|Projected ZEV compliance scenario for the eight states. Click to enlarge.|
Eight partnering states released their Multi-State ZEV Action Plan as the first promised milestone for the bi-coastal collaboration to pave the way for increasingly large numbers of zero emission vehicles: plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and hydrogen-powered fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). The partner states are California, Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island and Vermont. Together they represent about a quarter of the nation’s new car sales.
The governors of the 8 states began this latest collaboration with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding on 24 October 2013. (Earlier post.) The ultimate goal is to reduce greenhouse gas and smog-causing emissions by transforming the transportation sector over the next 11 years.
Since the MOU signing, state regulators, the auto industry and infrastructure developers and other stakeholders have shared information and best practices to help move this effort forward.
To date, manufacturers have rolled out more than 2 dozen models in the three ZEV categories. As of April 2014, nearly 200,000 have been sold nationwide. Sales have doubled over the past year alone, with more than half of those sales occurring in the MOU signatory states.
The 8-State ZEV Action Plan provides an overview of the current state of the market. It also provides an agenda to accelerate the development of that market. At the heart of the plan are 11 Key Actions to be taken by all the partners, and the elements needed to successfully complete those actions. The Key Actions are:
Promote the availability and effective marketing of all plug-in electric vehicle models in the states and support these efforts. This will include working with the automobile manufacturers and dealers to ensure that all plug-in electric vehicle models are available for sale and aggressively marketed in all MOU states.
It also includes working with automakers and dealers to identify, evaluate, and implement creative financing approaches and other effective strategies to reduce vehicle purchase price and increase ZEV sales.
Provide consumer incentives to enhance the ZEV ownership experience. A number of actions are proposed here, including supporting and enabling reciprocity for non-monetary ZEV incentives across MOU states; establishing a common image or decal to identify qualifying vehicles; and evaluating opportunities to increase the effectiveness of state-provided purchase incentives by converting them to “point-of-purchase” rebates to provide a stronger incentive at the time of sale and to qualify more consumers for the full value of this sales incentive.
The action plan also suggests conducting a collective study to evaluate the effectiveness of various local, state, and national ZEV incentives to inform state and local government policy.
Lead by example through increasing ZEVs in state, municipal, and other public fleets. The plans calls for establishing a goal that a minimum of 25% of new light-duty state fleet purchases and leases for applicable uses, to the extent available, will be ZEVs by 2025.
Encourage private fleets to purchase, lease, or rent ZEVs. The plan suggests implementing high profile public-private programs, such as Governors’ events and recognition programs, to promote and encourage ZEVs in private fleets and workplace charging programs. It also suggests coordinating with academics, nonprofit partners, and the US DOE to help fleet managers develop the business case for integrating ZEVs into their fleets.
Promote workplace charging. The plan calls for a goal that by 2020, all interested state agency employees with plug-in vehicles (PEVs) will have a place to charge them. The plan also suggests promoting the installation of charging infrastructure for commuters at public transit hubs.
Promote ZEV infrastructure planning and investment by public and private entities. This will entail researching driver charging behavior to determine the need for non-residential charging, including the level of charging and importance of location, as well as collaborating in the coordinated deployment of DC fast chargers along key inter-state corridors to facilitate long-range PEV travel along priority roadways. (Examples are the I-95 Northeast Corridor and the I-5 West Coast Highway.)
The plan further suggests coordinating with researchers to undertake multi-state mapping and modeling analyses to inform the design and implementation of efficient corridor charging networks, and pursuing resource partnerships to design and execute a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle infrastructure feasibility study for the MOU states outside of California.
All appropriate charging/fueling installations receiving public funding should be open to the public and accessible to all PEV/FCEV drivers.
Provide clear and accurate signage to direct ZEV users to charging and fueling stations and parking. Coordinating with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) should ensure sufficient and up-to-date coverage of uniform signage on federal highways using the “Alternative Electric Vehicle Charging Symbol Sign.”
Remove barriers to ZEV charging and fueling station installations. A key task here is the development of consistent policies, codes and standards to facilitate the deployment of charging stations. The plan suggests coordinating with nonprofit groups developing model codes and standards to promote consistency in the development of state and local government requirements related to the installation of PEV charging infrastructure.
The plan also calls for establishing consistent codes and standards for ZEV infrastructure through revisions to national and state building codes.
Promote access, compatibility, and interoperability of the plug-in electric vehicle charging network. The plan supports the adoption and implementation of effective National Institute of Standards and Technology standards for EVSE interoperability as a basic step.
Remove barriers to retail sale of electricity and hydrogen as transportation fuels and promote competitive plug-in electric vehicle charging rates. Appropriate legislation, regulations, standards, or certifications will be needed to enable the commercial sale of electric vehicle charging and hydrogen as transportation fuel, including on a per-kilowatt-hour or on a per-kilogram basis, and ensure transparent pricing.
Track and report progress toward meeting the goal of 3.3 million ZEVs on our roadways by 2025. The plan calls for annual reports on the number of ZEVs registered in the states; the number of public fueling stations; and the number of ZEV acquisitions in state fleets.
The ZEV action plan also includes steps individual states may take, as well as examples of successful existing state programs to improve the experience of drivers and owners.
Key research needs identified in the Action Plan include:
Consumer charging behavior research to evaluate the need for non-residential charging infrastructure in terms of location and charging level.
Multi-state mapping and modeling analyses to inform the design and implementation of efficient corridor charging networks.
Evaluation of network designs for optimal PEV charging.
Design and execution of a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle infrastructure feasibility study for the MOU states outside of California.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of various local, state and national purchase incentives.
Assessment of creative vehicle financing innovations.
Consumer and market research to better understand how ZEVs are being used, consumer needs, and owner interests to inform ZEV policies and programs.
Outreach to fleet owners to enhance understanding of their needs and interests and develop a business case for private fleet managers to integrate ZEVs into their fleets.
Evaluation of best practices and innovative approaches to ZEV marketing by automobile dealers and analysis of the effectiveness of ZEV marketing by manufacturers.
Evaluation of the impact of expanding ZEV model availability on unique state fleet mix issues.
Evaluation of “smart” charging options to save consumers money and minimize grid impacts.
Promotion and support of research on emerging issues, such as vehicle-to-grid options and the development of advanced technologies and methods for the safe and efficient recycling of battery packs from plug-in electric vehicles.
Evaluation of the logistical and financial impact on municipalities that provide preferential and reduced rate parking for ZEV.
Assessment of policies and incentives to increase ZEVs in rental car and car-sharing fleets, particularly for use in high-profile locations such as airports, through financial subsidies or state contract preferences.
Technology assessment of the performance, durability, and cost of battery and fuel cell technologies, including cold temperature operation.
Development of effective public outreach initiatives.
Development of a guide for costs and considerations to install EVSE for businesses and governments, including the economic benefits associated with providing PEV charging services for industry members such as home builders associations, the hospitality industry, etc.