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Hydrogen-Enhanced Combustion Engine Could Improve Gasoline Fuel Economy by 20% to 30%

Hece
An HECE test engine

Work being done by ArvinMeritor, IAV (Ingenieursgesellshaft für Auto und Verkehr) and MIT on enhancing gasoline combustion with a small hydrogen gas stream is pointing toward a potential estimated improvement in gasoline fuel economy of 20% to 30%, depending upon the baseline engine.

Writing in the October issue of MTZ (Motortechnische Zeitschrift), Utz-Jens Beister from IAV and Rudy Smaling from ArvinMeritor describe their progress with the Hydrogen-Enhanced Combustion Engine (HECE) concept, as applied to an SUV-class 3.2-liter V6 test engine.

The premise of HECE, on which the research collaborative has been working for a number of years, is that the addition of a small amount of hydrogen to the cylinder charge can allow homogeneous charge ultra-lean-burn combustion engines to operate much leaner than otherwise possible.

That in itself is not a new discovery. What brings HECE closer to operational reality is the ArvinMeritor/MIT on-board, compact plasma reformer (earlier post) that can take a fraction of the conventional fuel, reform it in real-time and add the resulting hydrogen-rich gas to the remaining fuel-air mixture flowing into the engine.

In the plasma fuel reformer, air is metered into a plasma generator located upstream of a combustor. High voltage is applied to the air stream, forming high-temperature plasma. This high-temperature plasma torch flows into the combustor, initiating vigorous combustion of a rich fuel-air mixture. Within the plasma fuel reformer, partial oxidation reactions occur in the high-temperature gas phase created by the plasma, eliminating the need for a reforming catalyst.

Hecelimits
The shift of combustion limits with hydrogen-enhanced combustion.

Adding hydrogen gas to the homogeneous fuel charge improves the ignitability of the mixture, and increases flame speed and combustion stability. In theory, the combination of a lean-burn engine with the plasma reformer could support an ultra-lean and turbocharged engine that would reduce NOx emissions to the point of not requiring aftertreatment in the exhaust stream.

Researchers at the Sloan Automotive Laboratory at MIT also discovered that both hydrogen and carbon monoxide (both products of the partial oxidation process of the reformer) act as octane enhancers. Adding the reformed fuel gas to the engine thus also supports a substantial increase in compression ratio.

Once an engine is developed that operates ultra-lean, is turbocharged—or super-charged—and is better able to withstand engine knock, engine downsizing while maintaining performance becomes a credible option that can lead to significant additional fuel economy and performance benefits.

—Beister and Smaling

Such an ultra-lean-burn, high compression-ratio, turbocharged HECE could exhibit the following characteristics:

  • Extremely low engine out NOx emissions requiring little or no exhaust emissions control

  • Reduced pumping losses (~5-10% efficiency gain)

  • Improved thermodynamics (~10-12% efficiency gain)

  • Reduced friction (downsizing) (~5-8% efficiency gain)

ArvinMeritor is targeting release of the HECE for approximately 2008.

Resources:

Comments

kent

If a car gets 40 mpg it doesn't get me excited. My 1984 honda civic got 40mpg. Now if you can get my 2007 corolla to get over 60 mpg i'll get excited.

Bob Lockhart

I am very interested in building a hydrogen generator. Can some give me more specific information on it?

spackletoe

I make HHO systems for cars, trucks, big rigs, gas or diesel. Yes HHO works, and works great. You all can search the net looking for HHO, water car, etc. But only hand full sell a system. And the ones for sale are lot’s of cash. My system takes the best of all systems and I put it into a small very inexpensive unit. Full money back Guarantee. But if you still would like to read more. See what the all the real experts have to say. Check out.

http://www.chechfi.ca/pdfs/hydrogen_injection.pdf

This may help you understand this is REAL and works great. Don’t be fooled into there is no such thing. Check the web site mentioned. You'll be glad you did. Then if you don’t want to bother to run all over for parts to make one. I sell a unit very inexpensively. At www.hho2you.com
Thanks and have fun saving tons of fuel.

spackletoe

One thing I wanted to mention. The fuel gains are across the board! If your car gets 100 MPG's from the factory. (To make a point) Then the same rule applies. You would aspect to gain 20% to 80% GAIN using a HHO converter.
hho2you.com can help :)

andy

interesting comments, i just finished building a website for a guy who studies hydrogen and makes onboard water-powered generators to install in cars. he has 4 generators hooked up to his truck, and they produce and pump hydrogen into the intake. he's pulling 15 amps and getting 40 miles to the gallon in his truck, (it's a ford F150 V8) He previously got around 14 miles to the gallon, before he installed the generators. I don't know much about how it all works, but it doesn't take a genius to realize this is a huge breakthrough - and needs much more consideration. it blows my mind that nobody has manufactured generators like this on a large scale to sell to the public. This guy can't be the first one to figure out something this efficient, he's a backyard engineer, he doesn't even work for a major company (even though his business of selling generators will soon become a large company, it's doing very well) that's my story, for what it's worth. any questions or comments, feel free to email me, now that I've seen this happen right in front of my eyes, i'm interested in studying this topic a lot more. Andy@rainingfuel.com

marc

One of the debates on using hydrogen is whether or not the energy used to create the hydrogen using the auto's alternator is more than the energy that is gained. I recently read that the advantage of a plug-in hybrid car is that the cost of the energy from the your electrical outlet to allow the car to go 40 miles on batteries alone is about $1 with an electric utility rate of $0.15/kWH (I haven't done the math myself). So it would seem that if the hydrogen could be generated 'at home' using electricity and stored in a storage tank on the car, then even more 'efficiency' would be realized. Some of you would know better than me if this is practical (what is the energy density of compressed hydrogen) and if it's safe (can hydrogen be generated and compressed safely at home). With more hydrogen available in a storage tank, it would seem you could find and set the optimal hydrogen/air/fuel mixture with a good metering mechanism.

Even if the energy used to generate the hydrogen were more than the energy output, at least it's being generated by (lower cost) power from the utility company instead of by fossil fuels.

This may be a way to convert the typical automobile to a 'plug-in' hybrid.

tom lawler

Well folks I hate to tell you that making hydrogen on board is not that efficient. THAT IS IF THE VEHICLE USES THE HYDROGEN AS AN ENERGY SOURCE. No one that I have researched or read about claim that the electricy used to make on board hydrogen is free. Most of these folks say that the amps used = about the cost of running the head lights on your vehicle. If I could turn on my head lights and gain ten percent better gas milage would not you.

The hydrogen produced on board is not free energy but is a fuel suppliment. The fact that a small amount of hydrogen improves milage is well documented. Not only gas costs go down so does pollution.

Guy Folks

Hydrogen-Enhanced Combustion certainly does work.

It is only ever disputed by those eternal knockers too complaisant to do any search of their own and guided by their ignorance.

The method of adding a small amount of hydrogen to the combustion of the ICE to improve its combustion efficiency has been around for some 90 years; therefore no patents. The small amounts of required hydrogen can be produced on board and since it is only produced when the engine is running it is perfectly safe.

This method has been scientifically evaluated by many reputable institutions and you can check this out by making the simple effort of just viewing this site http://tinyurl.com/4dl7no

And if those lazy, ignorant knockers can be bothered to do something about their high fuel bills instead of complaining they can find out how simple it is by just going to this site http://tinyurl.com/257w5x

I bet those ignorant, lazy knockers simply can't be bothered.

Guy Folks

Hydrogen-Enhanced Combustion certainly does work.

It is only ever disputed by those eternal knockers too complaisant to do any search of their own and guided by their ignorance.

The method of adding a small amount of hydrogen to the combustion of the ICE to improve its combustion efficiency has been around for some 90 years; therefore no patents. The small amounts of required hydrogen can be produced on board and since it is only produced when the engine is running it is perfectly safe.

This method has been scientifically evaluated by many reputable institutions and you can check this out by making the simple effort of just viewing this site http://tinyurl.com/4dl7no

And if those lazy, ignorant knockers can be bothered to do something about their high fuel bills instead of complaining they can find out how simple it is by just going to this site http://tinyurl.com/257w5x

I bet those ignorant, lazy knockers simply can't be bothered.

Gary McLeod

If I generate H2 by eletroylsis of water using solar panels, then collect that H2, compress it, and pump it into a 5KPSI carbon fiber storage tank in the back of my VW Jetta Turbo Diesel. Using Impco Injectors control the metering of that H2 into the intake, will I get better fuel economy? Right now, I get between 43 and 47 at 70 to 80 mph and drive 1500 miles round trip every three weeks (748 miles each way non stop). The variation in mileage is mostly a function of head winds and tail winds. I've got the VAG COM controller cable and software and just ordered an HP MINI note, so I can dump the data into an excel spread sheet to prove it or disprove fuel economy increases. I see all sorts of qualitative discussion all over the web sites, on H2. Can we turn this into hard facts? Any body want to flow chart out a control system and help me specify some parts. I'd be willing to buy the parts and put a system together. If it works, I'll add the necessary technology to make Home Brew H2 from the solar systems.

Kelly

It seems that a lot of people say this works - and have made extraordinary claims.

However I am yet to see any INDEPENDANT evidence from a reputable vehicle testing authority (i.e. US EPA) that these actually work.

Nowhere have I found what percentage of H2 to gasoline/diesel is required to get these amazing results, just "small amounts", well what does that mean? Everyone seems to be saying - "Just trust me it works".

Well sorry, I don't trust you, when you are trying to part me with my hard earned cash.

Can somebody please point me in the direction of some independant vehicle test results that actually have some meaning.

CHARLES

I WOULD LIKE TO ADD A 2 QUART HYDROGEN GENERATOR W/BUBBLER TO THE AIR INTAKE OF A FUEL INJECTED 2007 NISSAN ARMADA WITH E85 CAPABILITY // CAN THIS BE DONE WITHOUT ANY ADDITIONAL ADJUSTMENTS AND SUCCESSFULLY ALLOWING THE AIR FLOW TO TRANSFER THE HYDRGEN GAS //WILL THIS ALLOW THE GAS BEING PRODUCED TO ENTER AND IGNITE PROPERLY IN THE ENGINE WITHOUT PREIGNITING BEFORE ENTERING AND DO YOU THINK USING E10 OR E85 IN THE TANK WHICH WOULD WORK BEST ?
WHICH AND HOW IS THE BEST PLACE TO HOOK IN THE HYDROGEN GAS INPUT LINE TY CHARLES

wayg

If I generate H2 by eletroylsis of water using solar panels, then collect that H2, compress it, and pump it into a 5KPSI carbon fiber storage tank in the back of my VW Jetta Turbo Diesel. Using Impco Injectors control the metering of that H2 into the intake, will I get better fuel economy? Right now, I get between 43 and 47 at 70 to 80 mph and drive 1500 miles round trip every three weeks (748 miles each way non stop).

My comment is. If you are able to produce and store your own H2 using Solar powered electroylsis, why worry about the fuel economy. If you get the same fuel economy as what your vehicle had before adding H2, who cares. You get a clean running engine and a FREE renewable fuel source.

wayg

I drive a 2003 H2 Hummer. I know not the best choice of vehicles. But, unfortunately I bought new when gas was reasonable. I have a Vortec 6.0 litres V8 with a fuel usage is in the low double digits/litre. Would any kind of H2 kit "pardon the pun" assist in my fuel economy??. I'm leaning to either the SMACK kit or the WATER4GAS kit. Any assistance would be greatly appreciated.

howard chates

can anyone direct me to an info site discussing positive, definitive tax break incentives relating to the installation of an automotive hydrogen hybrid conversion kit. thank you

malaysia-jer

gasoline burn at 1200 degree celcius. while hidrogen+Oxigen burn at 3K degree. what happen to the engine.

James

Wayq:
The Smack is highly regarded. The Water4Gas kit is not highly regarded among those who are very much into DIY HOH development. The storage of PURE H2 is not so dangerous, but the HOH ("Brown's Gas") is too dangerous to store. Hence the "concept" of converting water and then using the gas immediately in the engine. Pure H2 needs Oxygen to be dangerous. In HOH, it HAS the Oxygen necessary to be explosive in the storage tank. Even in Solar production, be careful about collecting H2 with some ambient Oxygen in it. There are ways to purify it.

Malaysia: We learn in thermodynamics that heat and temperature are not the same thing. Engines can run cooler with HOH gas if the timing is retarded to TDC. Hydrogen has the effect of making the explosion happen much faster, more completely, and more efficiently if the timing is set back a little.

Kelly: If we ended pollution tomorrow, the EPA would be out of business. They have a vested interest in keeping things dirty - so to speak. If you have a new fuel system that increases mileage and reduces pollution, get in line at the EPA office. They have to certify it, which can take 10 years and cost you around 2 million dollars (legal fees). The paperwork is horrible. At the end of that time there are no guarantees. This is the single biggest reason we DON'T have clean, economical cars. Many good improvements have died at the doorsteps of the EPA.

Felix

In addition to Kelly's question on 6/30/08, does anyone know where to find information on what percentages of H2 to gasoline is required to get the results claimed?

Tim

Ty,
I too will be installing a HHO in my 2005 Armada. Perhaps we can compare notes. I'm still testing a unit in my 2001 Mazda truck, and as soon as I address the O2 sensor, I am recording everything I do and logging the results. I'll post them when I'm done.

FRANK S.W.

I WANT TO MAKE THIS UNIT I HAVE THE MANUAL'S FROM 1/2 GAS AND /1/2 WATER AND WATER FUEL EXPERTS I'VE HAD A HARD TIME GETTING THEM TO GIVE ME ANSWERS AS LINE SIZES 1/4 VS. 4 MM AND IF YOU GO TO THE TRUNK IS IT BETTER TO USE THE LARGER LINE , AND CAN YOU USE THE SMALLER LINES TO CONNECT THE JARS TO EASH OTHER THEN USE THE LARGER LINE TO MAKE THE BIG RUN AND WAYS TO HOOK THEM UP WITH 4 JARS OR 6 ANY CLUES CAN YOU USE A "T" ON THE JAR INSTEAD OF 2- 90% TO GO FROM ONE JAR TO THE OTHER NOW THE ELC. CAN YOU JUST USE THE CAR BODY TO GROUND THE JAR OR DO YOU NEED TO GO TO THE NEG SIDE OF THE BATTERY? I NEEDED TO KNOW IF THIS SYSTEM REALLY WORKED AS I WOULDN'T WANT TO TELL MY FRIENDS ABOUT IT AND NOT WORK ( I THINK YOU CAN SAY IT DOES WORK) . THIS IS A NEED SITE I HOPE I CAN FIND IT AGAIN THANKS FRANK PS WHAT IS A URL?

jeff

hi everyone, this is my first post in this forum. To all of you who want a surefire system that works like your late model, computer controlled gasoline automobile, the current hho systems may not be for you. Especially if you want to DIY and not fiddle with anything. The systems have recently gained popularity due to high oil prices, and are fairly reliable, but are in no way, shape or form as advanced as say... an OBD2 controlled car. The big money and research establishment will have to embrace the ideas for these systems to become automatic and carefree. But for now we will just have to tinker.
That's not to say these things don't work and work well they do. If you just research the subject a little, you can quickly find a setup that has been tested in a vehicle just like yours. Those of us who can help you out will. Just ask nicely and be polite, and all will be revealed to you in time. There is much research published about these systems already and many experienced users can lead you in the right direction if you run into problems. But you have to ask the right questions to get meaningful answers.Just try it.

Marcelino

It seems to that using hydrogen with gasoline in combustion engine could give a 25% mileage improvement on Toyota Tacoma; however, is it possible to get beyond that? It appears that there is a point where you cannot get any more improvement, or there is maximum improvement you can get on a specific car. I'm still working on the "güima" reactor to do better. Never give up!

John

link to see the advantage of hydrogen in amount of energy in hydrogen compared to gasoline.

1kg of hydrogen has as much energy density as 2.8kg of gasoline

http://www.hyweb.de/Knowledge/w-i-energiew-eng.html

To the person asking about flame speed, one additional note to make is the dispersion/diffusion speed of hydrogen in oxygen over the dispersion rate of gasoline vapor in oxygen. The rate is almost an order of magnitude faster. In other words it will mix faster and more thoroughly than gasoline vapor.

The individual asking about temperature of hydrogen in the combustion chamber. 3k for hydrogen and oxygen @ 29% hydrogen. There is no current (DIY) way to produce that amount of hydrogen on demand.

Example 2L engine volumetric displacement of the engine's cylinders;2000cc = 2000ml of gas/ air has a swept volume (the difference between the cylinder volumes with piston at Top Dead Center and at Bottom Dead Center) of all the cylinders in the engine. For a 4 stroke engine, it's the volume of fuel/air mixture that will be burned for every 2 revolutions of the crankshaft.
So for a 2L engine running at 2000rpm (driving speed)
or a total of 2000ml @ 2000rpm ( 4 cycle) = 2,000,000 ml of gas/air. Thats 2000ml consumed in 1000 intake strokes. To hit 29% hydrogen you would need to produce 580,000 ml of hydrogen gas in 1 minute to produce the highest temperatures in the combustion chamber. Currently most of the kits you will see on the market will produce 5L or 5000ml per minute. You are well under the 29% hydrogen to produce damaging heat. One other note, you can damage an engine by leaning out the mixture too far in an ICE when playing with the O2 sensors causing pre-ignition and this is where you need to take precautions. Check your spark plug at regular intervals to check pre-ignition and adjust O2 sensor accordingly.

want good information for DIY check out this guys videos.
I have no association with him.
http://www.youtube.com/profile_videos?p=r&user=ZeroFossilFuel&page=4

John

One more comment for the nay sayers.

The law of physics that says you cannot get out more energy out than you put in. Being an engineer I would agree to the pure point. (using electricity to produce the hydrogen) In this case though I disagree because you are not producing the pure energy source you are running on, you are producing a better flame to the fuel already in the chamber. In other simple words you are utilizing the current gasoline more efficiently by the introduction of the hydrogen producing a more complete burn. Playing with the O2 sensor provides some of this gain, but the gain could not be had without the hydrogen being introduced in the first place. (Pre-ignition/knock on gas) Current ICE's need to run rich to allow the catalytic converter to work. Running rich to clean up the emission is stupid but it was the only technology to meet emission requirements.

@ $4 a gallon and only getting 29% efficiency out of the current gasoline mixture a 20% improvement drops my current gas price equivalence to $3.20. I'll take it.
12,000 miles a year @ 20 miles a gallon @ 4.00 = $2400.00
12,000 miles a year @ 24 miles a gallon @ 4.00 = $2000.00

I like filling my truck tank for $64 over $80 anyday.
The cost of the electrolyte chemicals takes some of this away and distilled water, but I still make out.


John

Compressing HHO to a holding tank - very dangerous!
You have the perfect blend for an explosive device and it's compressed and has almost 3x the energy level as gasoline. Dumb! very Dumb!

To perform a safe operation with HHO, (taken from HyWeb.de)
The decomposition of water by electrolysis consists of two partial reactions that take place at the two electrodes. The electrodes themselves are separated by an ion conducting electrolyte. Hydrogen is produced at the negative electrode (cathode) and oxygen at the positive electrode (anode). The necessary exchange of charge occurs through the flow of ions. In order to keep the produced gasses isolated, the two reaction areas are separated by an ion conducting separator (diaphragm).

The materials and production of the cells are probably outside of the typical DIY persons skill and wallet to guarantee a 100% safe pure production of H. Not only that but I'm sure you need a license to store a practical amount at a residential dwelling.

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