|Baseline emission sources for both ports. Click to enlarge.|
The ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach have introduced a draft of the San Pedro Bay Ports Clean Air Action Plan, a comprehensive plan aimed at significantly reducing the health risks posed by air pollution from port-related ships, trains, trucks, terminal equipment and harbor craft.
The Plan proposes hundreds of millions of dollars in investments by the ports, the local air district, the state, and port-related industry to cut particulate matter (PM) pollution from all port-related sources by more than 50% within the next five years.
Measures to be implemented under the plan also will reduce smog-forming NOx emissions by more than 45%, and will also result in reductions of other harmful air emissions such as sulfur oxides (SOx).
The plan proposes specific standards for each major source of emissions:
Heavy-duty vehicles/Trucks. By the end of 2011, all trucks calling at the ports frequently or semi-frequently—some 16,800 trucks out of a total fleet of about 40,000 serving the ports—will have to meet or beat the EPA 2007 on-road PM emissions standards (0.01 g/bhp-hr for PM) and be the cleanest available NOx at the time of replacement or retrofit.
Aerial view of the ports.
To eliminate the dirty diesels, the ports will join with the state and local agencies to finance and pursue funding channels to help finance a new generation of clean or retrofitted vehicles. The ports, along with the South Coast Air Quality Management District, propose to allocate more than $200 million toward this specific effort.
Ocean-going vessels. The ships are the largest single emissions source, and the plan proposes a number of specific standards, including:
100% compliance with the Vessel Speed Reduction Program [initially out to a distance of 20 nautical miles (nm) from Point Fermin, and expanded to 40 nm].
Use of 0.2% (2,000 ppm) or lower sulfur Marine Gas Oil (MGO) fuel in vessel auxiliary and main engines at berth and out to a distance of 20 nm from Point Fermin, and expanded to 40 nm, or equivalent reduction.
Use of shore-power (or equivalent) for hotelling emissions implemented at all major container, selected liquid bulk, and cruise terminals in POLA (Port of Los Angeles) within five to ten years and at all container terminals and one crude oil terminal in POLB (Port of Long Beach) within ten years (the implementation time difference being due to the Port of Long Beach’s more extensive infrastructure development schedule).
The use of NOx and PM control devices on auxiliary and main engines mandated on new vessel builds and existing frequent callers.
Cargo Handling Equipment. Beginning in 2007, all Cargo Handling Equipment (CHE) purchases must meet one of the following performance standards: Cleanest available NOx alternative-fueled engine, meeting 0.01 g/bhp-hr for PM, available at time of purchase, or Cleanest available NOx diesel-fueled engine, meeting 0.01 g/bhp-hr for PM, available at time of purchase. By the end of 2011, all remaining CHE must meet the EPA Tier 4 engine standards.
Harbor Craft. By the second year of the plan, all Harbor Craft (HC) home-based at San Pedro Bay Ports will meet EPA Tier 2 for harbor craft or equivalent reductions. By the fifth year, all previously repowered HC home-based at San Pedro Bay Ports will be retrofitted with the most effective CARB verified NOx and/or PM emissions reduction technologies.
When Tier 3 engines become available, within five years all HC home-based at San Pedro Bay Ports will be repowered with the new engines.
Railroad Locomotives. By 2008, all existing switch engines in the Ports shall be replaced with Tier 2 engines equipped with 15-minute idling devices and shall use emulsified fuels as available.
By 2011, all diesel-powered line-haul locomotives entering the San Pedro Bay Ports shall meet or be cleaner than EPA Tier 2 rail standards, with use of after-treatment controls and Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD). Any new switch engine acquired after the initial Pacific Harbor Line replacement must meet EPA Tier 3 standards or equivalent to 3 grams NOx/bhp-hr and 0.023 g PM/bhp-hr.
Any new rail yard developed at the San Pedro Bay Ports, or any rail yard significantly redesigned, shall be required to operate the cleanest locomotive technologies currently available (alternative-fueled locomotives, hybrid, electric, multi-engine generator set, etc.), use yard equipment meeting the cargo handling equipment standards specified above, and will be serviced only by the cleanest commercially available heavy-duty trucks meeting or exceeding the EPA 2007 onroad emissions standards.
Without the Clean Air Action Plan, much of the cargo handling equipment not affected by the California Air Resource Board’s recently adopted cargo-handling equipment regulation would be allowed to operate at current emission levels until it wears out. Under the Clean Air Action Plan, diesel PM from all port-related sources would be reduced by a total of 1,200 tons a year and NOx would be reduced by 12,000 tons a year.
Following a 30-day period for public review, then subsequent staff revisions to the Plan (as appropriate), the Boards of Harbor Commissioners at both ports will vote on whether to adopt the Clean Air Action Plan and its proposed lease requirements, tariff changes and incentives.
The ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles are the two largest container seaports in the United States, moving more than $260 billion a year in trade and more than 40% of the nation’s containerized cargo. Taken together, the adjacent ports would be the fifth-largest container port in the world. The ships, trucks, trains and other diesel-powered equipment and craft at the ports are major sources of air pollution in a region that already has some of the worst air quality in the nation.
The San Pedro Bay Ports Clean Air Action Plan, released in draft for public review and comments, was created with the cooperation and participation of the staff of the South Coast Air Quality Management District, California Air Resources Board and US Environmental Protection Agency.
Shortly after the announcement of the plan, Clean Energy, a leading US supplier of liquefied and compressed natural gas (LNG and CNG) vehicle fuel and related services, pledged to build three new natural gas fueling stations that will be conveniently accessible to cargo container truckers serving the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach. In addition, Clean Energy will offer special financing packages to fleets and independent owner-operators to help them acquire new natural-gas powered trucks.
Clean Air Action Plan Documents