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PML’s In-Wheel Motor, Plug-in Series Hybrid MINI


PML Flightlink and its partner Synergy Innovations recently unveiled an in-wheel, plug-in series hybrid conversion of a MINI at the British Motor Show, the MINI QED. The car, one of two the partners have so far produced, serves as a testbed and demonstrator for technologies the company—which designs and manufactures electric motors, joysticks and drive systems—hopes to commercialize.

The QED currently uses four 750 Nm brushless permanent motors in its wheels, a 21 kWh lithium-polymer battery pack and a 250cc two-cylinder, four-stroke engine as the genset. The QED supports an all-electric range of 200-250 miles and has a total range of about 932 miles (1,500 km). The car accelerates from 0-62 mph in less than 5 seconds.

The QED uses a 350V, 11 Farad ultracapacitor to discharge the high current for acceleration and to accept the regen power back from braking. This protects the batteries from high current spikes.

PML is working on the engine component and may change it in the near future. Emission testing is part of that process.

The driver can specify an all-electric Eco mode in which the engine will not start unless directed by the operator. In the normal operating mode, the engine starts when the battery drops to a 50% state of charge (SOC). A third mode—sport—offers an enhanced performance profile on top of the normal mode.

Anti-skid and traction control capabilities are built into each wheel. The anti-skid function dynamically monitors each wheel to detect the onset of skid onset, and then manages the system to obtain maximum non-skid torque from the wheel in either acceleration or braking modes. Traction control dynamically distributes torque when any wheel is in skid management mode.

An option provides steering wheel feed-forward input to the traction control system, allowing driver in tent and wheel alignment to influence stability and traction. Another option would provide further stability input through attitude, yaw and gyroscopic sensors.

PML FlightLink has also developed a prototype electric scooter—the PRAZE project—with European partners including Peugeot and with support from the European Commission.



A cv assembly adds complexity and transmission losses.

Electric engines can be made very resilient, so the shocks will not be a problem at all. If you drop your electric drill, it will survive the shock without any problem 99.9% of the time. Dirt and water is a question of good seals, which are already available today.

The only disadvantage of inwheel motors is the unsprung weight, but I am sure this will prove theoretical. Lightweight materials and active suspension will take care of it.


Be part of history and don't miss the birth of a new motorsport. The Indian AutoRickshaw Challenge is a 1000km (590miles) rally through the most scenic roads of South India in a three wheel motorized vehicle. The race is open to everyone regardless of experience or age. Rickshaws will be provided by the organizers.

andrew mroz

To all of you . Everybody is asking who killed the electric vehicle?.Well the question should be "WHY" not
"WHO" instead.
If GM would continue building and selling EV1's after a relatively short period of time what would have happen to all the gas stations ifrastructure , all dealers service incomes, all billion of dollars petro profits and so on you can go on and on and find at least a few dozen of more reasons WHY private and goverment agencies are NOT interested in promoting electric cars.(could it collapse the economy?what to do with manufacturing support sectors(parts oil air filters,service and so on}what about manpower involved in autoindustry?????? JUst think about it.
By now has been proven that electric car is reality
and is working.NOT to many people needs Tesla's or 640 HP Mini's going 150 mph but many would go for reasonable fraction of it in price and performance.
The oil reserve is declining
the gas prices is increasing
This is like 2+2=4 not 5
Not to mention climate changes

PS.looking for investor into hybrid/electric endevour
Interested ? send e-mail
Thank you for reading



LET'S DO IT!!!!!!

Matthew Baldwin

How do I get one? and how much are they?

what you or we need to do is set up shop and start converting cars. get a factory over seas to start mass producing the components needed to convert cars. when you have large volumes being converted then set up shop in a number of staites across the US and canada and so on. You could take over the Automotive world and when they see you doing it they will ither try and kill you stomp you out some how or do it themselves. And Just remember the truth will will Supresive people who live lies will only succed aslong as the can supress the truth. and sinking truth is like keeping tones of compressed air at the bottom of the sea it will just keep rising to the surface over and over again.

so please how can I get one what do we need to do to set up shop converting cars.

Matthew Baldwin.

Finn Cox

Just a thought, I've run across a website and videos in which a man regularly converts smaller engines (generators, etc.) to run off of compressed hydrogen. It seems that, if this technology is indeed viable, this would be a good application. Given that the generator's fuel demands are drastically lower than that of a combustion engine, it seems that the problem of storing enough hydrogen for effective range would not be as great of a problem. Then we would have a completely eco-friendly vehicle that still had sufficient power and range. Also, I'm sure that if the production of these models went mainstream, costs would drop and the technical details would be panned out. It obviously costs less than current fuel cell vehicles and is probably more feasibly producible. All we would need is the hydrogen infrastructure (fueling stations, etc.). And it could be a good crossover until fuel cells are perfected, and they can then provide the electrical power needed.


Instead of a 200mile electric and 800mile fuel-generated electric MINI, I hope someone translates this to a 100mile electric and 400 mile fuel-generated electric SALOON car. I have to refill after 350 to 400 miles in my petrol mondeo anyway so itd be worth the extra investment to be able to travel 40 miles a day for 360 days out of the year using home charging (ie zero petrol reqd for 99% of my driving :D) with cheaper long-range trips assisted by petrol-generated electricity once in a blue moon when I drive from Leeds to Scotland or London. The middle east will lose their oil finance for militant islam and western governments lose their tax on freedom of movement (until they slap a charge on mileage or electricity - both of which they will probably do). Then all we need is home-generation to be "energy-positive" using various technologies and everyone will be happy except except big brother.


As for the unsprung weight of the motor in the wheels, remember there is no brakes and driveshaft, so you reduce some weight there.


mk skipper good point im no engeneer but i do work on cars and know that disks and calipers weigh a lot


What I'd like to find is a small hub motor that I can slap on the rear of a 1990ish nissan sentra. That way I can use my (front wheel drive)ICE for in town, charging and getting up to speed and the hub motor to keep me going at high speeds on the highway (65-75mph). I don't neet to go 0-60 in 5 seconds. I drive about 170 miles a day round trip. Even getting 30 or 40 miles a trip would work for me.


Please build this for the rest of us NOW. MOVE it MOVE it MOVE it. No more stalling. I can't take all this foot dragging - SOMEBODY build this car NOW for the rest of us!!!!!!!!!!!


There is an in wheel motor being tested right now that will fit inside of an 18 inch rim. Very efficient

Larry M. Aden

Hey, all this idle chatter about PML's Hybrid Electric Mini reminds me of Mark Twain saying, "Everybody complains about the weather, but nobody ever does anything about it."

Let's all start doing something positive about this,now.

We all know we need this technology, now!
We all know we will never see it come from GM or Ford.
We have long known it can be done, now.
(PML has physical proof, right now, but Ferdinand Porsche showed a working front wheel drive hybrid electric with wheel motors in Paris in 1900. See Wheel Motors on Wikipedia)
We have all had good ideas to improve our transport.
And we all know more minds are better than one.
We all know we cannot build a car company by ourselves.
But, together, we could build an economy commuter vehicle manufacturing business in our country, or in every country, if we organized enough interest.
I invite anyone who is interested in participating (whether with capital or 'sweat equity') in an open cooperative (LLC) global commuter vehicle company based upon the cottage-industry model of the Swiss watch industry to contact me at, or 712-636-4490.
I am a highly-experienced Manufacturing Engineer with my own small machine shop and a spectacular two-passenger three-wheeled commuter vehicle designed to use off-the-shelf power transmission components, but I cannot buy suitable wheel motors off the shelf (nobody makes what a single commuter needs to run atleast minimum Interstate highway speeds), so I need an Electrical Engineer with a motor winding shop to help complete this exciting development.
Then we will need marketing expertise, a sales force, a service network, and on, and on, we will build an effective organization, one person at a time.
If you want change, work for change, send me your interests and capabilities, now! Larry M. Aden


I sent a price quote to PML some months ago.. 7500£ each for the smallest of their in-wheel engines (350Nm,40kW), And 4000£ for the control system.

Add Altairnaro batteries for 40000$ or so..

Add a regular size car..

Then you have a great, but expensive, all electric car.
just around 100000$

nice :-)


I hate to spoil the party but there is one glaring point everyone has missed... It doesn't drive! They admit the car has never driven under it's own power.

The crew at PML claim to have been working on these wheel motors for over 5 years. The Mini show car was displayed at the British Motor Show in mid-2006 and it STILL doesn't drive.

Two "car companies" have announced developments based on the PML wheel motor, yet it's never be shown running.

The last time I saw a TV promo for this wheel motor from 25th June 2007 on the BBC it still wasn't running and they wheeled out some uni prof talking about Artificial Intelligence controlling the wheel motor, steering and suspension... they are officially out to lunch!


7500 UK pounds EACH for a 40Kw PM pancake motor?? That's USD$ 15,280.09 EACH!

x 4 = USD $61,120.36 just for motors.

not including the inverter which is USD $8,149.30.

And the car has never driven under it's own power in 5 years of R&D??? LOL

Totally out-to-lunch!!!

Damian Flynn


B Dutton

This concept is getting close to where we should have been years ago but in reality all of this is nothing but an extention of the same old Automobile Cartel junk and the BIG 3 Junk mentality with little thought for the people and their real needs and the needs of energy conservation.

The problem with wasted energy is in the manufacturing and consumerism mentality itself, the energy waste is in manufacturing of new vehicles especially these ineffective hybrids that we see on the market today. They are only a feeble attempt to mask the real problem and solutions. The cars on the highways today are junk and have been for over 75 years. The proposed hyprids are only another extended form of that same junk and the junk mentality that thrives on them.

The automotive and energy business must be taken away from the big corporations and the government who is manipulated by the corporations or you will have nothing but the same - "the wolf disguised as the sheep" seemingly there to solve the energy problems but in reality only there to scavange the money from the people while running in fear.

Another problem with the energy conversation menatlity is it does no good to conserve energy if there is no thought into reducing the very thing that is guilty of wasting and squandering that energy - man himself! Man will use X amount of energy no matter how you cut it. Man has to get off his high and mighty pedistal or face the inevitable music - his own extinction. The earth and other life will keep on turning and doing very well without us.

If one wants to build a energy reducing vehicle this is what it will look like in a nutshell. These can virually be built "off the shelf" with todays technology - no big genious needed here:

First what we need to do is to retro fit kits to be able to utilize and convert our recently purchased gas guzzlers made by the Automobile Cartel. Otherwise these will still be on the road until they reach their 'designed in' and pretermined failure times.

A new concept - a new mentality:

This concept will apply to motorcycles, automobiles, trucks (especially ice highway trucking), railroad trains, plus new rubber/road trains, heavy equipment, sea going vessels and so on.

The retro kit should look something like this:

Power section: There will be a DC power section that will utilize several types of power in parallel;

1. A lightweight biofuel turbine generator set. This will run thousands of hours between overhauls as opposed to the common internal "distruction" engine currently marketed by the Auto cartel.

2. A solar capping system that tops off the batteries/capacitors energy while parked.

3. The latest fuel cell technology when reliable, affordable and practical to use.

4. As new and improved power technology evolves, rather than trade in your chassis, you would just add or replace a power unit. Having redundant power units provides more security and reliability and choices. For instance using more Solar in the West in place of engine power.

Storage System:
1. Capacitors: The body of the vehicle would be a layered capacitor itself that will store energy. It will be biodegradable and would be fed to the cows at the end of it's useful life.

2. High efficiency, lightweight battery only needed to start the turbine generator to begin the process. The capacitors would be the working storage system.

Bodies will be designed in many interchangeable styles. Standard and custom bodies that can be replaced as much as the owner wants. You have a fender bender? Feed the old body to the cows and put a new model on your "lifetime chassis"

Lifetime Chassis/Frame:
The frame would be lightweight tubular protective chassis covered with the CapBody.

Under carraige:
The undercarraige, unlike the conventional junk put out for the last 75 years will be aerodynamic and will actually provide lift and drag as needed to provide "lift", "floating", "turn-hugging" and "braking"(drag) all controlled by computer as well as manual.

Drive motors:
Independent drive wheel motors on every wheel. Each drive motor would have regenerative braking that instantly recharges the CapBody rather than turning to wasted heat. The wheel motors will also incorporate resistive braking for emergency stops. Wheel motors will come in standard sizes (car, truck etc) and incorporate the resistive brakes and will be interchangeable from vehicle to vehicle to save production energy (the highest waste and abuse of energy). Eventually wheel motors will be changed out as easy and cheaply as tires are today. Imagine pulling into your WalMart and getting new tires, motors and brakes all at one time and at a discount price. At least that's what the target should be.)

1. Regenerative
2. Resistive (friction)
3. Chassis braking.

Joystick type also linked to "rudder pedals" for foot control when desired. Speed control would be set with a throttle lever much like an aircraft. Power would be set by the computer - whatever is needed to maintain speed or economy whichever mode is selected.

By using wheel motors, all wheels can also be steered or used to help in the turn to get the best turn results. Conceptually the truck can stop, all wheels can rotate 90 degrees, and the truck can virtualy drive sideways a preset number of inches or feet to a parking spot.

Anti Skid/Anti Jackknife:
Since all wheels will be controlled by a central micro processor, in a turn for example using a semi truck pulling multiple trailers, each wheel speed will be computed and sent to the wheel. In a turn each wheel will recieve a unique speed required for that variably changing turn algorythm. This means that skids and jackknifes are impossible to achieve by accident.

(visualize an 18 wheeler truck or a railroad train with all drive wheels and applicable powerunits as required)

Feel free to contact me if you have other ideas to enhance this concept.



Hello to all Americans here. I want to ask you a simple question: aren't you the same muscle-car nuts who didn't care much about the handling of their beloved Mustangs and Chargers with their rear live axle transmissions? So what's this big concern about the unsprung weight?:)

John McManus

The in wheel motors are a good idea, but it may be impossible to register a converted car without conventional brakes. The yearly inspection would also be impossible. Mr. Dutton is right: friction brakes need to be built into the power module.


I think the 20 pound wankel based air motor developed in australia woud be the ultimate in-wheel motor.The tanks coud be extruded as the chasis with some kind of central backup electric system and onboard compressor. I allways liked the hydralic launch from stored energy from regenerative braking.Capacity is allready in the grid.And if we went to all electric the grid would reward people coming up with distributed generation. As for global warming its a done deal better start planning on huge population movements in 50 years.The methane gas being relesed by the rotting moss and water mixture in the north of canada and russia have created a positve feedback loop impossible to reverse.


why is it that the US uses 1/3 of all fossil fuels that cause green house gases .yet they blame poor underpopulated canada for there problems


Tesla is lauging to this from the sky!!


Looks interesting lets get this electrics on the us market


For all those that think this doesn't run, Volvo have created the Recharge concept based on the C30. Details can be found

You can also find videos of it running on YouTube if you look hard enough.

The technology is there, the only way it's gonna get cheap enough is if there's enough demand to justify mass production...the demand won't arrive until governments and corporations (most of which are in the pockets of the big oil cartels) start to invest in, and advertise the possibilities...I know about these cos I've hunted them, they should be made more available.

Try looking for details on the Toyota RAV4 EV that was used in Jersey (UK) for a while...the police used it as a patrol vehicle and it worked...but no-one found out about it till it was too late (conspiracy theorists say the BBC wouldn't document details about a working EV due to governmental pressures...make your own mind up after reading some web stories if you like).

Unless people are willing to work together (as suggested) to get a company set up converting old vehicles into modern EV's at a rate that can reduce the cost of the motors then we are wasting our time.

My opinion. Most cars could run 2 in-wheel motors (300BHP is better than most family cars) and the other 2 wheels can run high performance disc brakes as a back-up/manual parking brake system in case of motor failure and for testing laws...don't tell me no one has considered other options than 4WD 600+BHP...forget high performance for 5 minutes and think practicality.

We need to get Gordon Brown to start pushing for this technology...if incentived were there for manufacturers, I bet people would build...and I know loads of people who'd buy.

Just had to get all that off my chest.


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