[Due to the increasing size of the archives, each topic page now contains only the prior 365 days of content. Access to older stories is now solely through the Monthly Archive pages or the site search function.]
Researchers develop computer model for crash injury risks based on precrash occupant position
November 13, 2015
Researchers led by Ashley Weaver, assistant professor at the Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University Center for Injury Biomechanics, have developed a method to compute crash injury metrics and risks as functions of precrash occupant position.
The process allows for quantification of the sensitivity and uncertainty of the injury risk predictions based on occupant position to understand further important factors that lead to more severe motor vehicle crash injuries. The modeling results provide details not available from using crash test dummies (anthropomorphic test devices, or ATDs).
UMTRI preliminary analysis of autonomous vehicle safety
October 30, 2015
Researchers at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) have performed a preliminary analysis of the cumulative on-road safety record of self-driving vehicles for three of the ten companies that are currently approved for such vehicle testing in California (Google, Delphi, and Audi).
The analysis compared the safety record of these vehicles with the safety record of all conventional vehicles in the US for 2013 (adjusted for underreporting of crashes that do not involve a fatality). The study, by Brandon Schoettle and Michael Sivak, made four main findings:
2016 Prius c hybrid gets big safety boost with Safety Sense-C system
October 17, 2015
Toyota gave its Prius c—the smallest of the brand’s eight hybrid models—a major styling and interior upgrade for 2015; for 2016 the big enhancement is the available Toyota Safety Sense C (TSS-C), which equips the car with an array of driver-assist technologies: Pre-Collision System, Lane Departure Assist, and Automatic High Beams.
In adapting Toyota’s hybrid technology to the Prius c platform, each of the system’s major components benefitted from a design focus to reduce weight and size while improving efficiency. Toyota’s hybrid technology integrates a gasoline engine, an electric motor within a Continuously Variable Transaxle, a nickel-metal hydride battery, a power control unit (inverter), a DC-DC converter, a step-up converter and a hybrid control computer.
$90M UR:BAN research initiative presenting results on ADAS and traffic management for cities; intelligent vehicles
October 07, 2015
In Düsseldorf, the 31 partners—automobile and electronics manufacturers, suppliers, communication technology and software companies, research institutes and cities—involved in the UR:BAN research initiative (Urban Space: user-friendly assistance systems and network management) presented the results of four years of work in a two-day event.
UR:BAN’s goal is to develop advanced driver assistance and traffic management systems for cities, with a focus on the human element in all aspects of mobility and traffic. The project pursued its objectives in three main thematic target areas: Cognitive Assistance; Networked Traffic System; and Human Factors in Traffic.
Toyota testing new Highway Teammate automated driving vehicle; aiming for commercialization around 2020
October 06, 2015
Toyota has been testing a new automated driving platform, a modified Lexus GS called Highway Teammate, with the aim of launching related products by around 2020. In addition to demonstrating the capabilities of next-generation safety technologies, the vehicle represents Toyota’s view of the evolving driver-car relationship in the age of artificial intelligence.
Toyota believes that interactions between drivers and cars should mirror those between close friends who share a common purpose, sometimes watching over each other and sometimes helping each other out. Toyota refers to this approach as the Mobility Teammate Concept. Highway Teammate represents an important first effort to give form to this concept.
Caltech, JPL designed megasupramolecule fuel additive reduces intensity of post-impact fuel explosions
October 02, 2015
Researchers at Caltech and JPL used statistical mechanics to design a polymeric fuel additive that can self-assemble into “megasupramolecules” (≥5000 kg/mol) at low concentration (≤0.3 weight percent) and thus can reduce the intensity of post-impact fuel explosions that occur during accidents and terrorist acts.
Furthermore, preliminary results show that the additive can provide this benefit without adversely affecting fuel performance. The work is published in the journal Science.
Study comparing crash risk of EU and US vehicles indicates differences in performance
September 28, 2015
An international research study examining the safety performance of US and EU motor vehicles has found differences in performance between the two. The study is the first side-by-side comparison of predicted risk for EU-regulated and US-regulated vehicles and was conducted collaboratively by The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI); and Safer Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre at Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden), in association with Centre Européen d’Etudes de Sécurité et d’Analyse des Risques (CEESAR), France, and Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), UK.
The investigation of safety performance was motivated by the ongoing negotiations between the EU and the US concerning the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) agreement.
10 automakers commit to making automatic emergency braking standard in US
September 11, 2015
Ten major vehicle manufacturers have committed to making automatic emergency braking (AEB) a standard feature on all new vehicles built, the US Department of Transportation, its National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) announced today.
The announcement, made at the dedication of IIHS’s newly expanded Vehicle Research Center, represents a major step toward making crash-prevention technologies more widely available to consumers. The 10 companies—Audi, BMW, Ford, General Motors, Mazda, Mercedes Benz, Tesla, Toyota, Volkswagen and Volvo—will work with IIHS and NHTSA in the coming months on the details of implementing their historic commitment, including the timeline for making AEB a standard feature. The Department and IIHS encourage all other light-vehicle and trucking manufacturers to bring automated vehicle technology to all vehicles on US roadways as soon as possible.
J.D. Power: automakers spending billions on technologies many consumers don’t use; user preferences for smartphones and tablets
August 26, 2015
Automakers are investing billions of dollars to put connectivity technologies in their cars and light trucks that are not being used by many of the owners of those vehicles, according to the J.D. Power 2015 Driver Interactive Vehicle Experience (DrIVE) Report. The 2015 DrIVE Report measures driver experiences with in-vehicle technology features during the first 90 days of ownership.
The report finds that at least 20% of new-vehicle owners have never used 16 of the 33 technology features measured. The five features owners most commonly report that they “never use” are in-vehicle concierge (43%); mobile routers (38%); automatic parking systems (35%); head-up display (33%); and built-in apps (32%).
FCA to pay record $105M over recall failures
July 27, 2015
In a consent order with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Fiat Chrysler Automobiles has acknowledged violations of the Motor Vehicle Safety Act’s requirements to repair vehicles with safety defects and will submit to federal oversight, buy back some defective vehicles from owners, and pay up to $105 million in penalties and remediation—the largest such settlement yet imposed by the Department’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
The company must pay a $70-million cash penalty—equal to the record $70 million civil penalty the agency imposed on Honda in January. In addition, Fiat Chrysler must spend at least $20 million on meeting performance requirements included in the Consent Order. Another $15 million could come due if the independent monitor discovers additional violations of the Safety Act or the Consent Order.
GM opens new $14M Active Safety Test Area at Milford; 22 different active safety technologies across GM MY2016 US lineup; V2V and autonomous driving
July 25, 2015
GM officially opened its new $14-million, 52-acre Active Safety Test Area at its Milford Proving Ground near Detroit. GM’s brands—Chevrolet, Buick GMC and Cadillac will offer 22 different active safety technologies across their 2016 model year US lineups, ranging from driver alerts to those that automatically intervene and assist the driver in critical situations.
Safety engineers will develop and test these and other safety technologies for products around the world at the new Active Safety Test Area. Cynthia Bay, director of Active Safety Electronics and Controls said the facility is also ideal for testing vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) technologies, which will be standard on the 2017 Cadillac CTS.
The most recent J.D. Power APEAL study found that the increasing number of safety-related technologies equipping new vehicles are making those vehicles more appealing to their owners. (Earlier post.)
J.D. Power: growing usage of safety technologies in new vehicles contributes to increasing vehicle appeal
July 24, 2015
The safety-related technologies with which manufacturers are increasingly equipping their new vehicles are making those vehicles more appealing to their owners, according to the J.D. Power 2015 US Automotive Performance, Execution and Layout (APEAL) Study.
The APEAL Study, now in its 20th year, examines how gratifying a new vehicle is to own and drive. Owners evaluate their vehicle across 77 attributes, which combine into an overall APEAL Index score that is measured on a 1,000-point scale. The overall APEAL score has increased by 4 points year over year to 798 in 2015. The study finds that some safety features can contribute to a significant boost in APEAL scores. For example, the overall score among owners of vehicles with blind-spot monitoring and warning systems is 38 points higher than among those without them.
New safety test environment for high-speed flywheels for energy storage systems; new high-speed imaging techniques
July 07, 2015
The Ricardo-led FlySafe research collaboration—involving a range of leading industrial and academic partners including the University of Brighton’s Centre for Automotive Engineering—has delivered an innovative flywheel safety test environment to enable the development of next-generation flywheel energy storage systems.
The FlySafe project is investigating the potential failure mechanisms and behaviors of high-speed flywheel systems. Operating at extremely high rotational speeds, these systems offer a practical and potentially cost-effective mechanical means of saving fuel and reducing carbon emissions through the mechanical storage and reuse of energy in applications such as regenerative braking. The FlySafe research aims to provide best-practice design guidelines for the safety containment systems of high speed flywheels, appropriate for commercial mass market deployment of these systems. A key output of the project in this respect will be a proposed BSI flywheel safety standard.
Jaguar Land Rover’s Sixth Sense R&D: monitoring driver heart rate, respiration and brain activity to reduce accidents
June 23, 2015
Jaguar Land Rover revealed a set of new road safety technology research projects being developed to reduce the number of accidents caused by drivers who are stressed, distracted and not concentrating on the road ahead.
The Jaguar Land Rover “Sixth Sense” research projects utilizes advanced technology from sports, medicine and aerospace, to monitor the driver’s heart rate, respiration and levels of brain activity to identify driver stress, fatigue and lack of concentration. The UK-based team is also looking at innovations that would reduce the amount of time the driver’s eyes are off the road while driving, and how to communicate with the driver via pulses and vibrations through the accelerator pedal.
US DOT releases summary of vehicle-to-pedestrian technologies; 86 V2P technologies ID’d so far
June 05, 2015
The US Department of Transportation (USDOT) has released a summary of available vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) technologies. The objective of the technical scan was to review available literature and to scan existing technology to identify pedestrian collision warning applications and assess their suitability to be adopted under the Intelligent Transportation System Joint Program Office (ITS JPO) Connected Vehicle Program.
The scan and subsequent database outlines the current V2P technological landscape. In total, 86 V2P technologies have been identified. While a number of the technologies are camera-based (17), others are likely to gain traction as the broader technological landscape evolves-making more advanced devices more easily accessible and less expensive. The data base also include crowd-sourced technologies such as WAZE.
Study using real-world data finds low speed autonomous emergency braking leads to 38% reduction in rear-end crashes
May 13, 2015
A study by a team of researchers from Europe, Australia and New Zealand has found that Low Speed AEB (autonomous emergency braking) technology leads to a 38% reduction in real-world rear-end crashes. The study, published in the journal of Accident Analysis & Prevention, also found that there is no significant difference between urban and rural crash benefits. The study also concluded that Low Speed AEB technology needs widespread fitment for maximum benefits.
Autonomous Emergency Braking is one of the more promising safety technologies that is becoming increasingly common on modern passenger cars. The low speed option normally consists of an automatic brake function that operates for speeds up to 30 km/h or 50 km/h (18.6 mph and 31 mph). Previous studies have predicted significant expected benefits of AEB technology in low speed rear-end crashes but, so far, there has been little evidence that they really work.
Toyota and Lexus roll-out low-cost automated braking safety packages on RAV4 Hybrid and RX crossover
March 30, 2015
At separate press conferences Wednesday and Thursday at the New York Auto Show, Toyota will reveal the RAV4 Hybrid SUV, while Lexus unveils its all-new fourth-generation RX luxury crossover SUV. Both debuts will mark the arrival of new, multi-feature, integrated safety packages, each anchored by automated pre-collision braking and offered at a price below comparable systems across the auto industry.
Toyota Safety Sense (TSS) and Lexus Safety System+ (LSS+) are designed to support the driver’s awareness, decision making and vehicle operation over a wide range of speeds. Packaged together in an integrated system, their features help address three key areas of accident protection: preventing or mitigating rear collisions; keeping drivers within their lane; and enhancing road safety during night time driving. The systems are intended to address commonly occurring crash types according to traffic accident statistical analyses.
Opel developing eye-tracking technology to guide headlights
March 12, 2015
Engineers at Opel, in collaboration with the Technical University of Darmstadt, are developing eye-tracking technology for application in a third-generation of automotive adaptive lighting that will be introduced after the current AFL+ bi-xenon system. The concept is that the driver’s eye movements will control the direction and intensity of light.
High-performance eye-tracking systems can require 5 to 10 cameras; for the Opel system, the researchers began with a simple webcam. Focused on the driver’s head, it scanned prominent points, such as the nose and eyes, to detect movement and thereby the driver’s line of sight.
Global NCAP calls for universal application of minimum vehicle safety standards in all world markets by 2020
March 11, 2015
Millions of new cars sold in middle and low income countries fail to meet the UN’s basic safety standards for front and side impacts, according to international automotive safety watchdog Global NCAP (New Car Assessment Program). Global NCAP has released a new policy report, “Democratising Car Safety: Road Map for Safer Cars 2020”, calling for minimum vehicle safety standards to be applied universally in all world markets.
World Health Organization (WHO) figures put the annual death toll from road crashes worldwide at 1.3 million people, while up to 50 million are injured in those crashes. The global vehicle fleet reached 1 billion units in 2010 and is forecast to double in the next ten to fifteen years, with much of this increase occurring in low and middle income countries which account for 90% of total road deaths.
Volvo Cars providing 1,000 test vehicles for Scandinavian cloud-based project for sharing road surface information
February 13, 2015
Volvo Cars, the Swedish Transport Administration and the Norwegian Public Roads Administration are collaborating on a development and demonstration project to enable cars to share information through a cloud-based network about conditions that relate to road friction (such as icy patches). (Earlier post.) The Road Surface Information (RSI) system combines the latest generation of climate models, advanced analysis of vehicle data and a detailed statistical analysis of road sections.
With the technology development in place, the testing and validation phase is now about to begin. In this phase, Volvo Cars will both expand the test fleet 20-fold (from about 50 cars to 1,000) and broaden the test area to include two big Scandinavian cities: Gothenburg and Oslo. Together, these measures will provide a more complete picture of how the system will work in real winter traffic conditions.
NHTSA releases two new studies on impaired driving on US roads; drunk driving down, drug use up
February 07, 2015
The nation’s decades-long campaign to combat drunk driving continues to make roads safer, but use of marijuana and prescription drugs is increasingly prominent on the highways, creating new safety questions, according to a pair of new studies released by the Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
One study, the latest version of NHTSA’s Roadside Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use by Drivers, found that the number of drivers with alcohol in their system has declined by nearly one-third since 2007, and by more than three-quarters since the first Roadside Survey in 1973. But that same survey found a large increase in the number of drivers using marijuana or other illegal drugs. In the 2014 survey, nearly one in four drivers tested positive for at least one drug that could affect safety.
Battelle/Concurrent Technologies Corporation technology positioning paper: Improving Li-ion battery safety without decreasing energy density
February 05, 2015
Ed. introduction: The following technology positioning paper is a joint effort by a team from Battelle and Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC). The paper outlines the technology landscape and the opportunities that exist in the area of improved Li-ion battery safety.
Energy is a common technology area on which both research organizations focus in different ways, noted Dr. Vicki Barbur, CTC Senior Vice President and CTO. The two have decided that Li-ion battery safety is an area of opportunity for each. Supported by an ARPA-E award, Battelle recently developed an optical sensor to monitor the internal environment of a lithium-ion battery in real-time. (Earlier post.) The organizations intend to pursue further efforts directed toward safety in relation to Li-ion battery technology. Interest and involvement from external clients would be welcomed.
NHTSA announces follow-up recall of 2.12 million cars and SUVs over TRW airbag defects
January 31, 2015
US Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx announced today the recall of more than 2.12 million Acura, Dodge, Jeep, Honda, Pontiac, and Toyota vehicles from model years 2002 to 2004 for a defect that may cause airbags to deploy inadvertently.
The vehicles were subject to earlier recalls to address a problem with an electronic component manufactured by TRW that caused some airbags to deploy in the absence of a crash. The recalls will provide vehicle owners with a new remedy after the manufacturers’ original attempts to fix the defects proved ineffective in some vehicles.
NHTSA to include 2 automatic emergency braking systems in NCAP recommendations
January 25, 2015
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) plans to add two advanced automatic emergency braking (AEB) systems—crash imminent braking (CIB) and dynamic brake support (DBS)—to the recommended advanced safety features included under its New Car Assessment Program (NCAP).
The addition is the latest in a long history of safety innovations covered in a new NHTSA's new report, which uses data from the agency’s Fatal Accident Reporting System to create a statistical model that estimated safety technologies have saved 613,501 lives since 1960.
Jaguar Land Rover “Bike Sense” uses color, sound and vibration to help prevent accidents involving bicycles and motorbikes
January 21, 2015
|Jaguar Land Rover is developing a range of new technologies that would use colors, sounds and touch inside the car to alert drivers to potential hazards and prevent accidents involving bicycles and motorbikes. Click to enlarge.|
At its Advanced Research Center in the UK, Jaguar Land Rover is developing a range of new technologies it calls “Bike Sense” that uses colors, sounds and touch (vibration) inside the car to alert drivers to potential hazards and prevent accidents involving bicycles and motorbikes. Nearly 19,000 cyclists are killed or injured on UK roads every year.
Sensors on the car will detect when another road user is approaching and identify it as bicycle or motorbike. Bike Sense will then make the driver aware of the potential hazard before the driver sees it. Rather than using a generic warning icon or sound, which takes time for the driver’s brain to process, Bike Sense uses lights and sounds that the driver will instinctively associate with the potential danger.
UMTRI researchers suggests safety expectations for self-driving vehicles may be overblown
January 16, 2015
In a new white paper, a team from the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) discussed issues related to road safety with self-driving vehicles and concludes that expectations for improved road safety may be, in some cases, overblown.
In their paper, Michael Sivak and Brandon Schoettle assessed safety from four perspectives: 1) Can self-driving vehicles compensate for contributions to crash causation by other traffic participants, as well as vehicular, roadway, and environmental factors? (2) Can all relevant inputs for computational decisions be supplied to a self-driving vehicle? (3) Can computational speed, constant vigilance, and lack of distractibility of self-driving vehicles make predictive knowledge of an experienced driver irrelevant? (4) How would road safety be influenced during the expected long transition period during which conventional and self-driving vehicles would need to interact on the road?
Honda introducing first predictive cruise control system in CR-V in Europe
January 09, 2015
Honda will introduce in Europe the first predictive cruise control system, which Honda calls Intelligent Adaptive Cruise Control (i-ACC), capable of foreseeing and automatically reacting to other vehicles cutting-in to the equipped vehicle’s lane.
Based on extensive real-world research of typical European driving styles, Honda’s Intelligent Adaptive Cruise Control (i-ACC) uses a camera and radar to sense the position of other vehicles on the road. It then applies an algorithm to predict the likelihood of vehicles in neighboring lanes cutting-in by evaluating relations between multiple vehicles, enabling the i-ACC-equipped vehicle to react quickly, safely and comfortably.
Hyundai showcasing augmented reality, wearables and ADAS tech at 2015 CES
January 05, 2015
Hyundai is showcasing a collection of new technologies at the 2015 CES, highlighting a new augmented reality Head Up Display (HUD); new connectivity and 3D-gesture controls; and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS).
Augmented reality head-up display system and wearables. Basic Head-Up Displays (HUD) appeared in cars the late 1980s, when they only offered the speedometer as a virtual image projected onto the windshield. The HUD found inside the 2015 Genesis includes driving information such as Smart Cruise Control status, navigation, Blind Spot Detection, and Forward Collision and Lane Departure Warnings. At CES, Hyundai is showcasing a production-ready augmented reality HUD concept.
Sandia Labs and Linde partner to expand hydrogen fueling network; performance-based design for stations
December 17, 2014
|New Linde hydrogen station. Click to enlarge.|
Sandia National Laboratories and Linde LLC have signed an umbrella Cooperative Research & Development Agreement (CRADA) they expect to accelerate the development of low-carbon energy and industrial technologies, beginning with hydrogen and fuel cells.
The CRADA will begin with two new research and development projects to accelerate the expansion of hydrogen fueling stations to continue to support the market growth of fuel cell electric vehicles now emerging from the major auto manufacturers. The first will focus on performance-based design for hydrogen stations. The second focuses on safety aspects of the NFPA code.
Jaguar Land Rover developing transparent pillar and ‘follow-me’ ghost car navigation
December 15, 2014
Jaguar Land Rover has launched a research project to develop technologies that will offer drivers a 360˚ view out of their vehicle (“360 Virtual Urban Windscreen”), uninterrupted by the pillars that support the roof. The company is also exploring “Follow-Me Ghost Car Navigation”, which uses a “ghost car” projected in front of the car for a driver to follow, aiding navigation on busy urban roads.
With “360 Virtual Urban Windscreen”, a screen would be embedded in the surface of each pillar inside the car and would take a live video feed from cameras covering the angles outside the car usually obscured in the blind spots created by the A, B and C-pillars. Pedestrians, cyclists and other vehicles would be visible all around the car—and by combining the transparent pillars with an advanced high quality Heads-Up display, the movement of other road users could be highlighted to the driver with an on-screen halo moving across the car’s virtual windshield.
DOT and Battelle release findings and lessons learned from V2X Transit Safety Retrofit Package project
December 13, 2014
The US Department of Transportation (DOT) and Battelle have released the latest findings and lessons learned from the Transit Safety Retrofit Package (TRP). The TRP project aimed to design and develop safety applications for transit buses that can communicate using vehicle-to-vehicle as well as vehicle-to-infrastructure connected vehicle technologies for enhanced transit bus and pedestrian safety.
The project was part of the USDOT’s Safety Pilot Model Deployment, a large-scale field demonstration of the potential benefits of 5.9 GHz dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) wireless technology that is supporting related decisions by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Toyota bringing vehicle-infrastructure cooperative systems to some new models in Japan in 2015
November 26, 2014
Starting next year, some of Toyota Motor Corporation’s new models will be compatible with advanced vehicle-infrastructure cooperative systems that use a wireless frequency reserved for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). This compatibility will be offered as an option for the “Toyota Safety Sense P” active safety package that will be made available in 2015 on select new models sold in Japan.
The systems will use the dedicated ITS frequency of 760 MHz for road-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-vehicle communication to gather information that cannot be obtained by onboard sensors. At intersections with poor visibility, information about oncoming vehicles and pedestrians detected by sensors above the road will be conveyed via road-to-vehicle communication, and information about approaching vehicles will be conveyed via vehicle-to-vehicle communication, with audio and visual alerts warning drivers when necessary.
Delphi and CMU spinout Ottomatika partner to accelerate automated driving; “connected automation”
November 22, 2014
Delphi Automotive PLC, which already offers a suite of advanced driver assistance systems, will partner with Ottomatika, Inc., a spinout from Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) led by Dr. Raj Rajkumar which provides advanced automated driving software, jointly to develop technology that will help accelerate automated driving.
Dr. Rajkumar is a professor in the department of electrical and computer engineering at CMU; co-director of the CMU-Penn T-SET (Technologies for Sade and Efficient Transportation) UTC (US DOT University Transportation Center); co-director of the General Motors-Carnegie Mellon Vehicular Information Technology Collaborative Research Lab; and led the development of the CMU advanced Autonomous Cadillac SRX. (Earlier post.)