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PSA Peugeot Citroën Unveils 69MPG Diesel Hybrid Prototypes

C4hybrid
One of the pair: the C4 diesel hybrid.

As promised, PSA Peugeot Citroën unveiled two prototypes featuring diesel-electric parallel hybrid powertrains, the Peugeot 307 and the Citroën C4 Hybride HDi.

The hybrids deliver average combined city and highway fuel consumption of 3.4 liters per 100 kilometers (69 mpg US), with 90 grams of CO2 emitted per kilometer—a tank-to-wheel record for compact cars, the most popular segment in Europe. This is about 25% better than a similar vehicle equipped with a gasoline hybrid system, or as much as a liter per 100 kilometers in combined city and highway driving.

Hybrid technology using a petrol engine is not very competitive financially, and does not offer significantly better fuel economy or CO2 emission performance than a conventional HDi diesel engine. However, PSA Peugeot Citroën believes that combining a hybrid powertrain with an HDi engine would constitute a step change in terms of improved fuel economy and lower CO2 emissions in Europe, where diesel engines are already widely used.

—PSA Peugeot Citroën statement

PSA Peugeot Citroën’s Hybrid HDi technology includes:

  • 1.6-liter HDi engine and diesel particulate filter system (DPFS)
  • New-generation Stop & Start system (earlier post)
  • Electric motor and inverter
  • High-voltage battery pack
  • Dedicated control electronics
  • All-electric mode for speeds under 50 kilometers an hour (31 mph)
  • Driver selection of Extended ZEV (Zero Emission Vehicle, i.e., all-electric) mode
  • Electronically-managed gearbox
Psa_hybrid_arch
PSA Peugeot Citroën Parallel Hybrid Architecture. Click to enlarge.

The engine. The prototype marks the first combination of the 1.6-liter, 66 kW HDi engine with the latest generation Stop & Start system. The company added a dedicated control system to the engine, using operating instructions coordinated directly by the powertrain management unit (PTMU), most notably for engine starts and stops, while also guaranteeing delivery of the torque required by the driver.

The engine, with the diesel particulate filter system (DPFS), meets Euro-4 standards.

Stop & Start system. The Stop & Start system used in the Hybride HDi powertrain is based on the technology integrated in both the Citroën C2 and C3. The new system has 40% more power than the first generation to support the easier starting of the 1.6-liter diesel.

In the hybrid powertrain, the Stop & Start system restarts the ICE. While the Stop & Start function is only used on the C3 when the vehicle is stationary, the engine stop function can occur at any given moment on the Hybride HDi, as soon as the vehicle’s speed falls below 60 kilometers an hour (37 mph).

Electric motor and inverter, The synchronous permanent magnet electric motor develops 16 kW of continuous power, with 80 Nm of torque. It offers peak power of 23 kW and 130 Nm to meet occasional demand from the driver.

PSA Peugeot Citroën opted for the volume and performance of the motor to ensure that the all-electric mode would be used for speeds up to 50 kilometers per hour—a speed typical of city driving.

Connected to the inverter, the motor operates in a voltage range from 210 to 380 volts. In the restricted space available, this electric motor/inverter does not enable use of the conventional engine cooling circuit, whose typical temperature is too high. Water cooling is therefore provided by a special radiator and a low-temperature cooling circuit at 60°C.

For main road and highway driving, the electric motor can provide a 35% power boost for extra acceleration.

Battery system. The battery pack consists of 240 NiMH (Nickel-Metal Hydride) cells that deliver 23 kW of power at a nominal voltage of 288 volts. The cells are cooled by special air intakes that recover air from the passenger compartment, taking advantage of its temperature control.

There is also a conventional 12V storage battery, which continues to handle its usual functions.

The high-voltage battery pack fits in the rear part of the Group’s platform 2 vehicles (base for the Peugeot 307 and Citroën C4) in place of the spare tire, following a slight modification to the cut-out in this compartment. Adding the batteries does not reduce trunk capacity for any of the vehicles.

All-electric mode: Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). The driver can use a special switch to access an extended all-electric mode that expands the operating range for the vehicle in this mode. In this case, the ICE is only activated for more prolonged acceleration.

The extended all-electric mode is de-activated either automatically, when the high-voltage battery pack no longer has a sufficient charge, or manually, by using the dedicated switch.

Economics and Future. PSA Peugeot Citroën says that while it could market its Hybride HDi vehicles as early as 2010, the introduction is dependent upon its ability to make the technology available at an affordable price.

Today, the price gap between a Hybride HDi model and a comparable diesel HDi model is still too wide and would have to be halved to make diesel hybrid vehicles accessible to most consumers.

The Group is planning a two-pronged approach to reach that goal:

  • Extensive R&D on the four areas that generate most of the extra cost: high-voltage batteries, electric motor/generator, inverter and the regenerative braking system.

  • Unite the expertise of equipment manufacturers and research laboratories to focus on this project.

PSA Peugeot Citroën has asked the French Agency for Industrial Innovation to support the project.

Comparing Fuel Consumption and CO2
Vehicle Conventional C4/307 Hybride HDi % Difference
Engine 1.6-liter, 80kW 1.6-liter, 66kW -17.5%
Acceleration 0–100km/h 12.4 sec 12.4 sec
Acceleration 30–60 km/h 5.8 sec 3.5 sec -40%
Fuel consumption combined cycle 4.7 l/100km 3.4 l/100km -28%
CO2 emissions combined cycle 125 g/km 90 g/km -28%
Fuel consumption city cycle 5.4 l/100km 3.0 l/100km -44%
CO2 emissions city cycle 145 g/km 80 g/km -45%

Comments

christo-fueler

Anne, I agree with your A2 and Lupo assertions.

However, have you seen this guerilla PHEV, Prius+ info?

Using Lead Acid the EV range is 10 miles, and EDrive's Valence Li-ion it's 30 miles.
Added cost at the factory could be around $5,000 more than a non-hybrid.

Check out page 9 (of 19) that shows the performance figures of *larger* banks of Lead-acid, Li-ion, and NiMH.
http://www.calcars.org/calcars-technical.pdf

Chris

Hi people, i'm sorry to tell you that but i am from Greece and i sold my Citroen Xsara 1.3. Now i Bought a new Citroen C5 1.8 (Gasolive fuel) with 7 lit/100Km consumption, Quiet, Stable, powerfull, beautifull, Big, exellent driving, Brakes, Electronics. Oil change every 10.000 Km - service every 30.000km. Hydropneumatic suspention warrandy 200.000 Km or 10 Years.

Sorry it could be great if you could had one of this.
visit www.citroen.com

and you will think again about French cars.

Ted

Hi.

I bought my first french car a few years ago and I have to say that I have been pleasantly suprised. Excellent economy hadling and ride and (was warned otherwise but) 100% reliability. I wouldn't be so quick to write off french cars (and they look cool too :).

Go Hybrid HDi

John Lefevre

You are kidding about Lupo and Audi A2. Those cars are fairly small and look like toys against Citroen C4 and Peugeot 307. Both of these are not only compact cars but heavier than usual US cars of that size because of enhanced crash proof. Their weight is around 1.3 or 1.4 ton and it is on these models that PSA gets its figures. Peugeot even brought this year their smallest car of their standard line (they also build a very small city car with Toyota), the 207 which is now 4.02m long only and weights more than 1.4 ton with best figures at the Euro crash tests (better than larger cars including some of 5m long). Its quite small outside and quite small inside either but it's better at keeping you alive. Then it's incredibly good on highways and any road at higher speed and sticks to the road including with its large wheels. Also, comfort and options are on par with the basic Lexus IS (and price is not so far from including options and luxury packs).
Just in case, you cannot compare Lupo and Audi A2 even with the new 207. Those 2 were under or around 1 ton cars and their crash test are at shame against the 207 (and 307 and C4)... and Audi and Vw is not the car I would trust regarding mechanics against Peugeot even if the body of the Audi are the most rust proof.

The Lupo that was using 3 liter gasoil per 100 km was not a real Lupo. It looked like but everything was made lighter in aluminium, Vw was selling it at a loss, had no options, especially no air-conditionning, no power-assisted gear, poor shock absorbers, had poor brakes over petty wheels and weighted some 0.7 ton (and no mention of any crash test). Some 20 years ago the Citroen Ax was made the same way, used some 3.4 liters per 100 km but Citroen managed to make big money out of it. Some tests on these cars at that time showed that after 75 000 km (12 000 miles) the mechanics of the Citroen Ax were as knew. French cars, especially Citroen and Peugeot used to age dramatically worse than german on anything except mechanics where Peugeot is considered on par with Mercedes and better than BMW. Audi is very overestimated because of their improved body protection against rust. Good looking pays against well working.
There are actually 4 large manufacturers building better and more reliable engines and those are Mercedes, Toyota, Honda and Peugeot. Peugeot takes less care of their Citroen brand regarding aging. This is true even on the mechanics which look the same but have lower class materials and parts than their Peugeot conterpart, but are more innovative or prone to get unusefull gadgets on board.
Something else about reliability : Peugeot and Mercedes had plenty of problems some years ago on their electronics, especially on some very sensible features. As anybody notices there are plenty of new electronic features on cars and many car maker keep avoiding them. For instance Toyota included them on its Lexus brand. They considered their rich clients would accept better to take the risk than their larger number of Toyota clients. So they also experinced some problems and still have on their Lexus.
Now Peugeot and Mercedes which include some very invasive electronic assistance on all their models have overcome these problems that other car makers are to experience.
If you want to talk about lower quality french cars, on par with Vw, Opel (GM) or Ford, you have to name Renault.

Luke

Sadly there's a lot of misinformation written here about the Audi A2 and VW Lupo 3L.

They were (until late 2005) remarkable production vehicles not prototype flops! They were ahead of their time and it will take some years before anyone is brave enough to take things further forward.

I still own an A2 1.2 TDI and it is the best car I have ever used period! - having driven modern Mustang V8s, Range Rovers in the Kalahari Desert, Race cars around Silverstone and even a Honda Insight which sadly broke down outside LAX. It replaced my Toyota MR2 and actually has the same amount of torque but at much lower revs. With light weight and incredible aerodynamics she will cruise all day on the autobahn at 100 mph and still return 66 mpg (imperial gallons)! The Prius is pretty efficient round town but for a long journey a diesel is better. The Lupo 3L and A2 1.2 TDI both have stop start option for town use which works perfectly and means 100mpg (imperial) is acheveable. The engine weighs just 100 kg!

The A2 has won awards for it's amazing stopping power and in crash tests it has come up trumps: http://www.channel4.com/4car/road-tests/road-test.jsp?id=29&page=7 and : http://www.audiworld.com/news/04/012804a/content.shtml

The A2 is actually a very big car inside - it was deisgned to take 4 Germanic sized adults and their luggage - hence lower rear floor for better leg room (not something you'll find in a Lupo or Prius!). I have carried washing machines and large guitar amps with no problem. It will carry more beer crates than a VW Golf (same class as this PSA machine). The head room is vastly better than the A4 or A6 and the A3 feels cramped after driving an A2.

Emissions are very low - in the UK she's now road tax free (81g/km CO2).

Take a look at http://www.a2oc.net/ and you'll see they have a bit of a cult following. Shame they never sold in USA

sampson

I have been driving a C4 Hdi 1.6L Citroen for about 6 months. I LOVE the car. I get 3.7l/100km on trips and have averaged 4.0l/100 km over the last 6000 km. It is fun to drive and very comfortable. I can't understand why anyone would ever want to drive anything else~!

Bill

I still have a Peugeot 405 in Washington state. It has 255K miles, gets 25-35 mpg and I still autocross it on a regular basis, and win!! It left me stranded only one time in the past 16 years. It still looks nice and is a great balance of speed and efficiency. I can not think of an American equivalent from the late 80's, or from the 00's for that matter!!

JackRabbit

I have Peugeot 206 1,9-liter diesel and I love it.
Consumption on the highway is only 3,7liters/100km.
I have driven over 40.000kms with nothing gone wrong yet. So quality and economy are both excellent in this french automobile.

deepak mishra

hi i mishra795from india , i m enginier in india but i want do this job with u ,if any apportunity thier avavlable thanu e_mail me

Spangenberg

The Audi A2 has about the same interior size as the Toyota Prius2 but you can for example put only in the Audi A2 two bicycles standing upright .

The Audi A2 1.2 has a CO2 exhaust of 81 G against a Toyota Prius2 with 104 G per KM

So the Audi with about the same transport size gets better mileage and CO2 than the Toyota which uses a sophisticated expensive hybrid system

Mario

now it is mid 2007, 18 months after the start of this thread... anybody knows recent news about what hybrid and when will be put on the market by PSA?

And what about Lithium batteries and plug in capabilities?

ken

Couldn't a small CNG tank be placed on this car so that the diesel/biodiesel consumption be reduced even further,especially for in town driving. Also, isn't it possible that flywheel and ultracap technology will be developed and that would further reduce the weight of the vehichles over Li-ion batteries.

Sylvander

Angelo: I do not think that the US air pollution regulations be any tougher than Europe's.
Apart from the Sulphur, the reason for the US not to use turbo diesel engines despite their advantages (better mileage, higher torque) is probably the low price of fuels in the country, that does not compensate the higher cost of a turbo diesel engine as compared to a gasoline engine. The gasoline engine is also more quiet when idling, but this disappears at higway speed.

Jacob

Lots of interesting insights here. Ken, the reason people don't buy diesel in the US is that there aren't any. Have you tried to buy a diesel car in the US lately? I would believe a LOT of us are waiting. I personally need an AWD or 4WD capable vehicle and prefer a wagon over an SUV.

Spoiler

I hate to remind everyone of this, but when we're dealing with the whole battery-operated car concept here, we're also dealing with what to do with a vehicle which runs well for a few years and then goes into the crapper all at once.

The automakers aren't stupid. If you're not going to be running "your" car over to the dealer for some kitsch repair on a regular basis, YOU WILL be getting a whole new one ON WHATEVER SCHEDULE THE AUTOMAKER REQUIRES to maintain its bottom line.

Again, conventional cars will generally see you out-of-pocket on a more regular basis than the battery-operated variety. Conversely, these hybrid things run well enough for a few years without much dealership action; and then rapidly go to seed with battery and motor replacement/repair costs which are designed to have you grabbing for the next new one ON SCHEDULE. And, for you greenie weenies out there, this means greatly increased dumping of useless toxic materials into our already stressed-out municipal disposal systems...

When are we going to stop chasing around the latest shiny thing which is dangled before our eyes from these huge interests? THEY DO NOT AND WILL NOT EVER HAVE ANY INTEREST IN MIND SAVE THEIR OWN. Forget oil power and silly plug-in cars: There are (now old) H2 technologies out there which are simply amazing --

http://panaceauniversity.org/

(the site is run by a retired engineer who actually tests many of these things himself)

So, what ever happened to the type of stewardship which bought something BOTH USEFUL AND DURABLE, cared for it, and passed it on to future generations? At the core of this, does anyone out there bother about anything beyond lipstick, plastic, and paint anymore? Heck, we're even putting our houses together with crumbboard these days...

Bottom line for the ideal car: Low-maintenance durability (50+ year lifespan), crash safety, zero operational environmental impact, and independence from the oil juggernaught: WE CAN DO THIS TODAY. The masses simply need to wake up and demand it from those interests which manufacture the technology itself. It will take willpower and organization, however.

Oh well, so much for that idea. Sinful rabble has never been organized; and the willpower of the great masses has, well, gone the way of God in society...

Fiat justitia.

Doctor

You can go further in making ecological cars: there are plastic solarcells available on the market for greenhouses.
Why can't thy put the cells on top of the roufs of the hybride cars. In the summer you need less fuell.

pilotadelladomenica

...well, waiting for these H2 cars, better a "silly plug in hybrid" than a conventional petrol or diesel powered SUV!

But please no dreams about solar cells cars. With a cell on your roof you can obtain less, much less, than a KW. Almost nothing for a conventional car, even a small one like a Smart that nees dozens of KW to run.

malach hamovess

the cost differential will decrease when this wonder hits high enough production volumes; as the successor to the prius, what this design proves is that there is a lot more room to improve the efficiency of the internal combustion, petroleum-fueled auto engine. Even at higher prices it makes sense: any alternative requires changing the whole driver-auto-fuel relationship, giving up the benefit of an entire infrastructure designed to refuel autos in 5 minutes for 300+ miles of driving. You could drive NY to Miami with one of these, timing the filling of fuel tanks with the emptying of bladders; it can't be done with any of the electric-only or hydrogen powered vehicles.

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darrel

i have a prius but iam having trouble understanding why car makers arent making hybrids that power a gerarator then powering electric motors at the wheel

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Michael Dziegrenuk

I think these facts and comments are pulling away from the consumer's best interest. The diesel powered vehicle's long-lived and economical motor is in the consumer's best interest. This engine's compression ratio is the key to it's long life. At nearly three times the compression of a typical gas-powered vehicle the bottom-end must designed to withstand these pressures. Is having a car or truck that will go three to five hundred thousand miles without a re-build in the consumers best interest? This is the primary reason Detroit does not want you to own one. With a hybrid you have two motors to service and many batteries to replace. Detroit does love this.

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