|Biomass-derived fuels could meet 50% of Maine’s needs.|
The Fractionation Development Center (FDC), a Maine non-profit group, has released a plan detailing how the state could turn its vast quantities of forest waste into a range of biofuels and chemicals, providing up to 50% of the state’s annual energy needs.
The FDC released the study in cooperation with the Maine River Valley Growth Council. The study, conducted over the past 18 months, was funded by the US Department of Energy and the Maine Technology Institute as the result of Maine Forest Bio-products legislation introduced by Maine Senators Collins and Snowe, and Congressman Michaud.
The report assesses the potential for three primary forest-waste biomass conversion technologies:
Pyrolysis, the chemical decomposition of organic material by heat in the absence of oxygen. Pyrolysis products include bio-carbon (char) and bio-oil.
Gasification for the production of syngas for further catalytic processing into fuels or for direct use in power generation.
Fractionation, the separation of biomass into three main components—cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin—with minimized cross contamination of the major fractions and minimized degradation products.
The report sees fractionation as a longer-term (10–15 years) technology, and focuses for the short (0–5 years) and medium (5–10 years) terms on pyrolysis and gasification, respectively.
|The three-stage parallel and serial conversion pathway of the super case based on transportable intermediates of bio-oil and DME for production of transportation fuels.||Staged process concept for integrated pyrolysis and gasification technologies.|
The report assess six cases two for each technology, and a seventh integrated super case that describes a staged parallel and serial conversion pathway.
For the production of transportation fuels, the report focuses initially on the production of bio-oil from pyrolysis and dimethyl ether (DME) from gasification as two transportable intermediates.
Bio-oil can be shipped, stored and pumped and ultimately gasified for conversion to DME and end-product fuels. Similarly, DME, which can be used directly as fuel in diesel engines, can be converted catalytically to different fuels.
The DME concept suggests an immediate rationale for placing a high priority on the development of technologies and systems that can be applied to the forest biomass resource.
The current emphasis in the US DOE program on biological processing for specific agricultural residues is not relevant to the forest resource base, and hence not to regions of the United States with significant forest resources.