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Study finds Neste renewable diesel significantly reduces PM emissions in off-road mobile machinery; lower number and mass

A study led by researchers at Tampere University of Technology in Finland found that the use of neat Neste MY Renewable Diesel in working machines—a Wille 355B compact utility machine and Wille 855C multi-purpose wheel-loader—efficiently reduces particulate matter emissions compared to EN590 diesel with 7% biodiesel. With renewable diesel, both the number of particles as well as particulate mass were reduced in nearly all of the operating cycles of the working machines.

Both machines were certified to European Stage IIIA standards for non-road mobile machinery (NRMM). The 2009 Wille 355B uses a 36 kW naturally aspirated engine; the 2014 Wille 855C uses a 97 kW common rail turbo with intercooler.

Neste
Exhaust particle number concentration (NC) and mass concentration (MC) during the test cycle for the 355b loader using EN590 B7 and Neste MY Renewable Diesel. Click to enlarge.

In this study, the use of renewable diesel in working machines reduced particulate mass by 35 percent on average, and in the best case by nearly 60 percent. Significant reductions of emissions, such as found in this study, have a huge impact on the operator of the machine as well as others in close proximity.

—Neste fuel and engine expert Jukka Nuottimäki

Properties of the tested fuels
Property EN590 B7 Neste MY Renewable Diesel
density at 15 ˚C, kg/m3 841 780
viscosity at 40 ˚C, mm2/2 3.6 2.8
aromatic hydrocarbons, wt-% 16.1 0.3
net heating value, MJ/kg 42.7 43.9
neat heating value, MJ/l 35.9 34.2
cetane number IQT 57 79
final boiling point, ˚C 356.5 303.5
sulfur content, mg/kg 6.6 <1
ash content, wt-% <0.001 <0.001
FAME content, vol-% 7.3

The benefits of renewable diesel usage in working machines - such as in street sweepers, excavators and snowplows - are even greater on the average than those resulting from the use in passenger vehicles or trucks. This has to do with the fact that working machines typically lack aftertreatment systems that can already be found in the newest passenger vehicles and trucks.

—postdoctoral researcher Panu Karjalainen from Tampere University of Technology

The tests covered, for example, loading and driving of the working machine both with and without load.

The test results will be published as part of a more comprehensive study report in fall 2017. In addition to researchers from Tampere University of Technology, the project involved also researchers and experts from VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Neste.

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