China team reports high-rate, high-capacity, long lifecycle Li-sulfur cell using nitrogen-doped graphene cathode material
Gibson Energy and USD Group begin operations at Hardisty Rail Terminal for oil sands crude; to double capacity with phase 2

California state agencies “rolling out carpet” for hydrogen electric vehicles

California is rolling out the carpet for Californians who choose these ultra-clean hydrogen powered electric cars and for the companies that make them,” said Air Resources Board Chairman Mary D. Nichols.

California state agencies are collaborating on a range of initiatives to support the goal of 1.5 million zero-emission vehicles on the road by 2025. Last week, the California Energy Commission carried out one of these initiatives, voting to use nearly $50 million to put in place 28 new, public hydrogen refueling stations and one mobile refueler by the end of 2015. (Earlier post.)

The move was one of several actions designed to help achieve a key goal of the state’s zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) plan: to accelerate construction of hydrogen refueling infrastructure across the state.

These private-public partnerships to build dozens of hydrogen fueling stations set the stage for hydrogen fuel cell electric cars to become commonplace on our streets and provide a new generation of long-range zero-emission vehicles for California consumers.

—Chairman Nichols

Making the transition to cleaner, lower polluting near-zero and zero-emission vehicles is a critical component to addressing California’s clean air and climate challenges. The transportation sector accounts for about 40 percent of the state’s greenhouse gas emissions. We are pleased to be part of this state collaboration and will continue to work diligently on standing up hydrogen fuel cells and other electric vehicle technologies.

—Janea A. Scott, the California Energy Commission’s lead commissioner on transportation

In Silicon Valley, the Governor’s Office of Business and Economic Development (GO-Biz) and the California Fuel Cell Partnership held an in-depth workshop with local officials to discuss the deployment of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and supporting hydrogen refueling infrastructure.

The state’s effort to bring more FCEVs to the road and the infrastructure to fuel them features support from Toyota, station developers, the Fuel Cell Partnership, the Air Resources Board, the California Energy Commission and GO-Biz.

GO-Biz brings hands-on experience cutting through red tape, which will be used to get stations permitted and constructed in a timely manner. The Air Resources Board and Energy Commission provide the longest running state-level experience in the country when it comes to hydrogen vehicle and infrastructure development.

Twenty hydrogen refueling stations have received funding from the Energy Commission and 28 more stations are scheduled:

  • First Element (19 stations in partnership with Toyota)
  • HyGen Industries (3 stations)
  • Linde, LLC (2 stations)
  • Air Liquide Industrial US LP (1 station)
  • ITM Power, Inc. (1 station)
  • Hydrogen Technology & Energy Corporation (1 station)
  • Ontario CNG Station, Inc. (1 station)
  • Institute of Gas Technology (1 mobile refueling station)

There are currently 10 operational hydrogen refueling stations in California—the most recent opened in May 2014 on the CSU Los Angeles campus. With the announcement of Energy Commission funding for additional stations, California is slated to have 51 public hydrogen refueling facilities on line by 2017.

Two-hundred-million dollars in cap-and-trade proceeds has been allocated for low-carbon transportation projects, $116 million of which is slated for the Clean Vehicle Rebate Project, providing up to $5,000 per vehicle.

To date the state has committed about $110 million to hydrogen infrastructure. This puts California on a glide path to 100 stations, the state’s goal for launching a commercially self-sustaining network to support a growing number of FCEVs.

The second initiative involves California joining two national programs organized by the U.S. Department of Energy to develop hydrogen infrastructure across the country.

First, the Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology (H2FIRST) project is led by the Sandia Laboratories and the Department of Energy’s National Energy Renewable Laboratory. By focusing on the national laboratories’ core capabilities, the effort will speed and support the widespread deployment of FCEVs.

The H2FIRST project will complement California’s second national partnership, H2USA. This public-private partnership brings together automakers, government agencies, gas suppliers, and the hydrogen and fuel cell industries to coordinate research and identify cost-effective ways to deploy infrastructure that can deliver affordable, clean hydrogen fuel in the United States.

Another initiative has California working with other states to harmonize regulations and building codes to ease the location and construction of refueling stations for hydrogen and electric vehicles. An eight-state ZEV Action Plan released last month lays the foundation to coordinate efforts among California, New York, Maryland, Connecticut, Oregon, Massachusetts, Vermont and Rhode Island.

The goal of this collaborative effort is to put 3.3 million ZEVs on the highways in those states by 2025 with the goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, improving air quality and public health, while enhancing energy diversity, saving consumers money and promoting economic growth.

Comments

Davemart

Hydrogen stations are not the only things which cost money:

'A hidden hazard lurks beneath many of the roughly 156,000 gas stations across the United States.

The hazard is corrosion in parts of underground gas storage tanks -- corrosion that could result in failures, leaks and contamination of groundwater, a source of drinking water. In recent years, field inspectors in nine states have reported many rapidly corroding gas storage tank components such as sump pumps. These incidents are generally associated with use of gasoline-ethanol blends and the presence of bacteria, Acetobacter aceti, which convert ethanol to acetic acid, a component of vinegar.

Following up on the inspectors' findings, a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) laboratory study has demonstrated severe corrosion -- rapidly eating through 1 millimeter of wall thickness per year -- on steel alloy samples exposed to ethanol and acetic acid vapors. Based on this finding, NIST researchers suggest gas stations may need to replace submersible pump casings, typically made of steel or cast iron, sooner than expected. Such retrofits could cost an estimated $1,500 to $2,500 each, and there are more than 500,000 underground gas storage tanks around the country.'

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140731150057.htm

That is a minimum of a billion or so to bring present petrol stations up to scratch in this respect.

Existing stations were largely built when toxic spills were discounted.


Hydrogen is non toxic, although of course in a large enough leak there is a fire hazard, but rarely explosive as the hydrogen tends to escape upwards instead of pooling on the ground as petrol does.

SJC

The U.S. government has a Leaking Tank Fund to clean some up, this has been happening for a long time. Congress has decided to loot that fund to pay for the recent highway bill, rather than index the gas tax to wholesale prices and inflation.

gorr

Im ready to look at the show starting soon, I hope it will be a big success and that it will have a lot of video on youtube showing hydrogen cars rolling on the roads and refueling in less than 5 minutes. I hope that they begin a hydrogen roll out in my area some day, I need to see it for myself. It's better in that website contrary to autobloggreen where there is a lot of hydrogen naysayer.

Engineer-Poet

The decision isn't between petroleum and hydrogen.  The decision is between electric and hydrogen.  Electricity has neither explosion nor spill hazards.

This really needs to be chosen carefully, because hydrogen is most cheaply made via SMR, while electricity is cheaper from a variety of sources compared to even natural gas.  If SMR is used, producers will have a strong incentive to cheat on disposal and dump the CO2 to the atmosphere.

DaveD

E-P has this one right guys. It's between H2 and EVs going forward.

The EVs will win. Sorry to my friends Davemart and gor, but to paraphrase Agent Smith: "That my friends, is the sound of inevitability"

:)

dursun

Pissing away money for Greenwashing

Roger Pham

Folks, it's FreedomCAR ... finally comes to fruition,can you feel it...feel the freedom coming after 100 years of being fixated to fossil fuels...truly worthy of the red carpet rollout! Just FEEL...and do not think...for you will miss the full-force of fun and fervor...

300-mile range on just a 3-minute fillup on renewable fuel...no more oil spills, pollution, oil wars, oil shocks...etc freedom from GHG release and GW and Climate Change...

Let's enjoy the Red carpet roll out...and another drum roll, please!!!

Engineer-Poet

But Roger, hydrogen doesn't give you freedom from GHG release.  The low-cost producers are going to be methane reformers and possibly coal gasifiers, not wind or PV (or even nuclear).  They'll dump their CO2 if they can get away with it, because sequestration costs money; even then, there will be leaks.

A 120 kWh Tesla will have a range approaching 400 miles.  A Supercharger will be able to pump 200 miles into its battery in 30 minutes.  The electric has the advantage that one almost never needs to visit a filling (charging) station in normal use.  With charging at meal breaks and bathroom breaks, the difference in user experience on long trips will be tiny... and the elimination of chemical fuel means that carbon can be eliminated completely.

SJC

Large facilities making hydrogen from natural gas do not need to store the CO2, they make synthetic fuels out of it. The station not only sells hydrogen for cars, but synthetic gasoline for cars.

Engineer-Poet

Which still puts the carbon into the atmosphere.

Really, I wish you could listen to yourself sometimes.

SJC

Now you have TWO vehicles transporting for one unit of carbon. You would have vented the carbon AND burnt one one unit for TWO units emitted, you also use natural gas instead of imported oil.

I really wish you would think before posting, then you might not seem so arrogant and stupid. Back to ignoring your idiocy.

SJC

Clarification on the previous post, the carbon part not the idiocy part. Octane is C8H18, since methane from natural gas is C4, you need more carbon.

For simplicity, let us say a gasoline car emits TWO units of carbon. Two gasoline cars would emit FOUR units of carbon. Now you are using natural gas, but since 1 in 1000 cars is powered by natural gas, it is more useful to make gasoline.

Now you have ONE car emitting NO carbon and ONE car emitting TWO units of carbon instead of two cars emitting FOUR units. Use the carbon twice, cut the emissions in half. It is equivalent to having two natural gas cars, but since few cars are natural gas, this is more useful.

Engineer-Poet
Now you have TWO vehicles transporting for one unit of carbon. You would have vented the carbon AND burnt one one unit for TWO units emitted

stoichiometry [stoi-kee-om-i-tree] noun
1.  the calculation of the quantities of chemical elements or compounds involved in chemical reactions.
2.  the branch of chemistry dealing with relationships of combining elements, especially quantitatively.

Reducing carbon dioxide requires the removal of 2 atoms of oxygen.  If it is removed as H2O, each CO2 molecule requires 4 atoms of hydrogen plus whatever becomes part of the final product.  If the hydrogen is donated by methane and the product is an alkane of formula (CH2)n, 3 molecules of CH4 are required to reduce 1 molecule of CO2:
  3 CH4 + CO2 -> 2 H2O + 4 CH2

Saturated alkanes have the formula CnH(2n+2).  The stoichiometry of methane and CO2 would actually produce pentane, for a methane:CO2 ratio of 4:1.  And that's if you somehow input enough energy from other sources to do the reduction without having to discard energy from e.g. partial oxidation of methane to produce syngas.

In practice, this means that your ratio isn't 1 mole carbon recycled to 1 mole methane, it's 1 mole recycled to a minimum of 4 moles of methane.  And that, my innumerate friend, isn't remotely good enough to make it worthwhile.  We need an 80% reduction in carbon emissions, meaning we need to spec 100% in order to deal with the compromises; 20% is barely worth mentioning.

Roger Pham

@EP,
The potential for GHG-free with FCEV or BEV are there. The steady decline in cost of RE will soon make it the energy source of choice.

@SJC,
it is quite a clever observation to use NG for both gasoline and H2 production. 8 molecules of CH4 will have 32H, while gasoline needs only 18H, leaving 12H to make 6 H2. I don't know what synthetic method for this, but if it will be more efficient than SMR, then quite a good idea.

Roger Pham

OK, here goes NG to Gasoline and H2 synthetic steps:

8CH4 + 8H2O ->SMR-> 8CO + 24H2
We only need 9H2 to make gasoline, and 8H2 to return as 8H2O at the end, leaving 7H2 available for
separation and stored separately as H2 output.
The 8CO and 9H2 will go on with F-T synthesis to make gasoline.

Does this combined process represent any efficiency gain over the 70%-efficient process of SMR? And the GTL process in which the excess H2 is oxidized into H2O?
In the SMR process, the Carbon is discarded, while in the GTL process, excess H2 is discarded.
The invested heat can be recycled for the next cycle, perhaps boosting overall efficiency more.

http://petrowiki.org/Gas_to_liquids_%28GTL%29

Verify your Comment

Previewing your Comment

This is only a preview. Your comment has not yet been posted.

Working...
Your comment could not be posted. Error type:
Your comment has been posted. Post another comment

The letters and numbers you entered did not match the image. Please try again.

As a final step before posting your comment, enter the letters and numbers you see in the image below. This prevents automated programs from posting comments.

Having trouble reading this image? View an alternate.

Working...

Post a comment

Your Information

(Name is required. Email address will not be displayed with the comment.)