## DOE Co-Funds 12 Projects to Increase Engine Efficiency

The US DOE announced $87.5 million in co-funding to support 12 projects developing advanced combustion engine and waste heat recovery technologies. The projects, with a total value of$175 million (50%, or $87.5 million, of which is contributed by industry) focus on increasing engine efficiency while maintaining low emissions. The Administration has set of goal of improving engine efficiency from 30% (the 2004 baseline) to 45% by 2012 for passenger vehicles and from 40% (2002 baseline) to 55% by 2013 for commercial vehicles. Such increases in thermal efficiency would result in a projected concomitant reduction in engine fuel consumption of 10%–15%. The efficiency of an internal combustion engine refers to the percentage of the energy resulting from the combustion that actually is applied to moving the car or running the accessories. The diagram at the right (Click to enlarge) depicts the energy split in a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine. Of the 100% energy available from combustion, only about 25% actually gets applied to moving the car or running the accessories (+5% for the parasitic and friction losses—hence the 30% figure above). Diesel engines and lean combustion gasoline engines fare somewhat better: 35% of the energy flows to mobility and accessories.) What the research described below is trying to do is alter the ratios so that the effective power for propulsion increases. Seven of the twelve projects focus on advanced combustion technology with a heavy focus on HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition—earlier post). There is also an diesel-compressed-air hybrid truck powertrain under development. The remaining projects deal with technologies to convert waste heat from engines to electrical or mechanical energy (related post). A summary of the projects follows, along with DOE/Industry costs. ADVANCED COMBUSTION Caterpillar and its research team will work with HCCI using a combination of enhanced engine sensors, intelligent engine control, variable compression ratios, and fuel composition. Its target is a low-temperature, high-efficiency engine for truck or non-road machine use. Team members include ExxonMobil, Sandia National Laboratory and IAV Automotive. (DOE:$10.4 million / Industry: $10.4 million) Cummins and its team are developing variable valve timing and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) technologies. The project includes the demonstration of engines for both passenger and commercial vehicles and the compatibility of the technology with renewable fuels. Team members include International, DaimlerChrysler, British Petroleum, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. (DOE:$15 million / Industry: $15 million) Detroit Diesel is working to combine several processes that enhance engine combustion individually into one system that enables high-efficiency clean combustion. The team will also investigate fuel matrix effects, including renewable fuels. This project is to develop engine system hardware and controls to improve thermal efficiency of commercial engines while meeting emissions levels of 2010 and beyond. Team members include Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Freightliner, Schneider, Shell and DaimlerChrysler. (DOE:$19.5 million / Industry: $21.9 million) GM Powertrain is working with variable valve timing technologies to support HCCI operation on both spark ignition (gasoline) and diesel engines. Team members include Sturman Industries. (DOE:$6.2 million / Industry: $6.2 million) International Truck and Engine is researching the development and application of HCCI combustion over as large an operating range as possible by integrating commercial or near-commercial fuel, air, and engine technologies (variable valve timing, variable compression ratio, variable nozzle turbocharging, and fuel injection equipment) with advanced controls. Demonstration will be in a commercial diesel engine. Team members include Ricardo, Borg-Warner Turbo, Jacobs Vehicle Systems, Siemens, Mahle, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UC Berkeley, Argonne National Laboratory and Conoco-Phillips. (DOE:$6.4 million / Industry: $8.1 million) John Deere will develop a stoichiometric compression-ignition engine with low-pressure loop cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a diesel particulate filter followed by a three-way catalyst. Combustion will be similar to conventional diesel combustion with lower peak temperatures. A commercial diesel engine will be modified with a high injection pressure fuel system, variable valve timing and advanced electronic controls along with aftertreatment and low pressure loop EGR system. Team members include Sturman Industries, Ricardo Technologies and Purdue University. (DOE:$2.7 million / Industry: $2.7 million) Mack Trucks will develop and demonstrate an diesel-compressed-air hybrid with a projected improvement in fuel efficiency of 15%. During braking, the air-power-assist (APA) engine would utilize braking energy to work as a compressor, pumping compressed air into an on-board tank. (Similar to the Hydraulic Launch Assist approach taken by Eaton and Peterbilt—earlier post). During acceleration the engine is powered by the compressed air with or without burning diesel fuel until the compressed air is depleted. The key technology development required for the APA engine is a fully-flexible engine valve actuation system. The technology will be tested on a commercial diesel engine. Team members include UCLA, Sturman Industries and Advanced Energy Systems. (DOE:$1.8 million / Industry: $1.8 million) EXHAUST ENERGY RECOVERY Caterpillar will develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system for commercial diesel engines. Electric turbocompounding and high efficiency air system technology will be key technology building blocks developed. (DOE:$3.9 million / Industry: $3.9 million) Cummins will develop a waste heat recovery system to support clean and efficient combustion and reduce heat rejection. This will include limited design and development of components, subsystems and associated electronic controls with integration into a commercial vehicle. Team members include International, Indiana University-Purdue University, University of Illinois-Urbana Champagne, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST). (DOE:$5.5 million / Industry: $5.5 million) Detroit Diesel will evaluate and cull a variety of engine-based technologies to partially recover and convert exhaust energy into useful mechanical and electrical work. Team members include Freightliner, Schneider and Holset Turbochargers. (DOE:$7.6 million / Industry: $7.6 million) John Deere will develop turbo compounding in heavy-duty applications including both agricultural tractors and on-highway trucks. Team members include Eaton, EMP and Ricardo Technologies. (DOE:$4.8 million / Industry: $4.8 million) Mack Trucks will integrate a turbocharger and compounded turbine into an overall system that would include a continuously variable transmission (CVT) to optimize performance. The complete engine/CVT will be demonstrated in commercial diesel vehicles. Team members include Volvo and Silvatech Industries. (DOE:$1.7 million / Industry: $1.7 million) ### Comments to : green car congress attn : research and development department from : jonni how can i send you my letter about new generation of diesel internal combustion engine? regards, jonni Sir i want to know how variable compression effects the engine performances.also the load characteristics of VCR engine. sir i want to know the performances & load characteristics of variabler compression engine. sir,i want to work on the project on increasing the efficiency of engines through seebeck effect phenomenon. please help me out for a better thermocouple Compressed air engine technology would probably be best suited for the scooter industry. Retrofitting existing scooters would be the way to go. I am hoping that Honda will export their hybrid scooter to the US shortly. The final report for this project is: Ernst, William D. and Shaltens, Richard K. (1993), "Automotive Stirling Engine Development Project", Final Report, NASA Contractor Report 190780, MTI Report 91TR15 The Abstract, part of the Summary, the main headings from the Table of Contents and the Conclusions from this report are reproduced below. ABSTRACT The development and verification of automotive Stirling engine (ASE) component and system technology is described as it evolved through two experimental engine designs: the Mod I and the Mod II. Engine operation and performance and endurance test results for the Mod I are summarized. Mod II engine and component development progress is traced from the original design through hardware development, laboratory test, and vehicle installation. More than 21,000 hr. of testing were accomplished, including 4800 hr. with vehicles that were driven more than 59,000 miles. Mod II engine dynamometer tests demonstrated that the engine system configuration had accomplished its performance goals for power (60 kW) and efficiency (38.5%) to within a few percent. Tests with the Mod II engine installed in a delivery van demonstrated combined metro-highway fuel economy improvements consistent with engine performance goals and the potential for low emission levels. A modified version of the Mod II has been identified as a manufacturable design for an ASE. As part of the ASE project, the Industry Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP), NASA Technology Utilization (TU) project, and the industry-funded Stirling Natural Gas Engine program were undertaken to transfer ASE technology to end users. The results of these technology transfer efforts are also summarized. SUMMARY (partial) The objectives of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) Development project were to transfer European Stirling engine technology to the United States and develop an ASE that would demonstrate 30% improvement in combined metro-highway fuel economy over a comparable spark ignition (SI) engine in the same production vehicle. In addition, the ASE should demonstrate the potential for reduced emissions levels while maintaining the performance characteristics of SI engines. Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) developed the ASE in an evolutionary manner, starting with the test and evaluation of an existing stationary Stirling engine and proceeding through two experimental engine designs: the Mod I and the Mod II. Engine technology development resulted in elimination of strategic materials, increased power density, higher temperature and efficiency operation, reduced system complexity, long-life seals, and low-cost manufacturing designs. .......................... (The remaining part of the summary contains essentially the same material that is contained in the abstract) MAIN HEADINGS FROM TABLE OF CONTENTS SUMMARY LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES 1.0 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 2.0 MOD I ENGINE SUMMARY 3.0 MOD II ENGINE DEVELOPMENT 4.0 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER 5.0 TECHNOLOGY STATUS AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS 6.0 CONCLUSIONS 7.0 REFERENCES APPENDIX A: BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RELEVANT ASE PROJECT PUBLICATIONS APPENDIX B: ASE PROJECT DOCUMENTATION CATEGORIZED BY ENGINE NUMBER CONCLUSIONS This final report has summarized work performed in the ASE project. The project's success can be determined by comparing accomplishments to the defined project goals and contract requirements. In so doing, the following conclusions can be made: The potential for improvement in fuel economy for Stirling engines over SI engines has been demonstrated. A 10 to 13% improvement in fuel economy for the Mod II over the SI engine has been demonstrated for the USPS LLV in the EPA driving cycle. Based on test data obtained with the LLV, if the original Mod II Celebrity vehicle had been retained for fuel economy demonstration, the project goal of a 30% improvement could have been achieved. The Mod II engine had been sized and optimized for the Celebrity. Component optimization would also provide further improvements for USPS LLV fuel economy. The potential for low emissions has been demonstrated in the Mod II engine: CO=<2.2 g/mi, NOx=<0.9 g/mi, and HC=<0.4 g/mi with gasoline. The 1985 Federal emission limits were easily met without using a catalyst. The ability to operate on a broad range of liquid fuels was demonstrated. This evaluation was achieved not only in an engine test cell but also in vehicle operation. Measured Mod II SES [Stirling Engine System] power and efficiency performance was in excellent agreement with analytical projections, i.e., the differences were less than 4% in power and less than 1% in efficiency. Vehicle performance of a Stirling engine can be predicted from engine dynamometer test results. The Mod II-powered USPS LLV prediction of a 10% fuel economy improvement in the EPA driving cycle over the comparable SI-powered vehicle was verified by experiment. A manufacturable Stirling engine automotive design has been identified under the project. The engine is the Mod II (V-block design with annular heater head) concept modified per the Deere & Co. VA/VE study. Manufacturing costs of$3500 to \$4000 were projected by Deere & Co. for commercial production of 15,000 units per year.
In accomplishing the objective of transferring European Stirling engine technology to the United States, the ASE project succeeded in establishing an extensive U.S. technology and vendor base capable of designing, developing, and commmercializing Stirling engines. As a further indication of successful technology transfer, MTI, along with a gas industry consortium (GRI, NYGAS, and others) and Hercules Engines, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, is developing a commercial Stirling engine based on ASE technology developed in the Stirling Natural Gas Engine Program.
The NASA TU project demonstrated the ability of a Stirling-powered vehicle to be operated over the road by non-Stirling personnel; it demonstrated adequate availability and drivability.

The above report is for sale by the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161

Last updated: Wednesday, May 3, 1995

sir ,
i want to know the performance of variable compression ratio engine and it s emission levels.
i'm doing my project on that type of engine. i request your co operation.

sir ,
i want to know the performance of variable compression ratio engine and it s emission levels.
i'm doing my project on that type of engine. i request your co operation.

sir ,
i want to know the performance of variable compression ratio engine and it s emission levels.
i'm doing my project on that type of engine. i request your co operation.

Sir,
i am a b tech mechanical engg student and would like to take a seminar on the Rand Cam direct charge engines.But i couldnt get its performance characteristics and its advantages over the wankels engine.Also the cooling and the lubricating systems are not explained.i would be thankfull to you if can send it for me,otherwise my seminar would be a failure.
noufal.a.kabeer

Sir,
i am a b tech mechanical engg student and would like to take a seminar on the Rand Cam direct charge engines.But i couldnt get its performance characteristics and its advantages over the wankels engine.Also the cooling and the lubricating systems are not explained.i would be thankfull to you if can send it for me,otherwise my seminar would be a failure.
noufal.a.kabeer

Sir i want to know how variable compression effects the engine performances.also the load characteristics of VCR engine.i request your co operation.

sir i m doing my final year mechanical engg project on CVT but we are encountering problem with the actuation of the cone pulleys in our working models. we are confused about the incorporation of variators in our model.
kindly help
regards
nishith

I am doing my master thesis on "Biogas-driven stirling engine micropower generation". So I need to know how much power will produce from biogas by using stirling engine more efficiently. Please could you send the performance criteria of stirling engine driven by biogas.

Dear Sir,

Greetings !
I am a B.Tech student in mechanical enginnering in the final year. I have decided to act upon my seminar topic as Green engine technology. For the same i could not make my self confident enough without the photograpshs to explain the things to the participents. Please suggest me some photograph to built a conceptual frame for the audiance and what should be the suitable presentation form.
Eagerly waiting in anticipation.

dear sir , i am b.tech studant of instrumentation engg.
i want to do this project on small level as a final year project, so plz give me information

dear sir , i am b.tech studant of instrumentation engg.
i want to do this project on small level as a final year project, so plz give me information

dear sir , i am b.tech studant of instrumentation engg.
i want to do this project on small level as a final year project, so plz give me information

dear sir , i am b.tech studant of instrumentation engg.
i want to do this project on small level as a final year project, so plz give me information

dearsir,
i am a student of b tech mech. engg. final year. we have to do a project related to automobile. please suggest some good project.

dearsir,
i am a student of b tech mech. engg. final year. we have to do a project related to automobile. please suggest some good project.

Dear Sir,
May I know how the exhaust waste heat converting into energy in a Gas engine? There thermocouples how measure the heat into energy?

I HAVE A 1999 SUBURBAN WITH A 5.7 FUEL INJECTED ENGINE, 4 SPEED AUTOMACTIC TRANSMISSION. CAN ANYONE TELL ME IF USEING ACETONE, 2OZ TO 3 OZ OER 10 GALS GAS 87 OCTANE WILL GIVE ME BETTER GAS MILEAGE OR NOT. WILL IT HURT THE ENGINE. THANKS MARTIN

I have been testing Acetone to my truck and it has been working great. I noticed a increase in gas mileage by 35%, runs better at idle, it seems to start up quicker than it did before in the cold weather and even emissions will burn 60% cleaner. There nothing wrong with acetone use it and spread the word.

I have heard that a gasoline engine consumes its least amount of fuel when at full throttle under full load. Is this true? True for 4-stroke and 2-stroke? True for carburetor and fuel injected? Why or why not?

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