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DOE seeking input on commercialization of fuel cells as range extenders for battery-electric vehicles

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has issued a Request for Information (RFI) (DE-FOA-0001145) to solicit feedback from industry, academia, research laboratories, government agencies, and other stakeholders on issues related to the technical and economic feasibility of commercializing fuel cell range extenders for available battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) in the US market.

DOE’s office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) is specifically interested in information on BEV makes and models where an after-market modification to extend the vehicle range using a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell system would be most feasible.

The RFI is seeking input on a number of questions, including:

  • The business case (including capital/operating cost reductions) for using prime battery propulsion with fuel cell range extenders for light-duty vans or delivery vehicles used to deliver parcels, to dispatch service technicians, or to shuttle individuals or small groups of people within service territories.

  • Potential vehicle technical performance improvements for an on-board PEM fuel cell range extender supporting prime battery propulsion, e.g., battery durability, productivity improvements (e.g. low downtime for refueling), or vehicle torque.

  • The potential increase in fleet customers, given an increase in electric range.

  • Potential for reductions in manufacturing cost, weight, and volume of the electric drivetrain by reducing the size of the battery and offsetting with the PEM fuel cell and energy storage.

  • The potential air emissions advantages of fuel cell range extenders as compared to other technologies shown in this table:

      BEV, US grid FCEV, SMR H2 BEV w/FC, SMR H2 Gasoline PHEV40 Gasoline HEV Gasoline ICEV Diesel ICEV
    Elec. drive Wh/mi 300 300 278
    mpgge 61 43 41 32 38
    Max. range, miles 80 (24 kWh pack) 300 40 (12 kWh batt.) + 180 (3 kg H2) 500 500 400 450
    Grams GHG/mi 210 250 240 220 270 340 300

  • Regulatory considerations in terms of a value proposition such as compliance with noise and anti-idling laws.

  • The role of government support in accelerating deployment.

  • The minimum number of vehicles (deployed with government support) needed to: (1) provide enough data and analysis for industry acceptance and (2) enable further deployments without government assistance.

  • present economic and non-technical barriers to commercializing the technology application.

  • Regulation or permitting issues in locating a suitably sized technology deployment project.

  • Challenges in providing refueling infrastructure.

  • Technical advantages that would make fuel cell range extenders more viable than BEVs or Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs).

  • Technology advances for PEM fuel cell range extenders that would make them more commercially viable.

  • The potential for adding a fuel cell range extender to a commercial BEV to make that vehicle platform more viable.

In addition to responses on the specific issues raised, DOE is also looking for comment on five key general issues for the category: potential impact; additionality (e.g., expanding the number of participants); openness; the proper role of government; and the enduring economic benefit.




Renault and La Poste should be able to provide good input, as they are already doing it:

Where they are using it, in the French Alps, zero emissions at point of use from the FCEV RE are particularly important, as a diesel or petrol model at that altitude especially in the winter would be burning fuel pretty inefficiently with emissions to match.


Researchers at Washington State University have recently come out with a SOFC that can use gasoline as a fuel without reforming- if commercially viable this may prove to be the perfect range extender for BEVs.


Link for the SOFC here:

I don't much fancy it myself, as in addition to the comments in the thread the high temperature of SOFC is a problem for cars, and if you are using gasoline then there are still pollution issues.

Near term at least, good old fashioned PEM and hydrogen would seem to be the way to go.


Volvo started this program years ago. They have a small PEM in a C30 electric with a fuel reformer. They can use ethanol, methanol, gasoline or diesel. No high pressure tank nor filling station availability problems. This makes SO much sense, but I guess going 30 miles on $1 per gallon methanol makes TOO much sense.


If they can get their 25kw S2 stack going it sounds ideal.

Here is how they are getting along:

as can be seen, they need to upgrade from 3kw, increase the cycle life and improve low and high temperature performance.

This data sheet is from 27th Nov 2013, so you can see how far they have got and what is still to do.


My point is they do studies and grants with just enough to go broke. we don't go for it in a big way and get it done. The oil companies have big lobbies, they don't mind them messing around and never achieving a solution that uses less oil.


Technologies take time to mature.

This is an extra challenge on top of fuel cells, as it needs on-board reforming.

I am as up for a tasty conspiracy theory as the next man, but I can't really see anything suspicious here!

No doubt the battery only brigade will fulminate that this is itself a 'cunning plan' to perpetuate fossil fuels! ;-)


I should add that apart from building a lightweight reformer, the fuel cell itself has to be extremely tolerant to residual pollutants.

That is why initially the emphasis is on on board, already reformed pure hydrogen.


It does not have to be a conspiracy, the motives are obvious and the fossil fuel industry is linked by the desire for more profits from fossil fuels.

Under the previous administration coal top mining was allowed to blow off mountain tops then put the rubble into the river canyons. Coal fired power plants we allowed to expand without upgrading to recent standards because they were built prior to 1970 and the creation of EPA.

This was no accident, fossil fuel lobbies made sure this all happened with a willing group in the White House. We will never achieve "sustainable mobility" when the fix is in. We all know which party is all for the fix being in for fossil fuels, that is where big money party donations come from.


?? It is clearly a much tougher challenge to build an on-board reformer AND a contaminant tolerant fuel cell than simply to build a fuel cell, and since the latter has only just come into the realm of production capable reality, I have not got a clue what you are on about.


It is no problem, slightly higher temperature PEM fuel cells (just above 212f) are much more CO tolerant, but you won't see grants for much of that either.

My previous post was in reference to you mentioning "conspiracy". I guess that is one way to sweep truth under the rug, just say it is someones imagination.

Conspiracy requires collusion, there may be no collusion but the link is oil and coal companies want even more profits and anyone who threatens those profits needs to be stopped.


In the Land of the Braves and the Free, Coal and Oil are Kings.

In the Land of the Just and Rightful, Sun and Wind may become Kings.

What is right today may be very wrong tomorrow?

Our children and grand children will hopefully see Oil and Coal burning with different eyes.


The American Petroleum Institute is optimistic it can convince a majority in the House to endorse reforming or repealing the renewable fuel standard (RFS)

Roger Pham

The advantage of PEM FC is that pure H2 is required that would make electrolytic H2 from RE more competitive. This will open up bigger market for RE investment without worrying about intermittency issue that would increase the cost of RE electricity. A BEV does not have such a role in the promotion of RE because a BEV is charged from the grid, for which RE is more expensive.


Good point RP. Unfortunately, not so many posters can see it (yet).

It also applies to NPPs whereby the excess e-power generated during very low consumption hours could be used to produce and store low cost H2?

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