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Danish Parker project developing universal definition for EV integration with electric grid for V2G services

Nissan, Mitsubishi Corporation, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation, PSA Groupe, NUVVE, Frederiksberg Forsyning, Enel, Insero and DTU (Technical University of Denmark) Electrical Engineering (PowerLabDK) are partnering in the Danish project Parker to develop a universal definition for grid integration for electric vehicles.

Parker’s objective is to validate that series-produced electric vehicles—as part of an operational vehicle fleet—can support the power grid by becoming a vertically integrated resource, providing seamless support to the power grid both locally and system-wide. Furthermore, Parker seeks to ensure that barriers regarding market, technology and users are dealt with to pave the way for further commercialization, as well as to provide an evaluation of specific electric vehicles’ capability to meet the needs of the grid.

Parker builds on the following three pillars:

  • Grid applications: The project will study the practical applications of power and energy services on contemporary electric vehicles in order to identify technical, economic and regulatory barriers for these applications and to finally identify viable business cases.

  • Grid readiness certificate: Parker will specify the technical parameters (grid keys) needed by electric vehicles to provide power and energy services to the grid. Furthermore, the project will produce a Grid Integrated Vehicle (GIV) certificate that demonstrates the ability of electric vehicles to support such parameters.

  • Replicability and scalability: The project will promote replicability of the investigated applications across geographies, technologies and user groups. Also, Parker will investigate the economic and technical impacts of the applications on the power system and markets.

The Parker project builds on two previous projects, EDISON and Nikola, which have laid the foundation for understanding the electric vehicle’s potential in balancing the Danish power system. Parker represents the next technology readiness level by allowing balancing services to be applied to a fleet of electric vehicles.

Nissan, Mitsubishi and PSA Groupe have already implemented vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology in various car models. However, a global rollout of grid-integrated vehicles calls for common ground—a universal definition—so thousands of electric vehicles of all makes and regardless of their location will be able to provide electricity to the power grid according to the local grid needs.

Electric cars can help to stabilize the grid more quickly if the power supply suddenly fails to match consumption. The electricity grid must maintain a constant balance between production and consumption in order to avoid power outages. In this context, electric vehicles can help ease overproduction of current by using some of the surplus to charge their batteries. Similarly, they can reduce a power shortfall either by ceasing charging, or by returning power to the grid. Electric vehicles can respond quickly to grid imbalances.

It is important to have a common definition of what the grid-integrated vehicle is, as it ensures that cars, across contemporary brands of series produced vehicles, have the technical capabilities required to optimally support the grid.

— Peter Bach Andersen, Researcher at the Center for Electric Power and Energy, DTU Electrical Engineering and Project Manager of the Parker project

To achieve this common definition, the Danish project will demonstrate and define the technical capabilities which future electric vehicles must support in order to roll out V2G worldwide.

It is very exciting to see the different partners coming together, including utilities and car manufacturers, joining DTU and Nuvve in Denmark, where we have been pioneering V2G research for the last 5 years.

—Prof. Willett Kempton, Nuvve’s CTO and the inventor of the Grid Integrated Vehicle concept

In the project, the partners will explore the most viable commercial opportunities by systematically testing and demonstrating V2G services across car brands. Here, economic and regulatory barriers will be identified as well as the economic and technical impacts of the applications on the power system and markets.

The Parker project will interface with and pull data from the Frederiksberg Pilot. The Frederiksburg Pilot is a real-world test of 10 Nissan eNV200 cars and ten Enel V2G charger stations. California-based Nuvve is the provider of the platform that controls the power flow to and from the cars. The platform, initially developed by the University of Delaware is now supported and commercialized by Nuvve.

The project period is August 2016 to July 2018; the project has an overall budget of DKK 14,731,471 (US$2.1 million) which is financed by ForskEL.

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