[Due to the increasing size of the archives, each topic page now contains only the prior 365 days of content. Access to older stories is now solely through the Monthly Archive pages or the site search function.]
New high-performance foldable cathode for Li-S batteries based on 3D activated carbon fiber matrix
September 28, 2016
A team at Sun Yat-sen University in China has developed new high-performance, stable cathode for Li-S batteries consisting of a 3D activated carbon fiber matrix (ACFC) and sulfur.
The structured 3D foldable sulfur cathode (ACFC-S) delivers a reversible capacity of about 979 mAh g−1 at 0.2C; a capacity retention of 98% after 100 cycles; and 0.02% capacity attenuation per cycle. Even at an areal capacity of 6 mAh cm−2—2 times higher than the values of Li-ion batteries—it still maintains an excellent rate capability and cycling performance. An open access paper on their work is published in Scientific Reports.
BioSolar begins development of high-energy anode technology
BioSolar, a developer of energy storage technology and materials, has begun development of a high energy anode for current- and next-generation lithium batteries. While this anode is an independent technology, the Company will seek synergies with the Super Cathode technology it has been developing. (Earlier post.)
BioSolar’s cathode technology, which has been the primary focus of its university-led research and development efforts, is a novel conductive polymer material that leverages fast redox-reaction properties rather than conventional lithium-ion intercalation chemistry to enable rapid charge and discharge. In contrast, BioSolar’s new anode technology is compatible with existing lithium-ion intercalation chemistries.
Vattenfall, BMW and Bosch test second-life EV battery electricity storage in Hamburg for grid stabilization
September 23, 2016
Vattenfall, BMW and Bosch are testing the use of second-life EV batteries in a 2 MW, 2,800 kWh energy storage system in Hamburg, Germany, to keep the electricity grid stable.
The electricity storage facility comprises 2,600 battery modules from more than 100 electric vehicles. It could supply electricity to an average two-person household for seven months. However, the stored energy is not intended for general supply, but instead is sold on the primary control reserve market by Vattenfall, along with power from other flexibly controllable facilities. The storage facility delivers primary control reserve power necessary to keep the 50 Hz grid frequency stable. Primary control reserve power must be available within a few seconds.
Lead-acid battery companies join forces with Argonne to enhance battery performance
September 20, 2016
Exploring the unrealized potential of lead batteries is the goal of a new collaboration between the US Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory and two leading lead recycling and lead battery manufacturing companies: RSR Technologies and East Penn Manufacturing.
The collaboration will enable RSR and East Penn to use Argonne‘s state-of-the-art analytic technologies to accelerate the research of lead batteries in order to enhance performance. Tests undertaken will investigate the fundamental transport processes in lead batteries using a variety of characterization techniques available at Argonne.
UNIST/Stanford team develops new Li-ion anode with silicon-nanolayer-embedded graphite/carbon; 1,043 Wh/l full LiCoO2 cell
September 19, 2016
Researchers affiliated with Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), South Korea, and Stanford University have demonstrated the feasibility of a next-generation hybrid anode for high-capacity Li-on batteries using silicon-nanolayer-embedded graphite/carbon.
This architecture allows compatibility between silicon and natural graphite and addresses the issues of severe side reactions caused by structural failure of crumbled graphite dust and uncombined residue of silicon particles by conventional mechanical milling. A paper describing the work is published in the journal Nature Energy.
Ilika to work with Johnson Matthey on 3-year project to develop protected anodes for Li-S batteries
September 18, 2016
UK-based materials company Ilika, also a developer of solid-state batteries, is taking part in a three-year project to develop protected anodes for lithium sulfur batteries, led by Johnson Matthey Plc and supported by Innovate UK and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). £365,133 (US$475,000) of the grant will be used to fund project activities at Ilika.
This project will develop an innovative approach to protected lithium anodes, via Ilika’s high-throughput materials development technique, to discover new electrolyte composition options and fabricate a free-standing, lithium-containing protected anode/separator for integration into pouch cells.
24M and partners awarded $3.5M from ARPA-E to develop ultra-high-energy density batteries with new lithium-metal anodes
September 16, 2016
As part of its new IONICS (Integration and Optimization of Novel Ion Conducting Solids) program awards (earlier post), the US Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) awarded $3.5 million in funding to a team that includes 24M, Sepion Technologies, Berkeley Lab, and Carnegie Mellon University. The funds will be used to develop novel membranes and lithium-metal anodes for the next generation of high-energy-density, low-cost batteries.
24M’s core technology is semi-solid lithium-ion, a new class of lithium-ion batteries that will be initially deployed in stationary storage. With this ARPA-E program, 24M and its partners will extend the capabilities of semi-solid electrodes to ultra-high-energy density cells that use lithium-metal anodes.
ARPA-E awards $37M for IONICS projects; improving solid-state batteries and fuel cells
September 14, 2016
The US Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) announced $37 million in funding for 16 innovative new projects as part of a new ARPA-E program: Integration and Optimization of Novel Ion-Conducting Solids (IONICS). IONICS project teams are paving the way for technologies that overcome the limitations of current battery and fuel cell products.
By creating high performance parts built with solid ion conductors—solids in which ions can be mobile and store energy—the IONICS program will focus on new ways to process and integrate these parts into devices with the goal of accelerating their commercial deployment. In particular, IONICS projects will work to improve energy storage and conversion technologies in three categories: transportation batteries, grid-level storage, and fuel cells.
World’s largest 2nd-use battery storage starting up; Daimler, Mobility House, GETEC
September 13, 2016
The world’s largest 2nd-use battery storage is starting up. The 13 MWh project is now nearing completion after a construction time of just under one year; a total of 1,000 battery systems from second-generation smart fortwo electric drive cars are being grouped into a battery storage in Lünen, Westphalia. Partners in the project are Daimler AG, The Mobility House AG and GETEC.
The first power units are already in the grid. The 13 MWh battery storage will put its full capacity at the disposal of the German energy market before the end of this year. The output will be available to the winner of the weekly auctions among the network operators for primary controlling power range, with fully automatic energy storage and feed-in.
A123 collaborating with Argonne on new Li-ion NMC cathode targeting EV applications
September 10, 2016
A123 Systems LLC, a developer and manufacturer of advanced lithium-ion batteries and systems, will collaborate with Argonne National Laboratory on an advanced nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) cathode development program that results in safe lithium-ion batteries with high energy densities and long lifetimes.
The three-year, multi-million dollar agreement between A123 Systems and Argonne National Laboratory will focus on improving the cathode safety without compromising cell energy density or battery life. With A123 playing the lead role, the two organizations will produce a safe class of advanced cathode materials for use in transportation applications that require substantial improvements in electric driving range.
XALT Energy introduces high-performance lithium titanate cell technology; electric bus applications
XALT Energy has introduced a high-performance Lithium Titanium Oxide (LTO) cell that it says has achieved better cycle life performance over a wider range of operating conditions than any lithium-ion cell ever built.
XALT pairs the LTO anode with an NMC cathode in a prismatic, stacked parallel plate electrode design offering greater reliability, safety, life and fast charge capability. The 60 Ah, 2.2 V cell features high power capability (5C/10C), a wide operating range (-40 °C to +55 °C), low impedance and heat generation, and is capable of a less than 10-minute fast charge.
Dalhousie team explores impact of different electrolyte solvents and electrolyte additives on high-voltage Li-ion cells
September 09, 2016
One pragmatic approach to delivering the high energy-density Li-ion batteries required for longer EV range is to boost the operating voltage of batteries above the current ~4 volts. However, the performance of some higher voltage electrode materials is poor in conventional carbonate-based electrolytes due to increased electrolyte oxidation at high positive potentials, leading to cell failure stemming from gas generation and impedance growth.
As a result, successfully operating higher voltage Li-ion cells may require a combination of new electrolyte solvents, electrolyte additives as well as surface coatings. A team at Dalhousie University (Canada) led by Professor Jeff Dahn has explored the impact of different electrolyte solvents and electrolyte additives in high-voltage coated and uncoated NMC442 (LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2)/graphite cells and compared them head-to-head using an automatic storage system (up to 4.7 V) and automated EIS/cycling measurements (up to 4.5 V). A paper detailing their findings is published in the Journal of Power Sources.
Fuji Pigment synthesizing ionic liquids for Al-air battery electrolytes, Li-ion electrolytes and other applications
September 08, 2016
Fuji Pigment Co., Ltd. is synthesizing ionic liquids for a range of applications, including its own aluminum-air battery, currently under development (earlier post); electrolytes for Li-ion batteries; and solvents for cellulose nanofibers.
Ionic liquids are chemical compounds composed of organic cations such as imidazolium ions and pyridinium ions, and anions such as bromide, fluoride, and chloride. Various ionic liquids with different properties can be created by combining different cations and anions. The unlimited number of ion combinations for their synthesis leads to numerous different ionic liquids that can be created. So far, Fuji Pigment has synthesized imidazolium-, chloride-, and bromide-based ionic liquids, with a number of other ionic liquids currently under development. The company can synthesize most ionic liquids at a customer’s request.
MIT team discovers two mechanisms at work in Li dendrite formation
September 02, 2016
Researchers at MIT have carried out the most detailed analysis yet of lithium dendrite formation from lithium anodes in batteries and have found that there are two entirely different mechanisms at work. While both forms of deposits are composed of lithium filaments, the way they grow depends on the applied current.
Clustered, “mossy” deposits, which form at low rates, turn out to grow from their roots and can be relatively easy to control. More sparse and rapidly advancing “dendritic” projections grow only at their tips. The dendritic type, the researchers say, are harder to deal with and are responsible for most of the problems dendrites cause: degraded performance and short-circuits that damage or disable the battery. Their findings are reported in an open-access paper in the RSC journal Energy and Environmental Science.
Berkeley Lab team directly probes solid/liquid interface of electrochemical double layer
September 01, 2016
Researchers at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have directly probed the solid/liquid interface of the electrochemical double layer (EDL) using a novel X-ray toolkit. The X-ray tools and techniques could be extended, the researchers say, to provide new insight about battery performance and corrosion, a wide range of chemical reactions, and even biological and environmental processes that rely on similar chemistry.
Originally conceived by Hermann von Helmholtz in the 19th century, the EDL is a key concept in the modern electrochemistry of electrified interfaces. The properties of the interface formed by a charged electrode surface immersed in an electrolyte governs the charge transfer processes through the interface itself, thus influencing the electrochemical responses of the electrode/electrolyte system. These concepts and models together serve as the foundation of modern electrochemistry, the researchers noted in an open-access paper describing the work published in Nature Communications.
Samsung SDI building Li-ion battery plant in Hungary; global triangular production structure
August 31, 2016
Samsung SDI has decided to use Hungary as its Li-ion battery production base in Europe. The new battery plant will be built in Goed, north of Budapest in a 330,000 m2 site, using existing facilities previously used for display production. The new facility in Hungary will enable Samsung SDI to establish a global triangular production structure along with existing plants in Ulsan, Korea and Xian, China.
Aiming to start commercial production in 2nd half of 2018, the company will build production lines with annual capacity of batteries for 50,000 pure electric vehicles, investing around 400 billion won (~US$358 million).
DOE HPC4Mfg program funds 13 projects to advance US manufacturing; welding, Li-S batteries among projects
A US Department of Energy (DOE) program designed to spur the use of high performance supercomputers to advance US manufacturing has funded 13 new industry projects for a total of $3.8 million. Among the projects selected are one by GM and EPRI of California to improve welding techniques for automobile manufacturing and power plant builds in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).
Another one of the 13 projects is led by Sepion Technologies, which will partner with LBNL to make new membranes to increase the lifetime of Li-S batteries for hybrid airplanes.
SLAC, Utrecht Univ. team visualize poisoning of FCC catalysts used in gasoline production; seeing changes in pore network materials
Merging two powerful 3-D X-ray techniques, a team of researchers from the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Utrecht University in the Netherlands revealed new details of the metal poisoning process that clogs the pores of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst particles used in gasoline production, causing them to lose effectiveness.
The team combined their data to produce a video that shows the chemistry of this aging process and takes the viewer on a virtual flight through the pores of a catalyst particle. More broadly, the approach is generally applicable and provides an unprecedented view of dynamic changes in a material’s pore space—an essential factor in the rational design of functional porous materials including those use for batteries and fuel cells. The results were published in an open access paper in Nature Communications.
Neah Power wins DOE award to work with Argonne to increase capacity of PowerChip Li-metal battery
August 30, 2016
Neah Power Systems, Inc., a provider of fuel cell-based power solutions and rechargeable lithium battery storage solutions for defense, commercial, and consumer applications, has won a grant from the US Department of Energy through the Small Business Vouchers Pilot Program. Neah will work with Argonne National Laboratory to increase the capacity and manufacturability of its PowerChip rechargeable lithium-metal / porous silicon battery.
The focus in this project is on characterizing the battery and performing a deconstruction analysis to determine methods to increase the energy density and / or increase the lifetime of the battery.
NOHMs raises $5M for commercializing non-flammable, ionic-liquid containing electrolytes for EV batteries
August 29, 2016
NOHMs Technologies Inc. (NOHMs), a Cornell University spin-out founded in 2010, raised $5 million in Series B venture capital financing to commercialize its non-flammable electric vehicle (EV) battery electrolyte technology. Phoenix Venture Partners II LP (PVP) led the round with Solvay Ventures, New York State Innovation Venture Capital Fund (NYSIVCF), and angel investors.
NOHMs Technologies has developed a family of ionic-liquid-containing electrolytes that are stable above 4.5 volts in lithium ion cells. The two electrolyte product lines currently under development for electric vehicle (EV) batteries are:
Silicon-iron composite material for high capacity Li-ion anodes
August 26, 2016
Researchers at Japan’s National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) and Georgia Tech have jointly developed unique Si-iron (Fe) based nanomaterials connected by Ge nanostructures for use as a high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries.
As described in a paper in the journal Nano Energy, the Si-Fe based new nanostructures showa maximum capacity of about 689 mAh/g—about twice as high as conventional materials—and a long, stable cycle life.
Opinion: Could A Lithium Shortage De-Rail The Electric Car Boom?
by James Stafford of Oilprice.com
We’ve gone electric, and there’s no going back at this point. Lithium is our new fuel, but like fossil fuels, the reserves we’re currently tapping into are finite—and that’s what investors can take to the bank.
You may think lithium got too popular too fast. You may suspect electric vehicles are too much buzz and not enough real future. You may, in short, be a lithium skeptic, one of many. And yet, despite this skepticism, lithium demand is rising steadily and sharply, and indications that a shortage may be looming are very real.
OSU smart membrane could enable new category of high-energy, high-power energy storage for EVs
August 24, 2016
A team at the Ohio State University has developed a membrane that regulates bi-directional ion transport across it as a function of its redox state and that could be used as a programmable smart membrane separator in future supercapacitors and redox flow batteries.
Described in a paper published in the RSC journal Energy & Environmental Science, the smart membrane separator could enable the design of a new category of rechargeable/refillable energy storage devices with high energy density and specific power that would overcome the contemporary limitations of electric vehicles.
U Florida team using fungi to extract cobalt and lithium from waste batteries
August 22, 2016
A team of researchers University of South Florida is using naturally occurring fungi to drive an environmentally friendly recycling process to extract cobalt and lithium from tons of waste batteries. The researchers presented their work at the 252nd National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS) in Philadelphia.
Although a global problem, the US leads the way as the largest generator of electronic waste. It is unclear how many electronic products are recycled. Most likely, many head to a landfill to slowly break down in the environment or go to an incinerator to be burned, generating potentially toxic air emissions.
TU Graz team uses monocrystalline Si as Li-ion anode; integrated micro batteries for on-board sensors
August 21, 2016
Electrochemists at TU Graz have used single crystalline acceptor-doped Si—as ubiquitously used in the semiconductor industry—as anode material for rechargeable Li-ion batteries. In an open access paper in the journal Scientific Reports, the team suggests that the use of such patterned monocrystalline Si (m-Si) anodes directly shaped out of the Si wafer is a highly attractive route to realize miniaturized, on-board fully integrated, power supplies for Si-based chips.
The microchip not only houses the electronics, but is at the same time an important part of a mini battery providing electrical energy, e.g. for sending and receiving information.
DOE awards $1.25M to UMERC team for self-healing 3D conformal solid-state electrolytes
August 18, 2016
The Department of Energy (DOE) has awarded $1.25M to a team of researchers at the University of Maryland Energy Research Center (UMERC) for the development of advanced high-voltage electrolytes and additives, conformable and self-healing solid-state electrolytes, and lithium metal protection. The goal is to design self-healing, 3-D conformal solid-state electrolytes to prevent dendrite formation and achieve high battery cycle life.
In a paper published in June in the Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), the University of Maryland researchers reported their development of the first flexible, solid-state, ion-conducting membrane based on a 3D Li-ion conducting ceramic nanofiber network. (Earlier post.)
Dahn team develops ethylene-carbonate-free electrolytes for better-performing high-voltage Li-ion cells
August 17, 2016
Conventional electrolytes for Li-ion batteries contain ethylene carbonate (EC) and other additives. However, the cycling performance of Li-ion cells using these carbonate-based electrolytes has been poor at higher voltages (≥4.4 V) due to increased electrolyte oxidation at the surface of the cathode as the potential increases. This increased oxidation results in salt consumption, gas evolution and impedance growth, all reducing the energy density and the lifetime of Li-ion cells.
A team led by Professor Jeff Dahn at Dalhousie University (Canada) has now demonstrated that EC is actually detrimental for Li-ion cells at high voltages and that cyclic carbonates such as VC (vinylene carbonate), FEC (fluoroethylene carbonate) and DiFEC ((4R,5S)-4,5-Difluoro-1,3-dioxolan-2-one) can act as the enablers for EMC (ethylmethyl carbonate)-based electrolytes which function well in NMC442/graphite cells tested up to 4.4 or 4.5 V. A paper on their work is published the Journal of Power Sources. The team has also submitted a related paper to the Journal of the Electrochemical Society.
Solar Impulse 2 used Kokam Ultra High Energy NMC batteries in round-the-world solar flight
The Solar Impulse 2—the solar airplane that recently completed a round-the-world flight—used batteries from Kokam, based on that company’s advanced Ultra High Energy Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NMC) Oxide (Ultra High Energy NMC) technology.
The Solar Impulse uses four 38.5 kWh Kokam Ultra High Energy NMC battery packs—one in each motor housing—with 150 Ah cells totaling 154 kWh of energy storage. Over the course of 17 flights totaling 26,744 miles (43,041 kilometers), the Solar Impulse 2’s 17,248 mono-crystalline silicon solar cells—mounted atop the wings, fuselage and horizontal stabilizer—produced 11,000 kWh of electricity, much of which was stored in its Kokam Ultra High Energy NMC batteries and then discharged to power the plane at night.
DOE to award up to $137M for SuperTruck II, Vehicle Technology Office programs
August 16, 2016
The US Department of Energy (DOE) will invest up to $137 million in two programs, subject to appropriations, to develop next-generation technologies that will support industry in going beyond the newly announced Phase II standard for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles (earlier post) and also accelerating technology advances for passenger cars and light trucks.
One initiative, SuperTruck II (earlier post), will award $80 million to four projects to develop and to demonstrate cost-effective technologies that more than double the freight efficiency of Class 8 trucks. Through the other initiative, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Program Wide Funding Opportunity Announcement (earlier post)selections, 35 new projects will receive $57 million to develop and deploy a wide array of cutting-edge vehicle technologies, including advanced batteries and electric drive systems, to reduce carbon emissions and petroleum consumption in passenger cars and light trucks.
MIT analysis finds current EVs could replace ~90% of personal vehicles now on the road based on driver’s energy consumption
August 15, 2016
A study by a team at MIT has concluded that roughly 90% of the personal vehicles on the road in the US could be replaced by an electric vehicle available on the market today, even if the cars can only charge overnight. MIT Associate Professor Jessika Trancik, corresponding author of the paper published in Nature Climate, noted that this would more than meet near-term US climate targets for personal vehicle travel.
The team spent four years on the project, which included developing a way of integrating two large datasets—one highly detailed set of second-by-second driving behavior based on GPS data, and another broader, more comprehensive set of national data based on travel surveys—to estimate the energy requirements of personal vehicle trips across the US. Together, the two datasets encompass millions of trips made by drivers all around the country.
thyssenkrupp and partners launch collaborative project EffiForm to lower Li-ion battery cost through improved formation cycling
Under the collaborative project EffiForm (Efficient formation strategies for increased durability, reliability and safety as well as cost reduction in the production of lithium-ion cells/batteries) launched in early 2016, thyssenkrupp System Engineering is partnering with VARTA Microbattery GmbH, BMW Group, Scienlab electronic systems GmbH, Fraunhofer IKTS, the Technical University of Munich and the MEET battery research center of Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster to study the SEI formation process in Li-ion batteries in detail.
The high cost of battery cells continues to be a major stumbling block to improving the cost-efficiency and popularity of e-mobility. Roughly a third of battery production costs are currently accounted for by the final step in the manufacturing process—formation cycling.
U Windsor team reports self-healing behavior of cracks in silicon-aluminum anodes for Li-ion batteries
August 13, 2016
One well-known problem facing the use of high-capacity silicon anodes in rechargeable Li-ion batteries is lithiation-induced volume changes in silicon, resulting in fracture and fragmentation of the anode material, with corresponding capacity loss.
A large body of research has thus been looking for a way to reduce Si electrode fragmentation and hence prevent the capacity loss. Proposed solutions have included Si/C composite electrodes with 3D architectures and nano-scale morphologies, as well as dispersing silicon particles in a ductile and inert phase. Now, a team from the University of Windsor (Ontario, Canada) is reporting self-healing behavior of cracks in micron-sized Si particles dispersed in a ductile Al matrix cycled using a high lithiation rate of 15.6 C. Their paper is published in the Journal of Power Sources.
U Maryland and US Army Research Lab furthering “water-in-salt” electrolyte Li-ion battery; targeting EV use
August 12, 2016
University of Maryland (UMD) and US Army Research Lab (ARL) researchers are spearheading a public-private sector collaboration to further develop a lithium-ion battery that would be safer to operate and less costly to dispose of than those currently available on the market. Their approach involves using a high concentration of salt in aqueous lithium batteries to boost energy density and viability. (Earlier post.) The UMD-ARL team won the Invention of Year of UMD in 2016 for the technology.
This water-in-salt electrolyte lithium battery recently achieved an energy density of 200 Wh/kg, said Dr. Chunsheng Wang at UMD, adding that the DOE had sought 150 Wh/kg, or double that of a traditional aqueous Li-ion battery. “The researchers in the field and program managers alike are very excited,” Dr. Kang Xu at ARL said, adding the next target is 300 Wh/kg.
Berkeley Lab researchers devise ant-nest-like structure for promising Li-S electrodes
August 11, 2016
Inspired by the structure of ant nests, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have devised a novel Li–S electrode featuring increased sulfur loading and sulfur/inactive-materials ratio to improve life and capacity.
In a paper in the ACS journal Nano Letters, the team reports that the efficient capabilities of the ant-nest structure facilitate fast ion transportation, sustain polysulfide dissolution, and assist efficient precipitation. High cycling stability in the Li–S batteries, for practical applications, has been achieved with up to 3 mg·cm–2 sulfur loading. They also achieved Li–S electrodes with up to a 85% sulfur ratio.
BASF and TODA KOGYO enter negotiations to collaborate on Li-ion cathode active materials in North America
August 09, 2016
BASF and TODA KOGYO are entering exclusive negotiations to collaborate in cathode active materials (CAM) and its respective precursors in North America.
The proposed collaboration would focus on the manufacture of a broad range of CAM and its respective precursors in North America for use in lithium-ion batteries for the automotive, consumer electronics and stationary storage markets.
Lux: Total is leading example of oil supermajor expanding into solar plus storage and distributed generation
France-based Total is the first oil supermajor aggressively to enter new areas of business including solar plus storage and distributed generation, notes Lux Research in a new report: “Superpower Darwinism: What Big Oil Can and Cannot Do About Total’s Billion-Dollar Battery Move.”
Even though viable battery companies have become harder and more expensive to buy since Total’s $1-billion acquisition of Saft (earlier post), the oil supermajors—BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, Exxon Mobil, Royal Dutch Shell and Total—have cash piles ranging from $5 billion to $30 billion each, despite shrinking profits since 2012 and uncertainty about timing of the eventual recovery of oil prices.
Johnson Matthey and 3M complete NMC patent license agreement for automotive Li-ion batteries
August 08, 2016
Johnson Matthey and 3M have entered into a patent license agreement that aims at further expanding the use of Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt (NMC) cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries for automotive applications. Under the agreement, 3M grants Johnson Matthey a license to US6964828 (Lu and Dahn), US7078128 (Lu and Dahn), US8241791 (Lu and Dahn), US8685565 (Lu and Dahn) and all global equivalents thereof, and to US6660432 (Paulsen et al.) and all global equivalents thereof.
The cathode compositions composed of nickel, manganese and cobalt offer a balance of power, energy, thermal stability and cost. NMC cathode materials can be tailored through changes in composition and morphology to give optimized performance in a diverse range of automotive applications from micro-hybrid systems to fully electric vehicles.
Aqua Metals opens first AquaRefining center for low-pollution lead-acid battery recycling
Aqua Metals, Inc. recently held an open house at its first AquaRefinery at the Tahoe-Reno Industrial Center (TRIC) in McCarran, Nevada. The company says that its proprietary AquaRefining is first environmentally friendly process to recycle lead-acid batteries (LABs).
The AquaRefining technology extracts lead from LABs with a room temperature, closed-loop, water-based process that results in significant reductions of hazardous waste and direct human contact with the lead itself. The process produces lead that is as pure as—or purer than—mined lead, requiring no secondary processing.
UCR team finds adding even small amounts of tin to Si-based anode greatly improves charge capacity and cycling stability
August 04, 2016
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside have found that adding tin nanoparticles—even in small amounts—to a silicon-based anode provides significant improvements in performance in terms of both charge capacity and cycling stability.
In an open-access paper published in Scientific Reports, the team said that the addition of even small amounts of tin results in a significant decrease in the anode resistance. This, in turn, leads to a decrease in charge transfer resistance, which prevents the formation of electrically inactive “dead spots” in the anode structure and enables the effective participation of silicon in the lithiation reaction.
BMW provides some insight into Dingolfing eDrive competence center; motors, battery packs and more
July 29, 2016
During its Innovation Days 2016 event in Munich, the BMW Group provided some insight into its Dingolfing competence center for the manufacture of electric drive systems (eDrive). Dingolfing supplies the high-voltage batteries and other chassis and powertrain components for BMW i models and the BMW Group’s plug-in hybrid models—current (earlier post) and future.
Beginning with the launch of the first BMW i production models, the Dingolfing plant has produced high-voltage batteries and other powertrain and chassis components for these vehicles. Prior to that, the plant had supplied high-voltage batteries for the BMW Active E; BMW 3 Series ActiveHybrid; BMW 5 Series ActiveHybrid; and BMW 7 Series ActiveHybrid. Now, with the market launch of the first plug-in hybrid versions of the BMW core-brand models—for which the plant supplies the rear-mounted electric motors and all high-voltage battery packs—production of BMW eDrive components in Dingolfing is scaling up once again.
Researchers improve aluminum-air battery performance by using flax straw extract as corrosion inhibitor
July 28, 2016
In a paper in ChemSusChem, a team from Israel and Russia reports substantial improvements in the performance of aluminum-air batteries by adding flax straw extract (3 vol %) to the alkaline solution to act as a mixed-type aluminum corrosion inhibitor.
The Aluminum-air battery, a metal-air battery system which uses a catalytic air cathode in combination with an electrolyte and an aluminum anode, has been of great interest for a number of years due to its high theoretical specific energy. (Earlier post, earlier post, earlier post.) However, parasitic hydrogen evolution caused by the corrosion of the aluminum anode during the discharge process is a well-known obstacle to commercialization of the system, as it not only causes additional consumption of the anode material but also increases the ohmic loss in the cell.
Sony to sell battery business to Murata
Sony Corporation, the company that in 1991 commercialized the world’s first lithium-ion battery, and Murata Manufacturing have entered into a non-binding memorandum of understanding that confirms their intent to negotiate the transfer of the Sony Group’s battery business to the Murata Group. Sony has operated its battery business since 1975.
Following due diligence and negotiation of detailed terms and conditions of the Transfer, Murata and Sony are aiming to execute binding definitive agreements by the middle of October 2016, and to complete the Transfer by the end of March 2017, subject to required regulatory approvals.
Silicon/soft-carbon nanohybrid as high-performance anode for Li-ion batteries
A team from Samsung R&D and Shinshu University has developed a silicon/soft-carbon nanohybrid anode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The material, which is composed of micronized silicon coated with “soft-carbon” dispersed in soft-carbon matrix at nanometer level, is characterized with abundant nanosized voids (nanovoids) (diameter of ~70 nm) and hard bulk skeletal structure.
As described in a paper in the Journal of Power Sources, the material’s volume expansion ratio is 6.9% at a capacity level of 1100 mAh/g. This electrode capacity is approximately three times larger than that of graphite-based electrode currently used in LIB. Furthermore, the electrode retained 80.9% of its capacity at 250 cycles in a full cell with a LiCoO2 counter electrode. Addition of 5 wt % fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the electrolyte improved the retention up to 81.3% after 300 cycles.
$50M Battery500 consortium targeting battery pack with specific energy of 500 Wh/kg
July 27, 2016
Announced last week as one of the Obama Administration’s new initiatives to advance electric vehicle adoption (earlier post), the Battery500 consortium, led by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), aims to build a battery pack with a specific energy of 500 watt-hours per kilogram, compared to the 170-200 watt-hours per kilogram in today’s typical EV battery.
The team in this 5-year project hopes to reach these goals by focusing on lithium-metal batteries, which use lithium instead of graphite for the battery’s anode. The team will pair lithium with two different materials for the cathode. While studying these materials, the consortium will work to prevent unwanted side reactions in the whole battery that weaken a battery’s performance.
Porsche ramping up hiring for Mission E; leveraging the 919 Hybrid
July 26, 2016
Porsche said it will hire more than 1,400 new employees in the Stuttgart region to work on the development and production of the first all-electric sports car from Porsche, the Mission E. (Earlier post, earlier post.)
The company plans to recruit in the fields of digitalization, e-mobility, smart mobility and vehicle connectivity. Porsche will also focus on recruiting production planners familiar with Factory 4.0 and digital production and will hire more than 100 IT specialists as well.
Northwestern study finds Li3PO4 promising coating to limit dissolution of transition metals from Li-ion cathodes
The dissolution of transition metals (TMs) from Li-ion battery cathodes is a major contributor to cell degradation during cycling and aging. First, such dissolution decreases the amount of cathode material, directly contributing to loss of capacity. Secondly, dissolved TMs can migrate through the electrolyte to the anode, causing chaneges to the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI), resulting in increased impedance, decreased cell capacity, and decreased lifespan.
A study by a team at Northwestern University has found that Li3PO4 is a promising candidate as a stable coating on oxide materials to limit such dissolution of transition metals into the Li-ion electrolyte. An open access paper on their work is published in the Journal of The Electrochemical Society.
New nanolithia cathodes may address technical drawbacks of Li-air batteries; scalable, cheap and safer Li-air battery system
July 25, 2016
An international team from MIT, Argonne National Laboratory and Peking University has demonstrated a lab-scale proof-of-concept of a new type of cathode for Li-air batteries that could overcome the current drawbacks to the technology, including a high potential gap (>1.2 V) between charge and discharge, and poor cyclability due to the drastic phase change of O2 (gas) and Ox− (condensed phase) at the cathode during battery operations.
As described in a paper in the journal Nature Energy, the cathode consisting of nanoscale amorphous lithia (nanolithia) confined in a cobalt oxide enabled charge/discharge between solid Li2O/Li2O2/LiO2 without any gas evolution. The cathode has a theoretical capacity of 1,341 Ah kg−1, a mass density exceeding 2.2 g cm−3, and a practical discharge capacity of 587 Ah kg−1 at 2.55 V versus Li/Li+.
FMC accelerates battery-grade lithium hydroxide expansion following multi-year supply agreement with major manufacturer of EVs; path to 30K tonnes
FMC Corporation will accelerate the expansion of its global lithium hydroxide production capacity as a result of a new multi-year supply agreement with a major manufacturer of electric vehicles.
FMC had previously announced plans to triple its global lithium hydroxide production capacity to serve the growing electric vehicle market, with the first 4,000 metric tons per year scheduled to come on line in mid-2017. As a result of the new announcement, an additional 4,000 metric ton expansion will come on line in 2017, raising the company’s total global lithium hydroxide capacity to 18,000 metric tons.
European Strategy for low-emission mobility stresses digital tech, electrification and ZEVs
July 22, 2016
Earlier this week, the European Commission published a strategy for low-emission mobility, which sets out guiding principles to Member States to prepare for the future. EU legislation currently refers to low-emission vehicles as vehicles having tailpipe emissions below 50 g/km. This would include some plug-in hybrids, full electric cars and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The latter two examples also represent zero-emission vehicles.
The low-emission mobility strategy will frame the initiatives that the Commission is planning in the coming years, and it maps the areas in which it is exploring options. It also shows how initiatives in related fields are linked and how synergies can be achieved. In parallel to this strategy, the Commission is launching public consultations on the approach towards reducing emissions from road transport: cars and vans as well as trucks, buses and coaches.
Obama Administration launches series of actions to accelerate EV adoption; inc. $4.5B in loan guarantees, pursuing 350 kW fast charge
July 21, 2016
The Obama Administration has announced a series of actions from the Federal government, private sector, and states, as well as a new framework for collaboration for vehicle manufacturers, electric utilities, electric vehicle charging companies, and states, all geared towards accelerating the deployment of electric vehicle charging infrastructure and putting more electric vehicles on the road.
The collaboration, forged by the White House in partnership with DOE and the Department of Transportation (DOT), the US Air Force and US Army, and the Environmental Protection Agency, is centered on a set of Guiding Principles to Promote Electric Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure. 46 organizations have signed on to the principles so far.
Opinion: Why Lithium Will See Another Price Spike This Fall
July 20, 2016
by James Stafford of Oilprice.com
So far, lithium has been the hottest metal of 2016, beating out gold, with exponential demand expected over the coming years. Although the price trajectory of the metal has been subdued in recent months, the fundamentals behind the long-term trajectory suggest strong potential for long-term growth. Price doubling from 2014/2015 was first seen in China and is now being felt worldwide, with lithium hydroxide prices from $16-20 and carbonate prices from $12-14 thousand USD per ton.
Automotive Thrust. There is no doubt as to the push that Tesla has given the current automotive transition to electric vehicles (EVs). Since 2014, when Tesla first announced the Gigafactory with Panasonic, other manufacturers have begun to take notice and take action. Volkswagen AG announced last week that it was considering LG Chem Ltd. or Panasonic Corp. as partners for several US$2-billion factories, according to Bloomberg, with confirmation expected later in the year. Previous announcements of billion-dollar investments in battery factories by Volkswagen were largely brushed off by investors as deflections from their “Dieselgate” scandal. But with LG and Panasonic in the picture, concrete plans appear to be crystalizing.
Li-ion startup Cadenza Innovation raises $5+M in oversubscribed Series A; ex Boston Power team
July 18, 2016
Cadenza Innovation, a Li-ion battery startup founded in 2012 by Dr. Christina Lampe-Onnerud, former CEO and founder of Boston Power (earlier post), has raised more than $5 million in growth capital. The company says it will use the new funds to expand product development, secure additional certifications, extend initial deployments, make key new hires and fuel revenue growth.
Cadenza Innovation is bringing to market a low-cost and high-performance technology platform—cell design and housing—for licensing to lithium-ion battery manufacturers worldwide.
ECS and Toyota North America announce 2016-2017 Fellowship winners for projects in green energy technology
July 16, 2016
The ECS Toyota Young Investigator Fellowship Selection Committee has selected three recipients who will receive a minimum of $50,000 each for fellowships for projects in green energy technology. The winners are Professor Elizabeth Biddinger, City College of New York; Professor Joaquin Rodriguez Lopez, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; and Professor Joshua Snyder, Drexel University.
The ECS Toyota Young Investigator Fellowship, a partnership between The Electrochemical Society (ECS) and Toyota Research Institute of North America (TRINA), an advanced research arm of Toyota Motor North America, Inc. (TMNA), is in its second year. (Earlier post.)
CCM: LiPF6 industry in China may face overcapacity in 2017
July 12, 2016
Soaring prices for and profits from LiPF6—lithium hexafluorophosphate, the dominant Li-salt used in electrolytes in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3–4 V cathode material—has encouraged enterprises in China to expand LiPF6 production while also attracting new players. However, according to market analyst firm CCM, based on the current planned capacity expansions, the LiPF6 industry may face overcapacity in 2017.
In a Li-ion battery electrolyte, LiPF6 is combined with an organic solvent and additives. The resulting electrolytes allow for both high energy densities and appreciable power densities, providing a medium to transfer charge between the electrodes via the Li+ cations and the counter-anions.
Caltech team uses computational topology optimization to design silicon anode structures for Li-ion batteries
July 10, 2016
Researchers at Caltech have used computational topology optimization methods to design optimal multifunctional silicon anode structures for lithium-ion batteries. A paper on their work is published in the Journal of Power Sources.
Sarah Mitchell and Michael Ortiz set out to address two problems related to silicon anodes: lithiation-induced mechanical degradation due to volumetric expansion and the low intrinsic electrical conductivity of silicon.
Researchers boost performance of lithium-rich cathode material 30-40% by creating oxygen vacancies
July 07, 2016
An international team of researchers has demonstrated a new way to increase the robustness and energy storage capability of a particular class of “lithium-rich” cathode materials by using a carbon dioxide-based gas mixture to create oxygen vacancies at the material’s surface. Researchers said the treatment improved the energy density of the cathode material by up to 30 to 40%.
As described in an open access paper in Nature Communications, the target material (Li[Li0.144Ni0.136Co0.136Mn0.544]O2, denoted as LR-NCM) delivers a discharge capacity as high as 301 mAh g−1 with initial Coulombic efficiency of 93.2%. After 100 cycles, a reversible capacity of 300 mAh g−1 still remains without any obvious decay in voltage. The discovery sheds light on how changing the oxygen composition of lithium-rich cathode materials could improve battery performance, particularly in high-energy applications such as electric vehicles.
Silatronix, developer of organosilicon electrolytes for Li-ion batteries, raises $8M
Silatronix, a developer of unique organosilicon (OS) electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) (earlier post), has raised US$8 million in new equity capital, and secured partnerships for distribution and joint technological development. These funds and partnerships will allow Silatronix to capitalize on the commercial value of its portfolio of OS materials in the high-growth LIB market.
The capital comes from the company’s existing investors and two strategic partners in Japan with strong business interests in the LIB market: Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd. and Inabata & Co Ltd. Inabata will serve as Silatronix’s exclusive distributor to key LIB customers across Asia. Silatronix and Hitachi Chemical will jointly evaluate the potential performance benefits of several OS additive materials with Hitachi Chemical’s LIB products, especially anode materials. Silatronix, a spin-out from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, has introduced its first commercial product, a third-generation organosilicon material (OS3)—an advanced functional solvent that provides multiple benefits to LIB performance at additive levels.
Swiss researchers devise simple procedure to enhance performance of conventional Li-ion batteries without changing chemistries
July 06, 2016
Materials researchers at the Swiss Paul Scherrer Institute PSI in Villigen and the ETH Zurich have developed a very simple and cost-effective procedure for significantly enhancing the performance of conventional Li-ion rechargeable batteries by improving only the design of the electrodes without changing the underlying materials chemistry. The procedure is scalable in size, so the use of rechargeable batteries can be optimized in all areas of application—e.g., in wristwatches, smartphones, laptops or cars.
Battery storage capacity can be significantly extended, and charging times reduced. The researchers reported on their results in the latest issue of the journal Nature Energy.
Skeleton Technologies joins Flying Whales program to develop next generation of heavy-lift, large-capacity airships
July 05, 2016
European ultracapacitor manufacturer Skeleton Technologies will join French firm Flying Whales’ program to build a 60-ton Large Capacity Airship (LCA60T, for the global transport market.
Skeleton Technologies will join the program to help design and build hybrid propulsion for the LCA60T’s electric power systems. Average operational power is expected to be approximately 1.5 MW with the company’s graphene-based ultracapacitors assisting to cover the additional 2 MW peaks for hovering, lifting and stabilisation in reasonable and turbulent environments.
Powin Energy introduces advanced battery managemenet system bp-OS
June 30, 2016
Powin Energy, a designer and developer of safe and scalable energy storage solutions for utilities, C&I, and EV fast-charging stations, is publicly introducing its advanced battery management software—the Battery Pack Operating System (bp-OS)—by announcing that it has been patented (US20140015469 A1).
The patented bp-OS utilizes a unique algorithm to balance batteries actively and passively down to the cell level, enabling the minimization of voltage differentials across all battery cells over the system’s lifetime. The bp-OS also delivers visibility into battery health through real-time battery monitoring, state-of-charge management, and detailed diagnostics to ensure safety, optimize performance, and extend the operational lifetime of batteries used in stationary storage systems and EV fast-charging systems.
Kreisel Electric introduces Li-ion home energy storage systems; 9.6 kW output for faster EV charging
June 29, 2016
Austrian manufacturer of high-performance batteries Kreisel Electric (earlier post) has introduced the MAVERO home energy storage system. The Li-ion battery packs are available in four different sizes, with usable capacity ranging from 8 kWh to 22 kWh. The casing is available in two colors and communicates all charge and discharge activities by means of LEDs. First deliveries are planned for early 2017.
MAVERO is a wall-mounted home energy storage system that stores electricity from any renewable energy source. Featuring a sophisticated design and a compact size of 105cm x 140 cm (41" x 55"), the discharge power of the system ranges from 4.8 to 9.6 kW in the voltage range from 288 to 384 V. The system enables accelerated EV charging with 100% self-generated electricity.
Ford, LG Chem team reports 1st cradle-to-gate LCA for mass-produced battery pack in commercial BEV; cell manufacturing key GHG contributor
A team from Ford’s Research and Innovation Center and LG Chem’s Corporate R&D group has reported the first cradle-to-gate (i.e., the factory gate—before delivery to the consumer) emissions assessment for a mass-produced battery in a commercial battery electric vehicle (BEV)—the lithium-ion battery pack used in the Ford Focus BEV. Their paper is published in the ACS journal Environmental Science & Technology.
The researchers based their assessment on the bill of materials and energy and materials input data from the battery cell and pack supplier (LG). They calculated that the cradle-to-gate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the 24 kWh Ford Focus lithium-ion battery are 3.4 metric tonnes of CO2-eq (140 kg CO2-eq per kWh or 11 kg CO2-eq per kg of battery). Cell manufacturing is the key contributor accounting for 45% of the GHG emissions.
Lux: plug-in vehicle battery market to hit $10B in 2020; 6 carmakers = 90% of demand; VW to show most growth
June 28, 2016
Led by Tesla, China’s BYD, and Volkswagen, the battery market for plug-in vehicles will rise to $10 billion in 2020, with electric vehicles (EV) emerging as the drivetrain of choice, according to a new forecast by Lux Research. Volkswagen will show the most growth as it focuses on plug-ins following its emissions scandal, while Toyota will continue to lag in plug-in sales as it focuses more on hybrids and fuel cells.
Just six large carmakers will account for 90% of the battery demand: Tesla, BYD, Volkswagen, General Motors (GM), Renault-Nissan and BMW. Among battery-makers, Panasonic will keep its lead with 46% market share, followed by BYD, LG Chem, NEC, Samsung SDI and others.
Argonne Lab partners with Strem Chemicals to bring next-gen battery materials to market
June 24, 2016
Strem Chemicals, a manufacturer and distributor of specialty chemicals founded in 1964, has licensed 23 separate pieces of intellectual property for next-generation battery materials from Argonne. Strem will manufacture and distribute nine resulting battery solvents and additives via its extensive marketing and global distribution networks.
The materials were all invented at Argonne’s Electrochemical Energy Storage Center and scaled at Argonne’s Materials Engineering Research Facility (MERF). Since its founding, MERF has scaled up and distributed more than 30 kilograms of materials in the form of more than 150 different samples.
UMD team develops new nanocomposite sulfur electrode for high-performance all-solid-state Li-S batteries
A team at the University of Maryland have synthesized a mixed conducting nanocomposite sulfur electrode that consists of different nanoparticles with distinct properties of lithium storage capability, mechanical reinforcement, and ionic and electronic conductivities.
As described in a paper published in the ACS journal Nano Letters, the new nanocomposite serves as a mechanically robust and mixed conductive (ionic and electronic conductive) sulfur electrode for all-solid-state lithium–sulfur batteries (ASSLSBs). The team achieved a reversible capacity of 830 mAh/g (71% utilization of Li2S) at 50 mA/g for 60 cycles with a high rate performance at room temperature even at a high loading of Li2S (∼3.6 mg/cm2).
UMD team develops new high-performance solid-state ion-conducting membrane for Li batteries
June 23, 2016
Researchers at the University of Maryland have developed a novel, flexible, solid-state, ion-conducting membrane based on a 3D ion-conducting ceramic nanofiber network. The researchers said that their work, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), represents a significant breakthrough to enable high performance lithium batteries. The all-solid ion-conducting membrane can be applied to flexible Li-ion batteries and other electrochemical energy storage systems, such as lithium–sulfur batteries.
The 3D ion-conducting network is based on percolative garnet-type Li6.4La3Zr2Al0.2O12 (LLZO) solid-state electrolyte nanofibers, which enhance the ionic conductivity of the solid-state electrolyte membrane at room temperature and improve the mechanical strength of the polymer electrolyte.
DOE selects SiiLion for $1M SBIR Phase II award; ionic-liquid-enabled high-energy li-ion battery
June 22, 2016
The US Department of Energy (DOE) has selected SiiLion, Inc. to receive a $1-million Small Business Innovation and Research (SBIR) Phase II award. The company is developing high-energy batteries featuring pure silicon anodes and high voltage cathodes—including lithium-manganese-rich and nickel-rich chemistries—enabled using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte.
SiiLion was one of 23 companies receiving a 2016 SBIR FY 2016 Phase II award. The $1-million awards are intended to help small businesses advance promising concepts toward commercialization. SiiLion had received a $150,000 SBIR Phase I award in 2015.
DOE awarding $16M to 54 projects to help commercialize promising energy technology from national labs
The US Department of Energy (DOE) announced nearly $16 million in funding to help businesses move promising energy technologies from DOE’s National Laboratories to the marketplace. This first Department-wide round of funding through the Technology Commercialization Fund (TCF) will support 54 projects at 12 national labs involving 52 private-sector partners. Among the selected technologies are a number addressing advanced vehicle and transportation needs.
The TCF is administered by DOE’s Office of Technology Transitions (OTT), which works to expand the commercial impact of DOE’s portfolio of research, development, demonstration and deployment activities. In February of 2016, OTT announced the first solicitation to the DOE National Laboratories for TCF funding proposals. It received 104 applications from across the laboratory system, for projects in two topic areas:
Topic Area 1: Projects for which additional technology maturation is needed to attract a private partner; and
Topic Area 2: Cooperative development projects between a lab and industry partner(s), designed to bolster the commercial application of a lab developed technology.
All projects selected for the TCF will receive an equal amount of non-federal funds to match the federal investment.
A selected list of transportation-related TCF selections, as well as the Topic Area 2 projects and their private sector partners is below.
|Transportation-related TCF Awards|
|Manufacturing Of Advanced Alnico Magnets for Energy Efficient Traction Drive Motors||Ames||Carpenter Powder Products||$325,000|
|Direct Fabrication of Fuel Cell Electrodes by Electrodeposition of High-performance Core-shell Catalysts||Brookhaven||$100,000|
|Nitride-Stabilized Pt Core-Shell Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Cathodes||Brookhaven||$100,000|
|Enhancing Lithium-Ion Battery Safety for Vehicle Technologies and Energy Storage||Idaho||$119,005|
|Vehicle Controller Area Network (CAN) Bus Network Safety and Security System||Idaho||Mercedes-Benz R&D North America||$150,000|
|Large Area Polymer Protected Lithium Metal Electrodes with Engineered Dendrite-Blocking Ability||Lawrence Berkeley||$73,831|
|Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Tank Technology in an Internal Combustion Engine Application||Lawrence Livermore||GoTek Energy||$431,995|
|Scaled Production Of High Octane Biofuel From Biomass-Derived Dimethyl Ether||NREL||Enerkem||$740,000|
|Thermal Management for Planar Package Power Electronics||NREL||John Deere Electronic Solutions (JDES)||$250,000|
|Assembly Of Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys For Automotive Application||PNNL||$500,000|
|Development of Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries in Wide Temperature Range Applications||PNNL||Farasis Energy, Navitas Systems||$375,000|
|Direct Extruded High Conductivity Copper for Electric Machines Manufactured Using the ShAPE Process||PNNL||General Motors R&D||$600,000|
BMW i home energy storage system integrates 2nd-life i3 vehicle batteries
June 21, 2016
BMW i announced a home stationary energy storage system solution integrating its BMW i3 vehicle battery at EVS 29 in Montréal.
The system utilizes BMW i3 high-voltage batteries and can be expanded to incorporate second-life batteries as they become available in the market. This strategy will extend the useful life of the battery for the owner, even beyond in-vehicle use, BMW said.
USABC awards $4M to SiNode Systems to develop advanced silicon-graphene anode materials for EV batteries
June 20, 2016
The United States Advanced Battery Consortium LLC (USABC), a collaborative organization of FCA US LLC, Ford Motor Company and General Motors, awarded a $4-million contract to SiNode Systems Inc. for development of advanced anode materials for automotive lithium-ion battery applications. The competitively bid contract award is 50% cost share-funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE).
The 30-month program will focus on the development of silicon-graphene high-energy anode material appropriate for vehicle applications and the development and scale-up of pouch cells that exhibit anode performance metrics that exceed the minimum USABC targets for active materials development for electric vehicles.
VW Group strategy calls for >30 new BEVs by 2025 with annual EV sales of 2-3M units; mobility services
June 16, 2016
Volkswagen Group CEO Matthias Müller presented the company’s new new strategic plan—TOGETHER - Strategy 2025—in Wolfsburg. With regard to vehicles and drivetrains, the new strategy places special emphasis on e-mobility.
The Group is planning a broad-based initiative in this area: it intends to launch more than 30 purely battery-powered electric vehicles (BEVs) over the next ten years. The Company estimates that such vehicles could then account for around a quarter of the global passenger car market. The Volkswagen Group forecasts that its own BEV sales will be between two and three million units in 2025, equivalent to some 20 to 25 percent of the total unit sales expected at that time.
Low-cost N-doped interlayer derived from loofah sponge enables high-performance Li-S, Li-Se and LiI2 batteries
Researchers from Griffith University in Australia and Peking University in China have synthesized low-cost, hierarchically porous, and nitrogen-doped loofah sponge carbon (N-LSC) derived from the loofah sponge via a simple calcining process and applied it as a multifunctional blocking layer for Li–S, Li–Se, and Li–I2 batteries.
As a result of the ultrahigh specific area (2551.06 m2 g–1), high porosity (1.75 cm3 g–1), high conductivity (1170 S m–1), and heteroatoms doping of N-LSC, the resultant Li–S, Li–Se, and Li–I2 batteries with the N-LSC-900 membrane deliver outstanding electrochemical performance stability in all cases, i.e., high reversible capacities of 623.6 mAh g–1 at 1675 mA g–1 after 500 cycles; 350 mAh g–1 at 1356 mA g–1 after 1000 cycles; and 150 mAh g–1 at 10550 mA g–1 after 5000 cycles, respectively. A paper on their work is published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.
Daimler developing new dedicated architecture for battery-electric vehicles; debut at Paris Motor Show in September; 500 km
June 13, 2016
Daimler is developing a dedicated, multi-model electric vehicle architecture for battery-powered vehicles. (Earlier post.) The global debut will take place at the Paris Motor Show this fall, and the first model is to be launched onto the market before the end of the decade.
Mercedes-Benz said it will benefit not only from its internal development and production expertise but also from the group’s multi-model series modular strategy for alternative drive systems and direct access to key components for electromobility.
Mercedes-Benz expands plug-in hybrid rollout with 2 models this year; new battery tech in S 500 e in 2017
Later this year, Mercedes-Benz will add the seventh and eighth plug-in hybrids to its line up. (Earlier post.) The new GLC Coupé 350 e 4MATIC and the E 350 e will join the S 500 e; C 350 e (Sedan, Wagon and long version for China); the GLE 500 e 4MATIC; and the GLC 350 e 4MATIC. The hybrid (plug-in and conventional) portfolio from Mercedes-Benz currently comprises 13 models.
The E 350 e will use the 9G-TRONIC plug-in-hybrid transmission and the latest generation of electric motors to deliver top rankings in fuel consumption, ride comfort and dynamism. The E 350 e is also the first hybrid from Mercedes-Benz with a high trailer towing capacity of up to 2,100 kg.
Hunan team develops new strategy to prolong cycle life of Li-S batteries
Researchers at Hunan University, China, have developed a new strategy to suppress the diffusion of polysulfides into the electrolyte in Li-Sulfur batteries, resulting in improved performance.
As described in a paper in the Journal of Power Sources, the research tea used hydrophilic carbon paper anchored by hierarchically porous cobalt disulfides as an interlayer for capturing polysulfides through physical absorption and chemical bonding. The sulfur-graphene composite with a sulfur content of 70.5% delivers a high initial capacity of 1239.5 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C and retains a reversible capacity of 818 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles.
Materials Project releases trove of data to public; support for work on multivalent battery chemistries and electrolytes
June 10, 2016
The Materials Project, a Google-like database of material properties aimed at accelerating innovation (earlier post), has released an enormous trove of data to the public, giving scientists working on batteries, fuel cells, photovoltaics, thermoelectrics, and other advanced materials a powerful tool to explore new avenues of research.
Two sets of data were released: nearly 1,500 compounds investigated for multivalent intercalation electrodes and more than 21,000 organic molecules relevant for liquid electrolytes as well as a host of other research applications. Batteries with multivalent cathodes (which have multiple electrons per mobile ion available for charge transfer) are promising candidates for reducing cost and achieving higher energy density than that available with current lithium-ion technology. (Earlier post.)
OXIS Energy and Lithium Balance partner on Li-sulfur battery system for China e-scooter market; targeting spring 2018
June 08, 2016
Li-sulfur battery developer OXIS Energy UK (earlier post) and Lithium Balance of Denmark are partnering to build a prototype Lithium-sulfur battery system primarily for the e-scooter market in China. Lithium Balance is a battery management expert which has supplied its BMS systems for Li-ion based e-scooters for a decade. The E-scooter itself will be manufactured in China.
The current prototype battery has a capacity of 1.2 kWh using 10Ah OXIS Long Life cells; weighs 60% less than the current lead acid battery; and delivers a significant increase in range. The next stage is to build a second prototype using an improved Long Life chemistry (up to 20Ah) which will increase battery capacity at a reduced weight.
ORNL, XALT show nanoscale alumina coating on layered oxide cathode materials substantially improves Li-ion battery performance
June 06, 2016
A team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and XALT Energy, with colleagues from the University of Michigan and Energy Power Systems, have shown that atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alumina (Al2O3) on Ni-rich full concentration gradient (FCG) NMC and NCA cathode materials can substantially improve Li-ion battery performance and allow for increased upper cutoff voltage (UCV) during charging—delivering significantly increased specific energy utilization.
As described in an open-access paper published in Scientific Reports, their results showed that Al2O3 coating improved NMC cycling performance by 40% and NCA cycling performance by 34% at 1 C/−1 C with respectively 4.35 V and 4.4 V UCV in 2 Ah pouch cells.
A novel method for energy efficient warmup of lithium-ion batteries from sub-zero temperatures using predictive control
by Paul N. Blumberg, PhD
Many of the machines and appliances that are in common use today require that their power be available immediately, regardless of adverse ambient conditions such as sub-zero temperatures. For example, on a 0 °F day, we expect to be able to start our cars or trucks, which may have cooled down to near ambient conditions, and proceed to use them in the same manner as if we were in more moderate climates. To accomplish this, engineers and scientists have worked hard to ensure that in extremely cold temperature environments, the engine oil does not become too viscous and that there are sufficient high volatility components in the fuel so that vaporization and ignition within the engine are possible on an almost instantaneous basis.
The same requirement holds true for battery-powered devices or vehicles. The Lithium-ion battery has emerged as the current “battery of choice” for automotive hybrid and electric vehicle applications. Over the last decade, significant improvements in its energy and power density have been made through research in all aspects of its fundamental electrochemistry and materials. Nevertheless, due to fundamental electrochemical factors, the availability of “instantaneous” power at temperatures below approximately 15 ˚F remains a challenge.
Daimler establishes Mercedes-Benz Energy GmbH for stationary energy storage
June 02, 2016
Daimler AG has established Mercedes-Benz Energy GmbH to take over the development and global sale of Mercedes-Benz brand stationary energy storage (earlier post) with immediate effect. The production of the systems remains the core expertise of Daimler’s other wholly owned subsidiary, Deutsche ACCUMOTIVE GmbH & Co. KG.
Daimler AG, with ACCUMOTIVE, began delivery of domestic storage solutions for the German market in April. Work also started on setting up the first large-scale industrial projects in the field of primary regulation energy. With the establishment of Mercedes-Benz Energy GmbH based in Kamenz/Saxony, the company is now taking another step toward expanding its stationary storage business. International expansion and collaboration with further partners are particularly high on the agenda, Daimler said.
Toshiba to start field testing medium-sized EV bus with wireless recharging, SCiB Li-ion battery
May 31, 2016
Toshiba Corporation has developed a fast, cable-free contactless charger for electric vehicles (EVs), and will field test it on a medium-sized EV bus designed to handle the power demands of regular high-speed journeys on expressways. Field tests will start from 1 June and continue until December.
The 45-seat bus is powered by a long-life, high-output 52.9 kWh SCiB (earlier post) pack, Toshiba’s advanced lithium-ion rechargeable battery, and will make regular trips between All Nippon Airways Co. Ltd. facilities in Tonomachi, Kawasaki and Haneda Airport in Tokyo. The 11-kilometer (6.8-mile) journey will test the bus and its performance under various traffic conditions, and will allow Toshiba to verify the convenience and practicality of contactless charging, along with its contribution to reducing CO2 emissions.
Berkeley Lab researchers shed light on how lithium-rich cathodes work, opening the door to higher capacity batteries
Researchers at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) report a major advance in understanding how oxygen oxidation creates extra capacity in lithium-rich cathodes, opening the door to batteries with far higher energy density.
The nature of the findings shows “a clear and exciting path forward” to create the next-generation cathode materials with substantially higher energy density then current cathode materials, the researchers wrote in a paper on their work published in the journal Nature Chemistry.
Johnson Controls funds two research projects with U Wisconsin to enhance fuel efficiency of start-stop vehicles and next-gen EVs
May 26, 2016
Johnson Controls will fund two multi-year research projects at the University of Wisconsin–Madison (UW–Madison) aimed at enhancing the fuel efficiency of start-stop and next-generation battery-electric vehicles. The projects will be funded by Johnson Controls, which includes a Fellows gift of $500,000. UW–Madison graduate students Jacob Dubie and Kevin Frankforter, the first recipients of Johnson Controls Distinguished Graduate Fellowships, will carry out the projects.
The first project will focus on identifying the aging mechanisms of absorbent glass mat (AGM) batteries and supporting systems in start-stop applications and vehicle optimization strategies.
PSA Group outlines electrification solutions for future hybrid and electric vehicles; 4 EVs, 7 PHEVs by 2021
May 25, 2016
At its Innovation Day event, PSA Group presented its new electrification strategy. PSA Group is consolidating the development of its models on two global modular platforms—CMP and EMP2—allowing it to offer a wide range of internal combustion, electric and plug-in hybrid gasoline models from 2019.
Both platforms are optimized and lighter (25kg for EMP2 and 40kg for CMP) than current platforms, and offer greater modularity in terms of length, width, height and wheel diameter. Both platforms will be compatible with the manufacturing resources put in place as part of the Plant of the Future program. (Earlier post.)
Researchers develop safe and durable high-temperature Li-S battery with conventional C-S electrode using MLD alucone coating
Researchers from University of Western Ontario, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and Canadian Light Sources (CLS) have developed a safe and durable high-temperature Li-sulfur battery using universal conventional carbon–sulfur (C-S) electrodes with a molecular layer deposited (MLD) alucone (aluminum oxide polymeric film) coating.
The MLD alucone-coated C−S electrodes demonstrate stabilized ultralong cycle life at high temperature (55 ˚C) with a capacity of more than 570 mA h g−1 after 300 cycles. The utilization of MLD enables the usage of conventional C-S cathode materials with carbonate-based electrolytes—a facile and versatile approach that can be applied to a variety of C−S electrodes without redesigning the carbon host materials. A paper on their work is published in the ACS journal Nano Letters.
Amprius demonstrates new tool for roll-to-roll manufacturing of high-energy batteries with Si nanowire anodes
May 24, 2016
Amprius, a manufacturer of high-energy lithium-ion batteries using silicon nanowire anodes (earlier post), has demonstrated a novel tool for high-volume manufacturing. The new tool, a first-of-its-kind system for inline, continuous, and roll-to-roll production of three-dimensional silicon nanowire anodes, will enable Amprius to scale manufacturing and deliver lightweight and long-lasting batteries for unmanned vehicles, wearable technologies, and electric vehicles.
Amprius developed its new tool in partnership with Meyer Burger (Netherlands) B.V., a world leader in high-throughput deposition systems and processes. The tool uses a multi-step, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process to produce Amprius’ silicon nanowire anodes. Amprius will unveil its new manufacturing tool to a select group of industry partners on 29 June 2016, at a Meyer Burger facility in the Netherlands.
CCM: China Li-ion industry booming; domestic outputs triples in 2015 to 15.7 GWh
May 23, 2016
In China, the development of alternative energy vehicles and the Li-ion battery sector are booming with the support of promotional policies from the Chinese government, according to new report from CCM, a leading market intelligence provider for China’s agriculture, chemicals, food & ingredients and life science markets. In May 2016 alone, nearly RMB2.6 billion (US$400 million) flowed into the Li-ion battery market, with Tianqi Lithium, Ganfeng Lithium and GEM CO., Ltd. putting in the most capital.
Over the past five years, the growth of electrochemical energy storage market in China has outpaced that of the global market, with a CAGR (2010-2015) of 110%—six times as high as that of the global. Among it, the installed capacity of Li-ion battery captured 66% of the market share in the electrochemical energy storage market.
Prieto Battery receives investment from Stanley Ventures to pursue commercialization of 3D Li-ion battery
May 21, 2016
Prieto Battery, a company commercializing a 3D Lithium-ion battery technology (earlier post), announced a strategic investment from Stanley Ventures, the newly-formed venture arm of Stanley Black & Decker, a world-leading provider of tools and storage, commercial electronic security and engineered fastening systems.
Prieto Battery Inc. was founded in June 2009 to accelerate the shift of Prieto’s innovations from the research laboratory to the commercial marketplace. The company’s mission is to commercialize a patented 3D lithium-ion battery technology that delivers transformational performance at a competitive cost using non-toxic materials with the ability to customize shapes.
Hanyang/BMW team develops high-energy density Li-ion battery with carbon-nanotube-Si composite anode and NCM concentration gradient cathode
May 20, 2016
Researchers from Hanyang University in Korea and the BMW Group have developed a new fully operational, practical Li-ion rechargeable battery combining high energy density with excellent cycle life. A report on their work is published in the RSC journal Energy & Environmental Science.
A carbon nanotube (CNT)-Si composite anode with extremely stable long-term cycling provides a discharge capacity of 2364 mAh g-1 at a tap density of 1.1 g cm-3; a two-sloped full concentration gradient (TSFCG) Li[Ni0.85Co0.05Mn0.10]O2 cathode, with a Ni-enriched core and Mn-enriched layer, yields a discharge capacity of 221 mAh g-1. The full cell generates an energy density of 350 Wh kg-1 with excellent capacity retention for 500 cycles at 1 C rate—satisfying the energy density limit imposed by the drive range requirement for EVs.
Electrovaya introduces 1 kWh and 48V, 2.3 kWh battery modules
May 17, 2016
The LITACORE1000 is a 1 kWh module with integrated voltage and temperature sensors in an aluminum case with laser welded contacts; the module features the Litacell. The EV4823 is a 48V, 2.3 kWh module with an integrated intelligent battery management system (iBMSTM) complete with CANbus communications.
High-performance Li-S cathodes using 3D hierarchical porous nitrogen-doped aligned carbon nanotubes
May 16, 2016
Researchers from Hunan University and Changsha University in China have designed 3D hierarchical porous nitrogen-doped aligned carbon nanotubes (HPNACNTs) with well-directed 1D conductive electron paths as scaffold to load sulfur for use as a high-performance cathode in Li-S batteries. A paper on their work is published in the Journal of Power Sources.
The HPNACNTs have abundant micropores, mesopores and macropores with a relatively high specific surface area and a large total pore volume. The sulfur-HPNACNTs (with 68.8 wt% sulfur) composite exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 1340 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and retains as high as 979 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C after 200 cycles. It also shows high reversible capacity at high rates (817 mAh g−1 at 5 C).
Nissan team gains insight into atomic structure of SiO using new methodology; potential benefit for Li-ion battery capacity
May 13, 2016
Using a new methodology, researchers in Japan—including colleagues from Nissan subsidiary Nissan Arc Ltd., a materials analysis and research center—have developed a heterostructure model of the atomic structure of silicon monoxide (SiO). The heterostructure model well explains the distinctive structure and properties of the material, which could play an important role in boosting the capacity of Li-ion batteries. An open-access paper on the work is published in Nature Communications.
Silicon (Si) is capable of holding greater amounts of lithium compared with common carbon-based materials; as such, it is a target of great focus as an anode material for higher capacity Li-ion batteries. However, in crystalline form, Si possesses a structure that deteriorates during charging cycles, ultimately impacting performance. However, amorphous SiO is resistant to such deterioration.
Researchers develop nanoscale LTO anode with superior high temperature performance
May 10, 2016
A team led by researchers from the Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University has synthesized nanoscale porous lithium titanium oxide (LTO) material for Li-ion anodes that exhibit stable electrochemical performance at high temperature (50 °C) and high charge/discharge rates (5 C) without performing any post-surface treatments.
As reported in their paper in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, the synthesis method uses water, with the final products exhibiting nanoscale and highly porous structures. In addition, the grain size of the LTO particles can be tuned and controlled by the calcination temperature.
Researchers visualize lithiation of magnetite electrode in real time; hunting for new Li-ion electrode materials
May 09, 2016
A team of scientists from the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory, the University of Pennsylvania, and the University of Maryland, College Park, has developed an electron microscopy technique to visualize—in real time and at high resolution—lithiation pathways in electrode materials.
The scientists used this advanced technique, described in an open-access paper in Nature Communications, to observe the discharge of a lithium-ion battery cell containing nanoparticles of magnetite—an inexpensive, nontoxic, high-conducting, high-energy-storage material. These discharge mechanisms were then correlated with the battery’s discharge rates. The team’s findings about how lithium migrates at the nanoscale could help improve the electrochemical performance of comparable electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.
Total to acquire battery-maker Saft in US$1.1-billion deal
France-based energy major Total has filed a friendly tender offer on all of the issued and outstanding shares in the capital of advanced battery maker Saft with the French Financial Markets Authority (Autorité des Marchés Financiers, AMF).
The proposed offer will target all of Saft’s issued and outstanding shares at a price of €36.50 per share, ex-dividend of €0.85 per share, valuing Saft’s equity at €950 million (US$1.1 billion). The offer price represents a 38.3% premium above Saft’s closing share price of €26.40 on 6 May 2016; a premium of 41.9% above the volume weighted average share price over the past six months; and a premium of 24.2% above the volume weighted average share price over the past year.
Argonne: longer-range BEVs may be almost as powertrain energy dense as gasoline vehicles by 2045
An analysis by a team at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has found that by 2045, some configurations of battery electric vehicles (BEV) could become almost as energy dense as a conventional vehicle. The team presented their paper at the recent 2016 SAE World Congress.
Hydrocarbon fuels (either fossil- or bio-derived) have high energy densities that are at least 100 times greater than that of a present day lithium-ion battery. Despite projected improvements in battery technology, this form of energy storage is still expected to be significantly less energy dense than gasoline even by 2045. However, the Argonne team argues, the energy density of storage medium (fuel or battery) should not be used as the sole criterion to compare conventional vehicles and BEVs. Rather, powertrain-level energy and power density will be better criteria to compare the propulsion technology used for BEVs and conventional vehicles, they suggest.
ORNL-led team identifies feature enabling fast ion conduction in solid electrolytes; new strategy for design
May 06, 2016
A team led by the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used state-of-the-art microscopy to identify a previously undetected feature, about 5 billionths of a meter (nanometers) wide, in a solid electrolyte. The work experimentally verifies the importance of that feature to fast ion transport, and corroborates the observations with theory. The new mechanism the researchers report in Advanced Energy Materials points to a new strategy for the design of highly conductive solid electrolytes.
Using a solid electrolyte in a rechargeable battery is one of the most important factors in enabling safe, high-power, high-energy batteries, said first author Cheng Ma of ORNL, who conducted most of the study’s experiments. However, solid electrolytes typically suffer from low ionic conductivity, limiting their applications, Ma added.
CMU study concludes lithium market fluctuations unlikely to impact Li-ion battery prices significantly
May 05, 2016
A new study by a team from Carnegie Mellon University’s College of Engineering has found that even large increases in lithium prices are unlikely to increase significantly the cost of batteries or battery packs for end users such as vehicle manufactures or consumers—although some manufacturers may see reduced profit margins. The study comes against the backdrop of a more than doubling of global lithium prices over the last 6 months.
The Carnegie Mellon University researchers, whose study was published in the Journal of Power Sources, analyzed multiple lithium-ion battery chemistries and cell formats to see whether extreme lithium price variations would have a substantial impact. They found that the use of more expensive lithium precursor materials results in less than 1% increases in the cost of lithium-ion cells considered. Similarly, larger fluctuations in the global lithium price (from $0 to $25/kg from a baseline of $7.50 per kg of Li2CO3) do not change the cost of lithium-ion cells by more than 10%.
BMW boosts battery capacity of MY2017 i3 to 33 kWh with higher energy density Li-ion cells; up to 114 miles combined cycle range
May 02, 2016
BMW will offer a new model range of its i3 compact electric car, and from the 2017 model year will be offering a new version with more than 50% increased battery capacity.
The 2017 BMW i3 (94 Ah) has a capacity of 33 kilowatt hours (kWh) due to the use of higher energy density lithium-ion cells; the dimensions of the pack remain unchanged while still offering a significant range increase. The new BMW i3, in varying weather conditions and with the air conditioning or heating turned on, has a range of up to 114 miles (183 km) combined (hwy/city) cycle, as shown by independent BMW testing; EPA figures are still pending. The EPA range rating for the MY 2016 i3 is 81 miles (130 km).
PARC, ORNL and Ford collaborate on high-energy, high-power battery production for EVs using CoEx printing
April 28, 2016
PARC, a Xerox company, is collaborating with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Ford Motor Company in a DOE-funded project that will use PARC’s novel CoEx printing technology (earlier post) to fabricate thick, higher energy and higher power battery electrodes with the end goal of enabling longer range and low cost electric vehicles.
The goal of the project—“Co-Extrusion (CoEx) for Cost Reduction of Advanced High-Energy-and-Power Battery Electrode Manufacturing”—is to demonstrate pilot-scale, electric vehicle (EV) pouch cells with a 20% improvement in gravimetric energy density (Wh/kg), and a 30% reduction in $/kWh costs.