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DOE Issues $6M Solicitation for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage R&D

Scuderi to Introduce Air-Hybrid Design at SAE World Congress

Rendering of the Scuderi air-hybrid. Click to enlarge.

The Scuderi Group will introduce the design of an air-hybrid implementation of its split-cycle engine (earlier post) at the SAE World Congress in Detroit next week. Scuderi claims that the air-hybrid system doubles the fuel efficiency of todays conventional engines and reduces toxic emissions by up to 80%—all with a low-cost, easily manufactured design.

The Scuderi Air-Hybrid Engine is adaptable to diesel and gasoline automobiles, commercial vehicles and any other applications powered by internal combustion engines.

The air-hybrid leverages Scuderi’s split-cycle technology by recapturing and storing energy in the form of compressed air. Unlike conventional engines, the Scuderi Engine produces compressed air during its normal operation.

By adding a small air storage tank with some simple controls costing only a few hundred dollars, the Scuderi Engine recaptures energy normally lost during the breaking of a vehicle. This compressed-air system would supplant the motor/generator and battery systems of electric hybrids.

The first diesel and gasoline air-hybrid prototypes, under development at Southwest Research Institute, are expected to be completed by early 2007.


Rafael Seidl

The pneumatic hybrid concept, also under development at UCLA, is a promising low-cost alternative to electric hybrids. However, I remain scpetical about the way Scuderi have implemented it, with dedicated compression and expansion pistons (see my comment on the earlier post). I also cannot make out an intercooler between the engine and the storage tank.


This seems to make total sense. If it could run on
flex fuel it makes even more sense.
Either way. This seems to be real improvement -vs- some
of the weird stuff that offers 2 mpg increase.
Throw some Li Ion quick charge batteries and this motor
together and I think ya go something electric. It seems
to be a great comprimise until other versions come along.

joe padula

It seems too late in the IC engine game for this to get traction. If it was 1970 they could pull it off. Unless the fuel consumption in g/KW-hr is as low as a modern turbo direct injection diesel. Even then it looks to me like the valves are going to be very hot all the time.
I would like to see a real engineering paper when it comes out, the popular science stuff all sounds good without numbers.


It doesn't make any sense to me, although I am ignorant about engineering. It occurs to me that you are defeating the rotational momentum of the engine by forcing it to fill the tank (that takes work, energy to do, and that energy comes from the pistons' motion = it isn't free). I don't get it. 'Splain, Lucy.


Splain, Lucy
Its about capturing energy lost when you are not stoping and using it as an assist when you are accelerating.
Most energy is burned when you accelerate. So its a good marriage.

Albert W. L. Moore, Jr.

In 8 April 2006 blurb, penultimate paragraph, it's BRAKING of a vehicle, not "breaking" of a vehicle.

Craig Beshore

Check out a much simpler way to do this at supertwostroke.com Only one cylinder and piston, less cost and friction


The methods of increase of economy of engines of internal combustion. - From the moment of the invention more hundred of years ago of engine of internal combustion were undertaken numerous attempts of perfection his with use of production process of steam from water. That was the epoch of steam engines, consequently by whom only was not undertaken an attempt to interbreed the steam engine with engines of internal combustion for the purpose of economy then else of scanty gasoline. Any engine of internal combustion not only in vain throws out the most part (70 - 80 %) of thermal energy received in work, moreover he even collapses, if will lose an opportunity, through system of cooling to give water his heat. On the other hand, receiving it warmly water, converted up to the steam in process of the boiling or volatilization, at usual atmospheric pressure increases itself in the volume in 1700 times. Thus obtained the steam can help one’s pressure of working gas to actuate pistons or turbines of thermal engines and to give an essential increment of a power, the maximal twisting moment and efficiency of these motors. There are three basic variants of use of injection of water on engine of internal combustion:

1. From contact of water with hot exhaust gases, there is an occurrence of the steam, which rotates the small turbine, which then helps the basic engine. About the development of a similar power-plant for the cars recently (in November 2005) has declared by the company BMW - http://auto.mail.ru/news?id=16848 http://www.membrana.ru/lenta/?5454 C:auto@MAIL_RU Auto reviews/ The BMW will go on the steam!.Htm.

2. On many a sports cars, using a turbo pumping, for cooling an air compressed by compressor, the special device sprays the water in this air, with which together the water enters in cylinders, where the water becomes a steam. Here it is necessary to notice, that any gas (it concerns both air and steam) from downturn of the temperature on one-degree give decreases approximately on 1/270 a part from the volume at atmospheric pressure. And, on the contrary, at compression, especially quick, the temperature of gas itself increases. It is easy to be convinced of it, if pumping the gas chamber of a wheel of a bicycle from manual pump which thus noticeably heats up, or if very strongly strike to shove a dense stopper into a test tube with cotton, which flashes up from the heating, caused by strong compression of air. For reduction of expenses of energy for introduction in cylinders of a lot of compressed air, this air is cooled by dispersion in his else by cold water, which has very big thermal capacity. This dispersion is carried out or before passage of compressed air through intercooler (an additional cooling radiator), or after his, but, in any case, even the smallest droplets of hot water should turn into steam only inside of the cylinder, differently the profit from the steam becomes insignificant. Moreover, infringement of stoichiometric (optimal) parities of quantity of fuel and air at including water vapors, can lead to a stop of the engine.

3. Water, previously up heated, is sprayed directly in cylinders. From contact with the burning fuel heated by the piston and the cylinder, the water up boils. Then extending itself the steam helps working gases to set pistons in motion. Here injection of water actually replaces with itself a turbo forced aspiration. In this case will not be broken a stoichiometric parity of quantity of fuel and air extremely compressed by the compressor, which by very much high pressure of air complicates process of formation of electric spark. For ecology the steam, extending itself in the cylinder, is much more safe, than the compressed air comprising up to 80 % of nitrogen from which at a heat and a pressure, arise pernicious for the nature the chemical compound with superfluous oxygen. Also excess oxygen in strongly compressed air leads to undesirable burnout of cylinders, buckets, piston rings, valves and to oxidation of electric contacts of candles. In confirming to it skilled motorists unanimously assure, what even after several years of exploitation of engine of internal combustion with injection of water, interiors theirs cylinders self look just as new! More effective direct cooling by water of the hot and intensively rubbing surfaces of the cylinder prolongs a life of all the motor. Besides an increase of power and fuel economy on 15 - 20 %, the injection of water also essentially improves cooling itself of the motor as cylinders are cooled by water not so much from outside, how many from within. Unfortunately, owing to very complex adjustment, insufficient reliability and high cost, motors with injection of water have received prevalence only on aircrafts, on sport cars and on amateur auto-homemade products (in the latter case not always they justify itself). But achievements of a modern science and technique, especially of the electronics, allow hoping for much efficiency of motors with injection of water. Just electronics can determine the exact doses of injection into cylinders of water and also of her a preliminary heating up from external walls of cylinder in a water jacket and from an exhaust nozzle with the muffler, by catalyst converter and the soot filter, so as to in the moment of injection, the temperature of water, was as much as possible approached to its boiling point which in the compressed gas environment inevitably increases.

Pressure, p (Atm.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Boiling temperature of water, t (grade/C*) 119 132 141 150 157 163 168 173 178 182

Certainly, when into cylinders the pressure reaches more than 500 atmospheres, the boiling temperature of water will be considerably above, but already at temperature above ~ 430 C* all volume of water becomes gaseous irrespective of further the raises up of pressure. Preliminary heating up of water is necessary for intensification of process of steam exhalation. Than more the waters will boil in cylinders of acting engine of internal combustion, so much be more saved the fuel and the nature on our Planet. At superfluous heating the cylinder the microprocessor can increase submission in his the waters, but lessen the delivery of fuel in his exactly so that from this replacement, at existing loading, the speed of rotation of the engine has remained same what was established by the driver. In an ideal (at good resetting), engine with injection of water can already do without the ventilator, which blows the warm air from outside of motor, and the radiator with an expansion chamber. In this case the water pump, besides reliability should, irrespective from a mode of behavior of engine of internal combustion, quickly and precisely to change the productivity and pressure of water, sent from he. It is desirable a pressure of water in a cooling water jacket adapt by electronics to each timing period of work of the engine as the cylinders (especially from alloys of light metals) from heat become soft and under greater pressure are deformed to forming the undesirable spacings between pistons and cylinders, or to the inadmissible convex camber-s interfering in movement of pistons. Water should be well cleared, otherwise the scum will quickly cork thin spray jets. So as in very short a time of one cycle of the engine (1/250 share of second) water has had time to boil completely else in the cylinder, her spray must be entering by very small droplets through set of very fine bores (diameter about 0,1 mm), under greater pressure. However acceptably, so as any part of water turned into steam already after output of water from the cylinder with the hot exhausted gases in an outlet pipe. Then it will be possible to lower temperature and noise of the gases thrown out by cars, and increased (from the boiling or of the super-heating of steam) their volume will allow effectively rotating the electric turbine established inside of the same tube. Also as and of the water, it is necessary to heat up and the fuel, before as his inject into cylinders of the engine. Then the warmed up fuel becomes less viscous, passes through very narrow passes of spray jets is easier, is more thin is sprayed, mixes up with air is better, is ignited and is fuller, burns down, so, except for fuel economy, allows to depress an electric voltage on spark plugs and to prolong term of their work. It’s known, that at strong colds, the minus of 90 degrees on Celsius (at station the East in Antarctica), even the aviation gasoline does not burn and practically does not evaporate. The air, participating in burning, previously must not warm up but, on the contrary, it is desirable to cool, as it - gas, and unlike liquids and solids, at heating very strongly increases (here prematurely) own volume. Injected water and the steam, formed from it, can create the necessary temperature, pressure, speed and even of a form of distribution of a flame in the cylinder, what will allow to prevent the explosive phenomena (detonation), so as without harm for the engine, to create even greater pressure of the mixture of fuel with the air or (and) to use cheaper low-octane gasoline. Even at a high air moisture (in rainy weather) engine of internal combustion work more softly, more easily, at least, on external feeling. Applied already on the injections engines the gauges of oxygen (lambda - sondes) can with high accuracy regulate the content of oxygen in air in view of winter temperatures, of fluctuations of atmospheric pressure, of alternations of high air moisture with droughty weather and content of casual gases in air. The parameters of water-air aerosol can be improved also by the additive of a small amount of alcohol (of ethanol) or of acetone, they level a detonation as the speed of their burning are little below, than of gasoline and that allows to smooth sharp peak of the emitted energy. But, above all, for work of the motor not must be blanked off process of burning of fuel completely. On the contrary, as much as possible the burning necessary to do intensive. For this purpose it is important to raise somehow percentage of content of oxygen in air entering in the cylinder, or accordingly to reduce presence in he of nitrogen which not only does not support burning, but similarly to water, to sand or carbonic gas, used in the extinguishing of conflagration, strongly impedes this burning. For example, hardly smouldering ligneous splinter, entered in a test tube with pure oxygen, instantly flares up by bright flame. The containers with pure oxygen fasten even to rockets, despite of essential weighting of their weight. Cars yet are not equipped with capacities with pure oxygen or devices for detachment from air of pure oxygen. For this purpose the modern industry, with considerable expenses of energy, uses bulky cascades of refrigerators and evaporators with which it is impossible to equip the usual car. Membranous molecular filters else do not possess sufficient efficiency and reliability. The moisture, the dust and chemically active aerosols strongly complicate their work. It is better to increase the content of oxygen in air mass by means of quickly rotating centrifuge, where the heavier molecules of oxygen (molecular weight - 32) will replace with itself of easier particles of nitrogen (M.W. - 28). Certainly, impossibly in such a way to receive pure oxygen. But if in air acting in the cylinder lessen quantity of nitrogen even twice - from 79 % up to 40 % the quantity of oxygen then will increase itself already almost in three times - from 21 % up to 60 %, and energy emitted in burning will increase even more - in 5-7 times! At such intensive burning, the fuel will already burn down completely. Then not cheap but obligatory today on automobile the neutralizer (catalyst converter) and the filter of carbon-black which are depriving engine of part of its power and fuel for in vain the completely reburning of poisonous rests of soiling particulates fuel, of soot (carbon), carbonic oxide (at the poor-quality fuel, and from the hydrogen sulphide), will not be already necessary. Cutting-down of nitrogen in air acting in cylinders, will lead to drop of weight thrown out by cars of oxides of the nitrogen causing acid rains, pernicious for all alive on the Earth, damaging architectural monuments, various buildings, and even paint of bodies of these cars. Molecules of nitrogen and oxygen can be divided and over the degree of their magnetization, after preliminary ionizing them. Possibly to magnetize at low and to ionize at high temperatures the injected into the cylinders the fuel, air, water, and then even combustion materials. One can try by coils of inductance, protected by heat-resistant ceramics, mounted around of the cylinder, to give the necessary form of a gas mixture (compactly to group it in the center, evenly put it on all volume of the cylinder or to displace it, for example, more close to a spark of a candle) and the speed of its burning, having raised which, to increase an engine power, or depress, to avoid the detonation. This detonation well to use, as speed of dissemination of a flame at explosion, in comparison with the regulable (limited) burning, in 5 - 20 and more times above, depending on a compression ratio and other conditions. Certainly, hardness of the engine should correspond to the offered loadings to it, and the algorithm of steering by the explosive motor must be developed more comprehensively over. With the purpose of reduction of undesirable consequences from sharp impacts of working gas, the upper part of the piston or its joint with a connecting rod (wrist) better to make slightly with spring-elasticity, and inject fuel into the cylinder by several small portions, on duration of all cycle of ignition. Subjected by the strong radiation of flame, pistons and cylinders could be made not only of alloys of iron or easier over weight of aluminum and magnesium, but also of ceramics, or what is even better - from mono-crystal (semiconductor) silicon or germanium which in solar batteries produce the electric power, which through electric motor, would help pistons to rotate the counter-weighted crankshaft of engine. The most daring offers on this tendency have appeared else about 20 years ago. They about that, so as in photo-electric batteries to replace the silicon having unilateral electro-conductivity, also by tetravalent one-crystal carbon - by the hardest and heatproof artificial diamond, and to do of his the "eternal" pistons, cylinders, turbines nozzles of jet planes or at least their surfaces?.. Discussing variants of harmless engines, it is necessary to mention hydrogen and hybrid automobile power-plants which also require all-round improvement. The latest could produce and accumulate the electric power not only by selecting a part of power from engine of internal combustion or owing to force of inertia of the moving car braking by the electro-generator, but also due to a motion of absorber-s of all wheels from roughness of road. Can be used even vibration of the working motor to which any more will not need to establish on cranked shaft the balancers, making the motor by heavier for counterbalancing parasitic inertia of pistons and connecting rods. Development of any technique goes by its steady complication, and, despite of the increased cost price, it always, directly or indirectly, pays back itself. There are opportunities of improvement of engines of the internal combustion of two-stroke, established, basically, on motorcycles. In comparison with four-cycle engines, they is more powerful, and also have faster accelerating dynamics due to smaller idle running of pistons and of accompanied his the resistances of friction and inertia. However the motor of duple-cycle is more "gluttonous", as here together with the fulfilled gases into exhaust pipe throw out and the part of fuel-air mixtures entering in the cylinder in this time for the subsequent burning. Rightly so as to existing cycle to add a short-term phase of coercive super-charging of air by turbo during the initial moment of reverse motion of the piston for the ventilation of the cylinder partially cooling his from within by simple air to prevent blow-outs and to provide the improved conditions of combustion of more rich fuel-air mixture of which are let to enter in the cylinder only after closing of an outlet valve. Sometimes on submarines and in far cosmos, in mines and tunnels, on powerful power stations and in roomed conditions, are already used very ecological engines of Robert Stirling, of the inventing else of 1816 (!) year. Here, in absolutely closed chamber under greater pressure (200-500 atmospheres) inert gas (the helium) heats up from an oven with an external supply of heat from which it widen, and on the other hand of cylinder, already in a special refrigerator, his cools so as to already reduce his volume. The arising difference of pressure of the helium, above the piston, and under it, pushes this bucket. After that, works the other cylinders or the reserved energy of a rotating flywheel. Instead of pistons can work the turbines. The "Stirling" can work from any fuel: solid, liquid, gaseous, from energy of the Sun, a nuclear reactor and, in general, from any sources of heat even not connected with burning. Owing to the high maximal twisting moment on low speeds "Stirling" is capable to overcome significant overloads, and unlike usual motors, at them not turns off itself entirely and allows renouncing from a gearbox or a variator. Comparative the power, efficiency, the economical, the indiscriminateness by fuel and to lubricant, the unpretentiousness and the simplicity of service, universality of adaptation, the noiselessness, easy start in a cold season, longevity, small relative weight and compactness, the low cost, reliability and many other parameters favorably distinguish motors of Stirling from traditional engines of internal combustion. The manufacturers of serial cars almost are not interested by Stirling`s with his fantastic characteristics, owing to comparatively slow accelerating his dynamics. But in the same hybrid power-plant in pair with the electric motor (through stepless variator) "Sterling" quite be could work in any car. In view of a progressing rise in prices on oil and of inevitable global energy crisis (and of ecological), there is a sense more often to come back to the various modes of economy of fuel, them have a little forgotten, but with recruitment of the current technologies, they opens promising prospects.

Bezukladnikov Vasilij Alexandrovich. Poste restante 347913, The City of Taganrog, Rostov region, Russia.

P.S. Under first Your requirement, without any conditions, I am ready to send You the original text in Russian.

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