|Quantum’s hydrogen injector|
Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide has delivered five hydrogen-fueled Toyota Prius hybrid vehicles to the City of Santa Ana, California.
This is part of a larger South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) program to develop and demonstrate 30 hydrogen hybrid vehicles to fleets in Southern California. (Earlier post.)
The H2 Prius offers performance comparable to the gasoline version with increased fuel economy, according to Quantum. The hydrogen hybrid includes:
Electronic multi-point hydrogen injection system using Quantum’s hydrogen injector and engine controller.
Turbocharger and inter-cooler for increased performance and efficiency.
Quantum Compact lightweight compressed hydrogen fuel storage module. (Storing enough hydrogen to provide sufficient range is one of the larger technology challenges in the conversion.)
Hydrogen fuel delivery system comprising of stainless steel tubing produced.
FMVSS crashworthiness (CNG guidelines).
|H2 Prius Specifications|
|Power||70 hp (52 kW) @ 4,500 rpm|
|Torque||111 Nm @ 4,000 rpm|
|Fuel consumption||56–58 m/kg (FTP city test)|
40–60 m/kg (real world estimate)
|Fuel capacity||1.6 kg @ 5,000 psig /compressed|
2.4 kg @ 5,000 psig (extended range package)
|The H2 storage system. Click to enlarge.|
With the standard storage option (1.6 kg), the H2 Prius will have an effective hydrogen-fueled range of about 80 miles. The extended range storage could kick that up to approximately 120 miles.
While 25 of the vehicles will use compressed hydrogen, AQMD will also evaluate hydride storage in five converted vehicles.
The complete hydrogen internal combustion engine fuel system, including both the injection system and hydrogen storage system, was developed by Quantum at its Advanced Vehicle Concept Center in Lake Forest, CA.
In addition to performing in specified starting conditions and meeting certain driveability specifications, the vehicles have been designed and tested to achieve SULEV (Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle) emissions standards.
In March 2004, the AQMD awarded Quantum a contract to engineer an OEM-caliber hydrogen fuel system and perform accelerated long-term durability testing, including crash testing.
AQMD’s reasoning is that hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles show promise as a bridge technology between conventional vehicles to fuel cell vehicles and have the potential to significantly reduce VOC, NOx, CO and air toxic emissions as well as green house gas emissions.
This delivery marked the arrival of the first hydrogen internal combustion engine-powered hybrid vehicles and formal dedication of a hydrogen refueling station as part of the AQMD’s hydrogen fleet and infrastructure demonstration program.
In addition to Santa Ana, the demonstration sites for the vehicles will include the cities of Burbank, Ontario, Riverside, and Santa Monica, as well as the AQMD headquarters in Diamond Bar. Each city and the AQMD will operate five hydrogen-fueled Priuses for five years.
AQMD is also testing a plug-in Prius using the EnergyCS system. (Earlier post.)