GM Introduces E-Flex Electric Vehicle System; Chevrolet Volt the First Application
Toyota Touts the Maximum Tundra; Pledges E85 Version in 2009

Ford Announces Hydrogen-Electric Plug-in Hybrid Drive and Airstream Concept

Airstream
The Ford Airstream Concept.

Ford has developed an electric-drive crossover concept car in conjunction with Airstream—the Ford Airstream Concept—that is powered by a hydrogen-electric plug-in hybrid drivetrain—the HySeries Drive.

The HySeries drive in the AirStream Concept combines a lithium-ion battery pack with a compact fuel cell system as a range extender—the fuel cell’s sole function is to recharge the lithium-ion battery pack as needed.

Hyserieschassis
Overview of the HySeries Chassis.

(This series-hybrid electric drive design approach is similar to that taken by GM with its E-Flex family and the Chevrolet Volt. Earlier post.)

The new fuel cell, supplied by Ford partner Ballard, operates in a steady state, allowing a reduction in the size, weight, cost and complexity of a conventional fuel cell system by more than 50%. This approach also promises to more than double the lifetime of the fuel cell stack, according to Ford.

The Ford Airstream Concept can travel 25 miles in battery mode—depleting the battery’s state of charge to about 40%—before the fuel cell begins operating to recharge the vehicle’s 336-volt lithium-ion battery pack.

With the hydrogen-powered fuel cell, the range increases another 280 miles for a total of 305 miles.

The Ford Airstream Concept can travel at speeds of up to 85 mph. An on-board charger (110/220 VAC) can refresh the battery pack when a standard home outlet is available

The concept uses 4.5 kg of hydrogen stored in a 350-bar hydrogen tank. The HySeries Drive delivers the combined city/highway equivalent fuel economy of 41 miles per gallon.

This powertrain is already on the road and driving in a Ford Edge prototype. Ford scientists and engineers created this vehicle with partial funding from the United States Department of Energy. The vehicle will be shown for the first time at the Washington, DC, Auto Show on Jan. 23.

Comments

Probyn G

Every time I hear of the hydrogen economy I ask why when we already have an electric grid. Well we know why. The car companies do not want to go electric because it will overturn the profit base of their business.
Can you blame them, they need to keep the ICE for as long as possible.
The ICE is a pile of junk compared to an electric motor.

Five years ago our company did a survey in Canada and found that our electric vehicle, with an 80km range on SLA batteries would satisfy approx 80% of people's needs.Other companies, like AC Propulsion have consistently promoted the fact that lead acid EV's will work for average drivers.
Companies like Power Technology Inc.are developing lead acid batteries which promise 40% more energy and shorter recharge times.
For those whom say well suppose I want to drive from New York to Boston my response is show me the family living in suburbia with only one vehicle and I will concede to them but do the rest of you really need two gas guzzlers.
I will be kind to those supporting fuel cells "onboard" vehicles by simply saying.
"It will never happen".
Insurance companies are already writing off some easily repairable vehicles when air bags deploy. Compare that to the cost of an fuel cell. The logical use for that technology would be stationary power generation, for, you guessed it,battery charging and energy to the grid.
Let us concede that "Who Killed the electric Car" may have some spin. The producers did have an agenda but whom doesn't. Most of north americans are still convinced that a battery electric won't work for them, by guess "whom"?
At the time of the EV1 the company called GM-Ovonics controlled most of the patents for NiMh batteries. they could build as many as they liked to put in their car. Even the lead acid powered car worked well.

1)they had a product people liked
2)if not the lead acid they had the Nimh
3)they had the motor
4)they had the power electronics
5)they had biggest auto maker behind project
6)even if the vehicle was not initially cost beneficial,as we have seen with toyota and the prius, if you build it they will come.

I believe that if they had built it the company may have gone into financial difficulties because their powertrain and parts divisions would have been decimated, at the very least.
Anything that the car companies propose as a concept hybrid ev with an ice is their attempt to survive in the short term and the majority of the rest is a smoke screen

Probyn G

Every time I hear of the hydrogen economy I ask why when we already have an electric grid. Well we know why. The car companies do not want to go electric because it will overturn the profit base of their business.
Can you blame them, they need to keep the ICE for as long as possible.
The ICE is a pile of junk compared to an electric motor.

Five years ago our company did a survey in Canada and found that our electric vehicle, with an 80km range on SLA batteries would satisfy approx 80% of people's needs.Other companies, like AC Propulsion have consistently promoted the fact that lead acid EV's will work for average drivers.
Companies like Power Technology Inc.are developing lead acid batteries which promise 40% more energy and shorter recharge times.
For those whom say well suppose I want to drive from New York to Boston my response is show me the family living in suburbia with only one vehicle and I will concede to them but do the rest of you really need two gas guzzlers.
I will be kind to those supporting fuel cells "onboard" vehicles by simply saying.
"It will never happen".
Insurance companies are already writing off some easily repairable vehicles when air bags deploy. Compare that to the cost of an fuel cell. The logical use for that technology would be stationary power generation, for, you guessed it,battery charging and energy to the grid.
Let us concede that "Who Killed the electric Car" may have some spin. The producers did have an agenda but whom doesn't. Most of north americans are still convinced that a battery electric won't work for them, by guess "whom"?
At the time of the EV1 the company called GM-Ovonics controlled most of the patents for NiMh batteries. they could build as many as they liked to put in their car. Even the lead acid powered car worked well.

1)they had a product people liked
2)if not the lead acid they had the Nimh
3)they had the motor
4)they had the power electronics
5)they had biggest auto maker behind project
6)even if the vehicle was not initially cost beneficial,as we have seen with toyota and the prius, if you build it they will come.

I believe that if they had built it the company may have gone into financial difficulties because their powertrain and parts divisions would have been decimated, at the very least.
Anything that the car companies propose as a concept hybrid ev with an ice is their attempt to survive in the short term and the majority of the rest is a smoke screen

Norm E

Someone is going to realize the potential for the new Rand Cam Direct Charge rotary engine for hybrid electric cars. A modest battery pack, a gen pak driven directly by the new engine and electric drive could be a winning combination. See wwwdotregtechdotcom. The engine is quiet, efficient, simple, has a high output to weight ratio, and would need a minimal weight exhaust system. It can run on most any fuel, from biodiesel to gasoline or hydrogen.

TS

In the mired of comments and positions on the topic of fuels and alternate forms of vehicle power the overriding positive is that we are talking about it more and more. Just the fact that the topic is becoming more commonplace is cause for celebration. The fact that we are collectively moving in the direction of reducing or improving efficiencies in the use of hydrocarbons is a bonus. Becoming less dependant on others for our fuels is a good thing on several levels. Believe in global warming or not cleaning up the soup we live in seems like a good enough reason to move in the directions that clean up our air. We should cheer on those who, for whatever motivation, and at whatever level of ability, expending time, money and talents to develop new ways of providing electricity, mobility and all the comforts provided by power we require. Maybe more carpooling, mass transit, and less people would improve our condition. In any event we are talking and the conversation is getting louder - that is good!

Asmodeious

Hydrogen will never work as a fuel because so much energy is lost to heat in creating it. At this point Hydrogen consumes more fossil fuels than just burning gasoline in a car. The ONLY way hydrogen would ever be a viable source of energy to power cars would be if America got its energy from nuclear energy.

However, Electric cars could be charged using solar pannels because they're more effecient than hydrogen, and we already have that technology. Watch the movie "Who Killed the Electric Car?"

Henry Gibson

Because of everyone thinking about the limited range, in modern times, the full electric car should not have been built, but at least a tiny engine or two should have been put in spare corners of the vehicle in addition to a 10 gallon fuel tank. The engine could run at very high speeds and produce about the same power as a standard house outlet or 20 amps at 120 volts or 2400 watts. In one hour of operation, such an engine could charge the battery with enough power to go at least 12 miles at the CALCAR'S average of 200 watt-hours per mile. For driving in city traffic the car would run at full average traffic speeds indefinately. The value of 2400 watts is more than three horsepower, and that should be able to operate an ordinary car at at least 30 MPH on the level. The battery can supply high torque for starting and passing and recovering braking energy. If any car gets 35 miles per gallon its average horsepower can only be about three and a half.

The intent is that the car operates all the time from the battery, charged at home or work, and only uses the engine when trips, longer than usual, need to be made. More tiny engines could be installed in other corners for cars regularly traveling beyond the battery limits at high speeds on freeways. At twenty percent efficiency, ten gallons of gasoline could run the engine for 350 miles of travel or 29 hours of operation. With slightly increased costs of the tank and piping, the engine would be equipped to run on methanol, ethanol, butanol, gasoline, propanol, acetone, propane, butane and in the future diesel. Newly invented electric valves and injectors would allow operation at the optimum efficiency for most of the fuels and even allow lower efficiency operation on diesel, biodiesel, refined-vegetable-oil, gasoline-lantern-fuel or kerosine(paraffine). With the large battery, electric heaters can heat the pipes, tanks and fuels that need it for starting or operating in cold weather. Liquid fueled combustion heaters are now available in Europe for some cars that are so efficient that there is not enough engine coolant heat to keep the car warm, so having 10 gallons of liquid fuel is not a bad idea in some climates. Methanol can be made easily and cheaply from anything that burns, and even from hydrogen if carbon-dioxide is available as well. Methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol can be stored for years in a closed container without degrading like gasoline does.

The engine could also run on natural gas when connected by a hose in a driveway, and this mode of operation will not overload the natural gas grid in the daytime while electricity can be used for charging at night. This mode of operation can be a backup for house power when the electric grid fails.

A fuel gas made from charcoal in a special combustor could also be used in the car while parked. Charcoal can be made from waste wood and other substances. Packaged charcoal at stores is sometimes less expensive than gasoline. A researcher in Hawaii has developed a high speed method of making charcoal from the unversity's organic wastes and other materials and has sold rights to major charcoal makers.

Starting the engine, with its generator used as a motor, is easy because of the large battery and the now readily available high current electronics. The battery voltage should be selected to a convenient voltage for taking from and putting power into the house or grid without expensive transformers. Batteries with about 240 volts and a center tap would fit most uses.

The OPOC is a small prototype diesel engine that can be used in such a car. Capstone has made 30 kilo-watt turbines for hybrid busses, and they have probably learned enough to make five or ten kilo-watt ones as well. They are not as efficient as a piston engine, but have only one moving part. Efficiency is seldom important if the tubine is not used much. Turbo-charged high speed OPOCs would probably be the most efficient lightest weight small engine for a hybrid car.

Even a large model airplane engine generator would make a battery car more sale-able. But with 60 pounds of weight for the fuel and 40 pounds for a 3-10 KW engine generator, a plug-in-hybrid electric car could go 350 miles between stops on long trips. The present BEV owners could keep a EU1000i, two gallons of Butanol and a lot of snacks and drinks with them....hg....

bedirhan

sohbet

my cousin Carlo di Biagio has the licence for europe of vectrix electric- scooter diffusion with shop in via veneto- close the american embassy-rome in the heart of the town. would be interesting to sale also an hybrid electric car, if in the future you have some ideas about we can study an business-strategy together,
greetings
dr. Manuel Barracchia
journalist
consulent in italy
for diffusion of
green transport politics
address:viale pinturicchio 84- 00196-rome e-mail: emmanuelb@virgilio.it

Lance

LOTS OF INFO HERE! What I get is all of us are concerned about the lack of vehicles being produced that are enviro-friendly or get great MPG. I believe we should:

1. Focus our energy not on these blogs/discussions but a REVOLUTION together against auto makers and our government for them to change!
2. Use the technologies that have been around for decades. i.e. 100% electric cars since the early 1900's with todays technology of SOLAR panels to produce the energy incorporated on the vehicles and our homes and businesses.
3. GVO re-using waste vegetable oil to fuel diesel engines. Check out www.greasecar.com and www.greasel.com.
4. Making our own fuel such as Bio-diesel.

Many of these fuels are already available and we don't need to wait for another hybrid cross, ethanol, hydrogen vehicle that continues to pollute our world to be developed so the automakers and petroleum companies can continue keeping us under their control.

PR

Everyone here seems to like to throw around figures about everything from efficacy rates to cost per gallon/ kWatt/ KG without backing their claims. If one intends to state as fact that it costs X$ to produce YYY, prove it! If you claim to convert water to hydrogen at $.03/ KG, lets state what currency you are talking in. There is so much B$ on this site, people claiming to have all the answers, people claiming inside information (without backing it up), people putting forth theories as fact, we should be taking all this B$ and convert it to methane, run it through our 125% efficiency vehicle and solve the world energy crisis!

Want to do something to improve fuel mileage right now? Not so difficult, go to your car/ truck/ SUV and fill the tires to the proper (max according the the manufacturers recommendation) pressure and take out those golf clubs/ bicycle/ skis/ hockey equipment from the back and quit hauling around all the extra weight. And while you are at it, get rid of that tool box. 99.37583% of those on this site couldn't tell the difference between an internal combustion engine and a light switch. I'd tell you how I arrived at that number but you wouldn't have the intelligence to understand.

Just my opinion, I could be wrong. (DM)

PR. PhD, MBA, MD, FBI, CIA, Mic, Key, Mouse

PS. Do the world a favor and search for, download, and install some sort of a spell checker. Half the people on here seem to be unable to spell. There is another word for it but it appears that the system won't let me use it.

Irene

We launched our content driven web site to track the health and wellness of our planet through our population. One single thread continues to come back from our readers. We need to fix the transportation needs of the future with Non Fossil Fuel alternatives. This is a great step in the right direction. What ever we do we must look at the polluting issues as a byproduct as well. Water from the ocens is also an area we hear little about. If Al Gore is right (both sides have an opinion) then the global warming is rising our ocean levels. Why not reverse the process in two ways.

Draw ocen water as an energy source and desalinate the ocean for crops and drinking purposes. Solves two problems at once. We welcome you all to our corporate site and please continue to write here and hopefully with us as we fight for the future!

www.planetberries.com/greenplanet.html

Thank you

Brian

Volvo (still owned by Ford) are building a series hybrid and plan to put it into production.
Each wheel has a, 50hp electric motors built in that are the brakes as well. A 50 mile battery the generator set at the moment is a 1600cc gas engine. O to 60 time 6.5 seconds top well over 100.

VW have just developed a new low cost robust Li battery
and as a side note Toshiba have a new Li battery which charges to 90% in 10 minutes called a SCiB.

If Ford really wanted to produce a hybrid, take the Volvo wheel motors, the light weight aluminium bodied Jaguar(owned by Ford) some VW or Toshiba batteries and a RandCam Diesel generator set and you have the car of the future. Ford of course is trying to sell both of these companies it just does not know what it has.

Brian

Solar power is the, I think only way to go to generate the power we need. Focused mirror systems in desert areas near a coast could produce electricity and fresh water, plus high pressure steam storage would load level. Secondary, is 30% efficent solar cells on every ones roof, with power buy back into the grid. This is happening in Germany and they now have the biggest installed capacity in the world. So with with the chargable car/, Solar electricity, biodiesel and each car can act as a storage device for the grid as well who needs Hydrogen its a wast of time and money.

Robert

In my opinion, plug in electric hybrids are the next major milestone. I don't trust GM or Ford to produce them in a timely or serious manner. They still seem wedded to what I would consider to be very backward ideas and management.

That said, if the Volt does reach market in 2010 at a decent cost and high volumes then I'll be a little less skeptical. For now their track record looks terrible.

As for solar -- take a look at First Solar and Nanosolar. This third gen solar looks like it's about to turn energy economics on its head and give the old fossil fuels a run for cost competitiveness.

Peter Billingsley

GM VOLT AND FORD AEROSTAR ARE NON STARTERS IN THE RACE FOR GREEN... I HAVE THE ANSWER TO THE NATIONS ENERGY NEEDS AND A POWERFUL RENEWABLE CLEAN ENGERGY... I AM MERELY WAITING FOR THE PHONE CALL FROM THE WHITEHOUSE INVITING ME FOR A MEETING WITH THE PRESIDENT GEORGE W. BUSH.. Mister President thank you for placing the call...

POOP IS THE ANSWER.. OR PERHAPS A MORE USER FRIENDLY TERM.. FECES.. CRAP... URINE... HUMAN WASTE.. WHY NOT LIQUIFY IT.. COOK IT... GENERATE METHANE GAS, Home Heating Pellets made from POOP RESIDUE. Where will Ford get the Hydrogen to power it's AEROSTAR.. ? from URINE.. THAT'S WHERE.. URINE IS HYDROGEN IN COLOR.. RUN THE ELECTRICAL CURRENT THROUGH IT IN A FUEL CELL TOWER AND URINE BECOMES HYDROGEN GAS.. WITH A DRIVING RANGE OF 305 MILES ON A TANK FULL.. WE CAN WIN THIS ONE GUYS.. MISTER PRESIDENT.. THANK YOU..

wxfman


I like the idea, but its ultimate potential is to short sighted. Hydrogen is good, but we need to get there. Fords previous idea of hydrogen combustion powered engine, powered with other fuels as well, had the obvious advantage of vehicle use where hydrogen was not available. Kind of like the flex fuel engine. That concept has much more potential. Fuel cell engines are nice, but not practical, for the obvious reason that we need a cheap way to get hydrogen from water. And thats coming, no question. But what we need is a vehicle that runs on any fuel, the ultimate democratic engine. Then when Hydrogen gets here, however it gets here, we will all have vehicles that can use it. The big car manufacturers seem to think that if they manufacture a car that runs hydrogen, then they can wash their hands of the fuel problem, thinking they've done there part. An engine that allows consumers to run any fuel, will spur the development and production of all fuels. Thats a solution in itself that has a built in orderly and immediate transition to cleaner fuels like hydrogen. But thats not the solution Ford or GM seem to want for some reason. Could it be that they really don't want us to leave gas fuels? I'm not a conspiracy theory person, but it doesn't look good for them, all that research and investment for an impractical solution.

And before you even think that an engine that cannot run any fuel, check with the patent office. Check with your local inventor. Remember that the current Otto and Diesel engine concepts are over a hundred years old, but we still use them because gas is so convenient. Thats the way we've always done it, and the big corps are going to make sure that any solution to get us off that won't even be tried.

And our watchdog energy agency doesn't seem to care about any other solutions that solve the transition to clean fuels. From all I can tell, they seem to believe that you build a better mouse trap, and just put it out there, viola, problem solved, we can all instantly afford 10 vehicles to run all the renewable that we can come up with.

Tom Noonan

I been watching back to the Future part 2 and Batman Cartoon back to the Future part 2 about the year 2015 and Harverd car that Fly and Batman Cartoon about the year 2015 and Harverd car that fly too I like Superman that Fly with X ray Vison and man of Steel and power in Superman lift

john k. Rupp, Jr.


We need cheap fuel cell cars now not 20 years from now I'll be dead.


john

John Blackburn

Wow, lots of negativity out there. I am glad to see companies striving to find answers. I don't care if they are from the U.S. or any other country. I don't even care if they are doing it to save face, it is being done.

There are lots of scientists looking into ways of producing H2 from lots of different sources. One I saw yesterday was from Aluminum pelets with Galium pelets then when water hits the two, H2 being created. Another was from virus's. Ecoli was being used to generate bio. bacteria is being used to create a battery! Wow.

I think it is great and the more the marrier! Lets all do our part in the mean time of voicing our concerns about the environment to keep the ball rolling in this green direction. Try car pooling once in a while, take the bus, walk to work, bike to work, even motorcycles save tons of emissions. My 125 suzuki gets 83mpg!

ChuckL

Paolo,

Perhaps you would like to try to tow my RV with your Prius.

Your post shows that you only consider your own needs and consider the needs of others that differ from yours to be superfluous.

We would all do well to remember that the needs of the manufacturers to make a profit means that they must meet a variety of needs and desires. Any concept vehicle has been through a selection process to meet these needs. Some will be much better than others for each of us. some will be outstanding sales successes. Others will never see production for a variety of reasons. But they all produce information on which to base improvements.

No one could have built your Prius 50 years ago.

ChuckL

THOUGHTS FROM OVER 50 YEARS AGO.

I still remember a conversation I had with my father in the 1950s in which he predicted the near future return of the electric car. It was quiet, clean, and just less overall trouble. He expected that new batteries would soon provide the range that he needed as a traveling salesman.

Well we all know the range problem has still not been solved with batteries.

I suggested that instead of straight battery power what was needed was what is now called a hybrid.

I wanted an electric car which carried its own generator set so that varying energy drains could be met by the batteries and the power used replenished over time. At the time I used diesel-electric trains as the example. Boy!!! did I get ridiculed. Diesel-electric trains on the roads? How silly could I get.

Well, although current hybrids use gasoline rather than diesel fuel, I have what I predicted. The scale is just different to fit the application.

Now, what I wish to see from the manufacturers is a combination of a powerful electric motor with a small battery pack and a diesel-electric generator set that could maintain freeway speeds for long distances with the vehicle fully loaded. The generator set would operate only intermittently in city use to recharge the batteries.

This idea could be scaled to meet the needs of commuter cars though heavy duty trucks. It could greatly reduce emissions now. The use of diesel fuel would reduce the fossil fuel usage, now, and the introduction of biodiesel fuel, when available, could eliminate the need for dead dinosaurs.

The technology to do this has all already been demonstrated. All that is needed is the will and the demand.

Will any one join me in asking for this at the local dealership while even better technology is developed?

Roger Heuckeroth

Everyone should understand that concept cars are mostly public relations (corporate image) tools. Its all about public perception. The car companies were happy to use hydrogen as a way to make the public at large beleive that they are thinking of the environment. It became the trendy thing to do, and they could do it with little risk. Without the H2 supply infrastructure there was no real risk of actually having to produce such a product. Its all for show folks.

Making a vehicle run on hydrogen is relatively simple. EVs and HEVs are relatively simple compared to the modern IC engine (especially BEVs). What is lacking is political will. Not just in the US, but throughout most of the world. Don't just blame the car companies, or suggest that just US car companies are to blame. Don't just blame the oil companies and suggest that they are the puppet masters of the entire world ecconomy. Don't just blame consumers for their love affair with the SUV and pick-up trucks. Don't just blame the artifically low price at the pump. Look at Europe; their gas prices have always been high, yet their not running EV/HEVs for the most part.

I don't mean to sound overly pessemistic, but I think it may take an environmental desaster for the worlds political will to change. Only when sea levels rise by 5,10 to 20 feet and start to displace mass populations around the world will the world population develop the will to really react in a responsible way. People resist change they only adapt when faced with neccessity.

I would like to address the concern that charging BEVs would overload the current electic grid.

Don't assume that just because the car is plugged in that it has to be charging. A simple clock circuit in the charger could move the charge time into the off-peak hours without regard to when it was plugged in. Additional functionality could be obtained by integrating a pager (remember those pre-cell phone devices?) into the charger where the electronic serial number has been block programmed to be the same as all the other pagers in car chargers in a given urban area.

Then a single pager call to a single pager account from the power company could activate or de-activate nearly all the car chargers in a given area for demand management should the need arise. The addition of a 0 to 15 minute activation randomize function with the pager command would even "soften" the effect of the pager command on the power grid. Of course security concerns for the pager account would apply. (Imagine someone getting that phone number and your car didn't charge that night as a result... Just verify that it is the utility issuing the page.) The last time I checked pagers were only $60 and the pager companies shouldn't whine about a single, rarely used account addressing tens of thousands of receivers with the same ESN. A car charger version of this pager should be in the same ballpark cost-wise.

I don't think that with this level of control the load on the electric grid should be a problem.

Dave

Wait for Detroit/Japan/Europe or the Gov to fix our oil misuse and you will die waiting, period.

The US Gov could of should-of done something in the first energy crisis during the 1970's. Folks, that is going on 40 years ago, 40 years from now you will be dead.

Fuel cell ignoramuses, take note. The first commercial fuel cell was developed in 1959 and has been "10 years away" ever since. You will be dead before all the problems of an h2 economy are solved. One of the big unsolvable ones is the inconvenient fact that h2 is NOT AN ENERGY SOURCE, it does not exist in nature in usable quantities. Rather, it has to be converted from other energy sources, oil, gas, crops etc.

I have done something about, why haven't any of you? Am I smarter than all of you or all of you simply lazy and prefer ranting on green blogs. Get off you rear or die waiting for someone else to solve your problem.

My solution is made of off-the-shelf technology that has been available for years, pull your heads out and take a look. It was not cheap, I spent 35,658 total to build it, but that was one-off pricing that I am sure the not-for-profit GM/Ford could get for 1/2 as much as I paid.

As a result I am driving the best car I have ever had, and I have had a few. For my efforts I have the pleasure of driving an AWD true hybrid-electric (not a gimmick Prius).

I have a virtually new Volvo V70 AWD that I took the ICE and transmission out of and sold on ebay (some sucker bought the assembly for 3500!).

I then installed lead acid batteries (from Hawker) that should last 500-600 cycles with my DOD/recharge pattern and they are cheap to replace and 100% recyclable.

I installed two AC wheel motors (one at each front wheel) that have a peak of 40 hp each and one, 120 peak hp AC motor that drives the rears.

I am using a Zilla controller with regen braking that can provide 200 KW peak. I am using a 1.2 liter 90 hp Audi A2 diesel coupled to the same drive shaft as the 120 electric motor with a centrifugal clutch/CVT made by Comet Clutch, to drive the rears when/as needed.

In my garage I have a charger that with the flip of a switch will take energy from the batteries and power my house during power outages. It's built in timer begins charging when night rates are in effect, using cheap and surplus (the power companies can't turn down their plants and night) electricity.

Results:
A powerful, very cheap to run, nearly silent and luxurious automobile that has me laughing at all of you everytime I pass the pumps. I have a UPS for my house and I don't create need for more power plants.

Range driven normally is 24 miles (my commute is a long 16 miles RT)>
Range driven like an mad man = 7-10 miles.
Driven supper efficiently I once made 33.4 miles.
Running on diesel alone I can muster just 38 mpg on the highway, but it is kind of fun driving a car that sounds like a snowmobile:)

Top speed on electrics is over 90 mph, on diesel I can get to just over 75 mph.

Accelerations on electrics is quick for a heavy car that is virtually free to run, quite fast on both eletric and diesel, though I have never done a proper 0-60 test.

I've been driving this car with pleasure for 22 months and yes, on the same battery pack.

Anyone who wants pictures of the build process or more info on the OFF THE SHELF technology available YEARS AGO, drop me a note on sombreones@yahoo.co.uk. Fuel cell freaks, don't bother the technology is too much for you and will give you a headache.

charles winters

backyard mechanics are fitting cars (mercedes diesels) than can run 100% diesel fuel free,useing waste veg.or a can or jug of veg.oil from the local store or any combination diesel,vegatable oil,bio-diesel.if this is being accompolished with a cost range 600.00 to 1500.00 why would engineers of huge companys have such a huge problem improving such methods.could it be because they put all the effort into reasons against new ideas rather than letting their knowledge and immagation tell them I can make something much better

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