling fan are two systems that take advantage of PWM, adding a 0.4% improvement in fuel efficiency.

The 2014 Ram 1500 will carry additional uses of PWM technology and a host of new efficiency, comfort and emissions-friendly refinements. These include a variable displacement air-conditioning compressor pulse-width modulated vent blower and humidity sensor.

As opposed to a “fixed” displacement compressor, the variable displacement compressor (VDC) automatically varies its pumping capacity to meet air conditioning demands rather than working in an on/off fashion. As a result, the variable displacement compressor (VDC) lessens loads on the engine, reducing parasitic losses for enhanced fuel efficiency and helping to maintain a consistent cockpit temperature. The technology also reduces related noise and vibration annoyances.

When the interior cabin temperature is higher than what’s desired (outside the automatic temperature control setting), the VDC increases refrigeration capacity until the desired temperature is reached. Once the temperature is reached, the VDC automatically reduces its capacity to maintain the desired temperature rather than shutting off completely.

Like the VDC, the pulse-width modulation (PWM) blower continually controls fan speeds for optimal performance in all driving scenarios. Not unlike other PWM applications that debuted on the 2013 Ram 1500, the pulse-width blower ensures an infinite amount of varying fan speeds to satisfy every customer-requested condition in relation to the air conditioning system.

The new humidity sensor is packaged behind the rearview mirror, and works in tandem with the PWM blower and VDC to continually measure the potential for humidity being formed on the windshield interior. While the sensor enables noticeable de-fogging benefits, it also enables the VDC and PWM blower to run at the most optimal speeds to expedite humidity reduction.

Beginning in 2014, the Ram 1500 will be the first in its competitive set to carry F1234yf refrigerant, an application developed to help reduce greenhouse emissions.

Sales of the 2014 Ram 1500 full-size pickup begin in the fourth quarter of calendar year 2013. Pricing for the 2014 Ram 1500 starts at $24,200, plus $1,095 destination. The exclusive V-6 EcoDiesel with TorqueFlite 8-speed automatic transmission is priced $2,850 greater than a similarly equipped Ram 1500 with a 5.7-liter HEMI V-8 with Torqueflite 8 speed transmission.

June 28, 2013 in Diesel, Engines | Permalink | Comments (8) | TrackBack (0)

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Comments

Sounds impressive. May it be needed and kept 'under load', rather than tooling about wasting resources.

Wasn't this announced 3 months ago? Regardless I think a 1/2 ton diesel pickup is way overdue and I wish them success. I might even buy one when I finally get tired of my 2004 F150, as a 50% increase in mpg would be most welcome!

The 2014 Jeep Grand Cherokee diesel is rated 30 mpg highway. It wouldn't be surprising to see this get the same or better. Just so damn awesome to see the 8 speed being used here. Way to go Chrysler!

Maybe some tweaking of the MultiJet II common-rail fuel-injection system with 29,000-psi (2,000-bar) of line pressure to 2100 or 2200 bar will give a nice 10-15% boost with just programming.

Ram 1500 diesel here I come....

@Dr.Rapidity
Most likely, it is the hardware of the injection system that limits the maximum pressure. Even if you can “program” a higher pressure in the software, the manufacturer of the injection equipment would not deliver to you if they knew that you would tweak the parameters. (Tuning companies may do that but at a considerable increased risk of failure and shortened life, so I never recommend that to anyone.) Currently, Bosch delivers fuel injection components for 2200 bar and I suppose that MultiJet II use some of these components. However, 2000 (and 1800) bar is now the “mainstream” from Bosch and there are significant hardware differences between 2000 and 2200 bar versions. Today, 2200 bar seems to be limited to top-of-the-line engines, such as e.g. the tri-turbo BMW engine.

As noted in another article on this site, Denso will supply a system for 2500 bar after the summer. Thus, it seems as they are leading over Bosch and Delphi for the moment.

There is no reliable theory to calculate the fuel efficiency of reciprocating internal combustion engine (RICE) or to estimate engine out emissions. The perfect gas law T2/T1 = (V1/V2)k-1 which can only be applied to an isentropic process where T2 and T1 have reached equilibrium and can not be applied to the working fluid, which has insufficient time to reach equilibrium. However the sum of total cvT distribution is equal to total internal energy E contained within the total gas volume V, both E and V are state variables and E2/E1 = (V1/V2)k-1 is equation of state which relates state variables E and V.

For a RICE to achieve the maximum possible fuel efficiency with minimum engine out emissions, a new constant-volume and constant-temperature two-stage combustion process is created by replace the constant-pressure combustion process 3a-3b of a limited-pressure combustion cycle 1-2-3a-3b-4-1 with a constant-E (sum of total cvT distribution) combustion process. As a result, the limited-pressure combustion process becomes a constant-volume and constant-temperature two-stage combustion process CVCT. The p-V diagram becomes a E-V diagram. During an adiabatic compression process or expansion process when total volume changes from V1 to V2, internal energy is changed from E1 to E2 with E2 = E1(V1/V2)k-1 to satisfy the law of conservation of energy. During an adiabatic combustion process 2-3, when V3 = V2, heat energy Q, converted from fuel chemical energy per cycle, increases E2 to E3 with E3 = E2 + Q. For a constant-E combustion process, E is not change. The volume change to keep E constant is calculated by V2 = V1(E1/E2)1/(k-1) where E2 is the internal energy at V2 if no heat addition taken place.

The quantity of heat addition during the constant-volume heat addition process 2-3a is limited to ensure that the temperature at the end of this process is below the temperature at which NOx forms. To meet higher loading and torque requirements, the constant-volume heat addition process 2-3a is followed by a constant-E heat addition process 3a-3b. During the constant-E heat addition process, Q converted from fuel chemical energy per cycle is known. The constant-E combustion process 3a-3b is divided into several equal steps. The first step is from V1 = V3a and V2 = V1(E1/E2)1/(k-1). For the next step, V1 is equal to V2 of the previous step and (E1/E2)1/(k-1) is the same of all steps. At the end of the last step, V2 = V3b and E4 = E3b(V3b/V4)k-1. The total internal energy input is E2 + Q with Q = Q2-3a + Q3a-3b and E4 is the exhaust gas internal energy not transformed into work done. Based on internal energy balance, IFCE = (E2 + Q – E4)/(E2 + Q) or 1 – E4/(E2 + Q).

For a compression ratio of 18 and E3a = 650 Btu, IFCE is equal to 0,865 for adiabatic constant-volume combustion process cycle 1-2-3a-4-1. For adiabatic constant-volume and constant-E two-stage combustion cycle 1–2-3a-3b-4-1, IFCE is equal to 0.620 at full load. The maximum combustion pressure and temperature are at state (3a). Throughout the whole engine operating range, no NOx and engine out emission are produced. There is no need for hybrid engine system.

@Peter_XX

About pressure Diesel power magazine says "The design of its V-6 is intended for firing pressures up to 2,940-psi, and the engine freely revs to 5,000 rpm." Banks Diesel has a VM Motori 3.0L but it only packs 268hp with about the same torque of 421. IMHO not exactly a worthwhile engine rebuild to take on for so little power.

http://www.dieselpowermag.com/tech/1208dp_banks_vm_motori_630t_v6_diesel_engine/

About that BMW tri-turbo 3.0L diesel, yeah it is amazing. Ridiculous to get 37.3 mpg highway and 381hp/546lb-ft.

Funny, look what happens when the marketing people get a hold of a word like "PWM," they must think Chrysler invented it! Even my '91 BMW had a PWM-controlled blower and as we all know it's been a common technique in electronics and control systems for many decades.
Some of the engine description looks like it was translated from Italian, or again mangled by marketing speak.
Good to see smaller diesels in pickups though and B-20 validation is a nice surprise.

Dr.Rapidity
Are you confusing maximum cylinder pressure (firing pressure) with maximum injection pressure and/or the units “bar” and “PSI”? There must be some confusion because your comment does not make any sense to me. Conversion of units you can look at yourself but I can tell you that state-of-the-art maximum cylinder pressure for automotive-size diesel engines is 200 bar. Most new engine design will cope with at least 180 bar. Future diesel engines with light-weight steel pistons should be engineered for far higher cylinder pressures (and more power/torque, as well…) than the mentioned BMW engine.

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