Chrysler Group is working with NextEnergy to evaluate vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology using four all-electric minivans. Detroit-based NextEnergy is a non-profit energy-technology and business accelerator.
The battery-powered minivans are connected to a charging module that, using NextEnergy technology, can simulate any electrical grid in the world. Among the scenarios under study is reduced reliance on “spinning reserves”—the expensive practice of having huge generators at the ready to balance spikes in energy demand.
If EVs were linked together in sufficient numbers and their combined surplus power was sold to utility companies, they could conceivably offset demand surges. The expectation is that tapping such a reservoir would cut costs for utility companies, while also generating revenue for EV owners.
Similarly, a mini-grid composed of EVs would enable “peak-shaving,” which would see EV owners draw from their own power reserves during those hours when demand for electricity—along with its price—is highest.
The V2G project also considers the impact of cloudy days on solar-panel function. EVs could provide supplemental power, a process known as “generation-firming.”
The two-year Chrysler-NextEnergy partnership launched in 2011 and has been gathering data from four Chrysler Town & Country minivans equipped with all-electric powertrains. Each is powered by a 24 kWh battery modified to accommodate bidirectional charging.
In addition to studying vehicle design elements such as battery size, engineers are investigating how EVs with reverse power-flow might affect Independent System Operators (ISO). An ISO buys, sells and transmits electricity. Project engineers are collecting real-time pricing data from ISOs and weighing them against projected battery performance to help define revenue expectations.
Preliminary results show particular promise for ISOs that utilize solar and wind energy. Final results will be compiled later this year.
The project is funded with $1 million from the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) and $400,000 from NextEnergy. Chrysler Group is supplying the vehicles and in-kind engineering support.
This program is indicative of our broad-based approach to powertrain development. Advanced internal-combustion technology remains at the core of our efforts, but the present regulatory climate we live in compels all auto makers to explore alternatives such as electrification. We’re choosing to go the extra mile by also exploring how electric vehicles might mesh with our energy infrastructure.—Bob Lee, Chrysler Group Vice President and Head of Engine and Electrified Propulsion Engineering