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Ford and PSA Launch New Efficient Diesel Families

2.2-liter LCV diesel

Ford Motor Company and PSA Peugeot Citroën announced the fourth phase of their diesel engine co-operation with the launch of two new families of efficient engines for their light commercial vehicle (LCV) and executive car lines.

This fourth phase of the successful collaboration between Ford and PSA, which began in 1998 and has seen the production of some 4 million diesels, represented a joint investment of €332 million (US$397 million).

Beginning this month, Ford will produce a dedicated 2.2-liter commercial diesel engine optimized for durability and ruggedness for the Ford Transit, and for PSA Peugeot Citroën’s new LCVs from its advanced Dagenham engine plant in Essex.

Starting in January 2006, PSA Peugeot Citroën will produce a 2.2-liter premium, high-output diesel engine for both companies’ medium/large and executive models from its Trémery plant, Moselle France. The Trémery plant is the world’s largest diesel engine facility.

Each company will produce their versions of the 2.2-liter engine at the rate of up to 200,000 units per year.

Both advanced common rail diesel engines feature a number of technical innovations.

The Light Commercial Vehicle Diesel. The LCV 2.2-liter diesel engine features smart injection management technology which allows it to constantly adjust itself for maximum efficiency during the life of the engine.

All versions of this engine are 2,198cc in displacement, dual overhead camshaft (DOHC), four cylinders in-line with four valves per cylinder head (16 valves in total). The engines feature high grade aluminium alloy cylinder heads with an iron cylinder block.

The engine will be offered in five configurations: 84 hp (63 kW) (torque: 250Nm); 99 hp (74 kW) (torque: 250Nm); 108 hp (81 kW) (torque: 285Nm); 118 hp (88 kW) (torque: 320Nm); and 128 hp (96 kW) (torque: 310Nm).

2.2-Liter Light Commercial Vehicle Diesel Family
Model (hp)8499108118128
Combustion system HPCR HPCR HPCR HPCR HPCR
Displacement (cc) 2,198 2,198 2,198 2,198 2,198
Bore 86 86 86 86 86
Stroke 94.6 94.6 94.6 94.6 94.6
Compression ratio 17.5:1 17.5:1 17.5:1 17.5:1 17.5:1
Displacement per cylinder 0.5495 0.5495 0.5495 0.5495 0.5495
Stroke/bore ratio 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1
Bore/stroke ratio 0.909 0.909 0.909 0.909 0.909
Max. power (kW) 62.5 74 81 88 96
Speed at max. power (rpm) 3500 2900–4000 3500 3500 3500
Specific power (kW/liter) 28.43 33.7 36.85 40.04 43.68
Max. torque (Nm) 250 250 285 320 310
Speed at max. torque (rpm) 1500-2200 1500–2800 1750-2250 2000-2300 1600-2500

The new engine employs the latest generation common-rail direct injection system, which has ensured the engine family meets Euro 4 compliance and further improves reliability.

The fuel injection system has an innovative pilot learning process. This intelligent process guarantees that the small pilot injection quantity so critical to low noise and emissions on modern high pressure common-rail engines, is delivered accurately across all cylinders for the life of the vehicle.

This level of control is achieved by periodically injecting five discrete injection events per cycle instead of the normal pilot and main injections. The engine management system then compares the engine operation and will fractionally adjust the pilot quantity to minimise noise and emissions.

The high pressure fuel injection system used ensures fuel is available at high pressure at each cylinder injection point. At critical points of the engine stroke, the electronic control of the injector valves allows very fine jets of fuel to be sprayed into the combustion chamber. This makes the combustion process clean and efficient, thus lowering emissions, improving fuel economy and increasing torque on each firing of the cylinder.

Another feature which helps reduce NOx emissions is a high-flow, electronically controlled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (e-EGR) system which reduces combustion temperatures, and is mapped to the operating conditions of the engine and cooled by a water-based heat exchanger. The electronic system allows better controllability, lower and more consistent emissions, and complete elimination of black smoke.

The e-EGR incorporates an anti-contamination system, which uses smart electronics to monitor the engine’s efficiency and to correct itself when necessary. The e-EGR can carry out this process regardless of the driving cycle of the vehicle, and ensures robustness regardless of how the vehicle is used.

For power improvement, the entry- and mid-level engines use a fixed geometry turbocharger, while the higher powered engines rely on a variable geometry turbo.

Using a fixed geometry turbocharger will allow both Ford of Europe and PSA Peugeot Citroën to offer a highly competitive entry point for their commercial vehicle ranges.

The variable geometry system offers greater torque at lower speeds, while the turbo adapts to the needs and driving characteristics of the driver. This is achieved by the electronic control of the vane angles of the turbocharger, as it allows accurate control of boost pressure over a wider operating range. The electric control ensures greater responsiveness and improved and more accurate boost control than before.

The medium- and high-power engines employ gallery-cooled pistons to cope with the higher power density.

The new 2.2-liter LCV engine meets Euro 4 emissions requirements (mandatory for light trucks in 2006). It produces just half the amount of NOx emissions compared with the engine from which it was developed, reduces CO2 emissions by 20% and PM emissions by 40%.

The HDi/TDCi premium diesel. Ford and PSA designed the new 2.2-liter premium diesel engine to match the performance of the best 2.5-liter diesels on the market, combined with superior environmental performance (complying with Euro IV emission standards and being equipped with a particulate filter), enhanced fuel efficiency and lower CO2 emissions.

HDI/TDCI 2.2-liter Engine for Passenger Cars
Model (hp)154–168168
Combustion system ECCS ECCS
No. of cylinders 4 4
Turbo Mono Twin
Aspiration VGT Biturbo
Displacement (cc) 2,178 2,178
Bore 85 85
Stroke 96 96
Compression ratio 16.6:1 16.6:1
Displacement/cylinder (cc) 544.5 544.5
Stroke/bore ratio 1.13 1.13
Bore/stroke ratio 0.885 0.885
DPF System Yes Yes
Max. power (kW) 115-125 125
Speed at max. power (rpm) 4,000 4,000
Specific power (kW/liter) 52.8-57.4 57.4
Max. torque (Nm) 400 400
Speed at max. torque (rpm) 2,000 1,750

The HDi/TDCi 2.2-litre engine uses a new Extreme Conventional Combustion System (ECCS) combustion chamber that reduces emissions of regulated pollutants at source by 30% while improving performance and reducing running noise. This combustion chamber has a large diameter and low compression ratio, which produces a more uniform air/fuel mix.

The size of the combustion chamber limits the amount of fuel in contact with the walls, thereby ensuring that fuel combustion is more efficient. Piston geometry and design have been tailored to create a 25% larger diameter combustion chamber compared with the previous engine generation. The use of aluminium with very high mechanical and thermal properties is a key feature to achieve such a piston design.

The special geometry also significantly reduced swirl in the combustion chamber, thereby reducing heat loss to the walls and improving the engine’s efficiency. As a result, fuel efficiency under all driving conditions has been improved by 2% compared to the previous generation, meanwhile the driveability offered has increased sharply by 25%.

The combustion system is combined with an all-new Bosch third-generation common-rail 1,800-bar injection system—an increase of 33% over the first generation’s 1,350 bar.

The high injection pressure and the new Bosch piezoelectric injectors with seven 135 µm nozzles—compared with five in the first generation—enable up to six injections per engine cycle, thereby making fuel injection more precise and improving injection duration.

This in turn enhances management of the introduction rate, or the ratio of the amount of diesel injected to the injection duration. The injection spray is finer, which reduces emissions, since the air/diesel mix is even more uniform.

The dual turbo

To enhance power, the engine uses a parallel sequential dual turbo—a first for a four-cylinder diesel.

A small, low-inertia turbo provides effective boosting even at low engine speed. A second turbo of the same size kicks in at 2,700 rpm. Both turbos are fully managed by the engine management system.

Ford, PSA and Honeywell Turbo Technology have filed five patents for this technology, which makes torque available at low revs and responds immediately when the turbo comes on line.

The maximum torque of 400 Nm is reached at 1,750 rpm. A third-generation electrically controlled variable geometry turbo was also developed for applications which do not require the bi-turbo ultimate boost at low engine speed. Electrical control enables precise, fast management of the turbo’s variable geometry to optimize boost pressure at each engine operating point.

Previous phases in the Ford-PSA partnership were:

  • Phase 1. Development of the 1.4-liter (1,399cc) common-rail turbo-diesel engine used by Ford in the Fiesta and Fusion, by Peugeot initially in the 206 and later in the 307 and by Citroën in the C2 and C3. This was first announced in 2001. A 1.6-liter (1,590cc) common-rail diesel engine was also part of the Phase 1 announcement and, together with the 1.4-liter variant, is now used in a wide variety of Ford Motor Company and PSA Peugeot Citroën applications.

  • Phase 2. Development of a 2.0-liter (1,998cc), four-cylinder common-rail turbo-diesel 16-valve unit, announced in early 2003 and also used in a wide variety of Ford Motor Company and PSA Peugeot Citroën applications.

  • Phase 3. While the first two phases of the project were led by PSA Peugeot Citroën, Phase 3 was led by Ford Motor Company. This was the production of a high-performance V6 six-cylinder 24-valve unit, announced in June 2003. The first product to benefit from this engine was the Jaguar S-Type, followed by the Peugeot 607. Since then, it has also been installed in the Land Rover Discovery, Range Rover Sport and the new Jaguar XJ and will be fitted in the Peugeot 407 Coupe and the Citroën C6 when both cars are launched on the market.

Together, Ford Motor Company and PSA Peugeot Citroën are the world’s leading diesel engine makers.


Mike Weindl

Diesel Technology downsized and turbocharged..and then add
Hybrid if you are still not happy with your mpg...looks like the french are taking the lead in Diesels..All that 5 liter engines can be easily replaced by half the size turbodiesels without sacrificing Power or durability and double the mpg..

Mike Weindl

People here have also to learn that you cannot compare Gasoline HP to Diesel HP..a 130 Hp TurboDiesel is much more powerful then a 130 Hp Gasoline look at torque has to become more important..


A small electric turbocharged Diesel Hybrid is the next car I'm going to be willing to buy.

Wonder who will make it first?


I'll vouch for diesels and gas engines not being comparable on horsepower.  My Passat TDI has only 134 HP peak, but it generates peak torque (and 90 HP) at just 1900 RPM.  You literally don't need to drop out of top gear except below 45 MPH or climbing steep hills, and the lack of noise and fuss while accelerating to highway speed is impressive.

Timber Davey

I was wondering when the BIG 3 auto makers were going to get smart and offer a vehichle the consumer wants. I really thought it was going to be China or Japan. I believe like myself that Americans want a midsize pickup, van or wagon that is diesel gets 30 to 40 mpg and still has all the power contractors need.


please, do not compare nonturbo gasoline engines with turbo diesel engines.

Darrin Miller

i want one of these 4.6 liter v-6 turbo diesels. how can i get one here to the (US) for my 93' ranger?

Miriam Ben-Shalom

Wondering if anyone can tell me: what is the composition of the tubing from the fuel tank to the engine in a 2000 Ford F-250 turbodiesel? I'd like to run B20 or better it, but if the tubes are rubber, may have to get them changed. Any help appreciated. Also, any conversion kit so I could rum B85 or veg oil in it?

Thank you.

Mary Dullinger

This technologies look very promising, especially when it comes to performance,and drivability. I can hardly wait to see what new developments are on the horizon based on them.

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