ADEPT project to apply gasoline engine HyBoost system to diesel; 48V architecture; full hybrid fuel economy at much lower cost
The developers of the successful gasoline-engine HyBoost project (earlier post)—Ricardo, Ford Motor Company, Control Power Technologies (CPT) and the European Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (EALABC)—will be joined by Faurecia Emissions Control Technologies UK Ltd and University of Nottingham to apply the intelligent electrification concept for the first time to a diesel vehicle (a Ford Focus).
The Ricardo-led Advanced Diesel Electric Powertrain (ADEPT) project will apply 48V “intelligent electrification” concepts, mild hybridization and waste heat recovery in a Ford Focus diesel demonstrator. The project aims to deliver full hybrid equivalent fuel economy and performance with less than 70 g/km CO2 emissions as measured over the European Drive Cycle, but at a significantly lower cost.
In the HyBoost project, Ricardo, Ford Motor Company, Control Power Technologies (CPT) and the European Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium (EALABC) demonstrated a concept they termed “intelligent electrification”. This combined combined aggressive 50% downsizing of the engine with an electric supercharger for transient low-speed performance and a 12+X volt micro-hybrid stop-start and energy recuperation systems.
In 2011, the HyBoost team reported that the HyBoost demonstrator was achieving comparable performance to the conventional 2.0L version of its vehicle (a 2009 Ford Focus) but with fuel economy and CO2 emissions approaching those of a Prius.
ADEPT will explore the advantages that can be derived from the use of a 48V architecture—considered more optimal for cost-effective harvesting of kinetic energy—combined with synergistic electrical ancillaries and advanced thermal systems and waste heat recovery technologies.
Vehicle driveability and performance attributes will be optimized through effective application of a belt starter generator (BSG) capable of providing torque assist where required to augment engine performance.
By focusing on the implementation of an extremely pragmatic and synergistic mix of powertrain electrification using available and near-market technologies, we have already shown in the HyBoost project the very significant and cost-effective benefits that can be achieved in a gasoline powertrain and 12+X volt electrification. With the expanded partnership of the new ADEPT project, we aim to take this work forward and demonstrate the benefits of applying 48V intelligent electrification to a diesel powertrain. If successful, we expect that this will deliver the performance, fuel economy and CO2 emissions benefits of a fuel diesel hybrid, but at a fraction of the cost premium over that of the baseline diesel.—Ricardo chief technology and innovation officer Professor Neville Jackson
ADEPT technologies are aimed not only at the C-segment car platform represented by the Ford Focus, but also are relevant across a full range of platforms. Potentially the low voltage technology combination could be applied to something approaching 50 million vehicles per year, suggested ADEPAT partner Controlled Power.
ADEPT will use CPT’s SpeedStart micro-mild hybrid (BSG and stop-start) and TIGERS energy recovery systems.
TIGERS (Turbogenerator Integrated Gas Energy Recovery System) is a liquid-cooled switched reluctance generator coupled to an exhaust-driven low pressure turbine. It is capable of operating in exhaust temperatures up to 850 °C, at speeds up to 60,000 rpm and delivering a peak power of 2 kW (@12V). TIGERS is being developed in conjunction with an electronically controlled by-pass system.
The aim of TIGERS is to harvest energy from the high temperature exhaust gas stream and convert it to useable electrical power as an aid to reducing CO2.
The SpeedStart belt-integrated starter generator (BSG) will be used to recover the vehicle’s kinetic energy during braking events and for torque assist during launch and coasting, delivering an additional 4-8% CO2 reduction at 48V to the 4 % benefit from stop-start measured at 12V on the NEDC.
Stop-start systems are expected to be ubiquitous within the next decade, and the 48V architecture aids their use for diesel engines (covering both car and van markets) where 12 volt systems struggle to provide sufficient power for the potential functionality.
ADEPT will study fundamental thermal and gas emission issues at a holistic level as the diesel powertrain will have to achieve high efficiency to meet emissions standards while under the same cost control pressure as the whole vehicle. Both the SpeedStart and Tigers units may be optimized to reduce the load on the after-treatment system at some operating points.
The development of 48V electrical architecture will facilitate more energy efficient powertrain technologies, including for example the CPT SpeedStart starter-generator, which provides a significant enhancement of the 12V stop-start functionality now commonplace in the European market.
We have been working on a number of applications of low voltage switched reluctance motor-generator technology for more than a decade and they are now approaching the level of readiness required by carmakers to meet European CO2 emission levels reducing to an indicative 68-78g/km by 2025. Switched reluctance motor-generators have no magnets in them, offering excellent controllability for diverse functionality and also avoid the need for increasingly expensive rare earth materials. The ADEPT intelligent electrification technology also requires only a small battery compared to a HEV, PHEV or EV, further reducing cost and complexity.—CPT chief executive Nick Pascoe
ADEPT will also use a carbon-enhanced capacitive lead-acid battery, offering a high power-to-weight ratio.
ALABC and CPT, which are also partners in the 48V LC Super Hybrid program, and shared recipients of this year’s Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership (LowCVP) ‘Low Carbon Champions’ Award, will contribute 43% of the project costs from the consortium partners, with matched funding from the TSB. The overall project budget is approximately £3.25 million (US$5 million).