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GM to Introduce New Tier 2 Bin 5 4.5-Liter Diesel for Light-Duty Trucks

General Motors will introduce a new 4.5L V-8 Duramax turbo-diesel that improves engine fuel efficiency by 25% compared to gasoline engines, and reduces CO2 emissions by 13% and cuts particulates and NOx emissions by at least 90% compared to comparable diesels today. The engine will be rated in excess of 310 hp (231 kW) and 520 lb-ft (705 Nm) of torque.

This will be GM’s first engine to use a selective catalytic reduction NOx aftertreatment system with a diesel particulate filter to help achieve the Tier 2 Bin 5 and California LEV 2 emissions standards. The engine will be applied in pickup trucks of less than 8,600 lbs (3,900 kg) GVW and the HUMMER H2 after 2009.

This new GM light duty diesel is expected to become a favorite among customers who require excellent towing ability and fuel efficiency. It will meet the stringent 2010 emissions standards, and it will be compliant in all 50 states, making it one of the cleanest diesel vehicles ever produced.

—Tom Stephens, group vice president, GM Global Powertrain and Quality

The new dual-overhead cam, four-valve V-8 diesel engine will fit within the same space of a small-block V-8 gasoline engine. This compact size is made possible by using integral cylinder head exhaust manifolds, integral cam cover intake manifolds and a narrow block.

Technical highlights of the engine include aluminum cylinder heads with integrated manifolding; a variable-vane turbocharger with intercooling; a Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) block for a stronger and lighter engine base (compared to lower-strength aluminum or heavier grey cast iron); and fracture-split main bearing caps and connecting rods for a precise fit. An electronically controlled, ultra-high-pressure, common-rail fuel system is used, which has the ability to inject fuel five times per combustion event to control noise and emissions.

GM currently offers 17 diesel engine variants in 45 vehicle lines around the world. GM sells more than one million diesel engines annually, with products that offer a range of choices from the 1.3L four-cylinder diesel engine sold in the Opel Agila and Corsa, up to the 6.6L V-8 Duramax diesel sold in full-size vans, heavy duty pickups and medium duty trucks in the US.

GM first introduced the Duramax diesel 6.6L V-8 in the US in the 2001 model year.

GM will produce the new engine at its plant in Tonawanda, NY and is investing will invest $100 million in the plant for that purpose.

Comments

Green Destiny

@ mike-

Please respond to the 300K lifetime usage Hummer H2 and the 109K Prius lifetime usage assumption asserted in the study you cite. Do you still think the Prius uses more energy over its lifetime? If so, please demonstrate why. Facts are good.

PeakVT

"Nobody said anything about externalities."

That's the whole point of this site - the externalities of driving cars powered by fossil fuels, and what to do about it. Duh.

As to the rest of your insults and bragging: whatever. Cough up some real arguments or STFU.

Randy

GM. Please build a 50 mpg pickup or van that runs on biofuel. No batteries please. For the Prius, the material is mining in Canada at a big net loss to the environment. This material is then shipped to another country for processing. No petrol engine needed either. Gas is passe.

DS

but they are not as important to everyone as they are to you.

Of course it's not important to Hummer drivers because they are being subsidized by everyone who drives anything that gets better than 12 mpg.

RL

Mike, don't be a jackass. These externalities that you don't care about may not be paid by you directly out of your wallet but they will be paid by future generations and even today. How many kids who live in heavily polluted areas like LA develop asthma because idiots like you don't give a crap? How's that for cost-free externality? From your comments, you are obviously a selfish, avaricious, bastard who should go suck on a tailpipe.

Michel

RL, good point!

But I think, even these kids would like to drive a Diesel-SUV through LA. Coughing.
It´s why well educated people sometimes implement reasonalble laws like emmission regulations.
Some less educated or obstinate people hate this. Politics.

The problem I see with the increase of market share of Diesel cars in the US is a rising market share of SUVs.
Overall, fuel consumption would hardly decrease but remain static. People would buy SUVs with lets say 30mpg and high engergy consumption during production instead of compact cars like Prius or Civic.
They even would switch from an 30mpg sedan to a 30mpg SUV. The problem is, its hard to get them out of these SUVs later on. And its even harder to achive 50mpg with a Diesel SUV. Its about weight and aerodynamics, isn´t it?

Michel

Btw,
Lexus 400h proved superior to German Diesel-SUVs BMW X5, MB M and VW Toureg (Euro IV) in test made by German car press.
It proved more fuel efficent (almost 30%) than modern German Diesel engine with the same power output.
And the Lexus emmits less CO2, NOx.

Engineer-Poet
Example: MY2007 Colorado Work Truck, 2.9L I4 gasoline, 2WD, 5-speed manual officially gets 20/26 MPG. Figure 15,000 miles annually and $3.50 average for gas over the next 8 years. Total lifetime fuel cost $18260.

Now figure a clean diesel option offering similar performance would cost $3000 more but get 25/33 MPG of *gasoil*. Figure same mileage, same length of ownership, but an average of $3.80 per gallon of diesel. Total lifetime fuel cost $15724, i.e. about the difference in initial purchase cost. However, you'd also have spend more on AdBlue, VLF, insurance and maintenance.

What I'm seeing these days is diesel prices between 10¢/ and 50¢/gallon less than regular unleaded.  Figuring $3.35/gallon average, the lifetime fuel cost would be $13862 for a difference of about $4400 in favor of the diesel.

I should also mention here that the major part of the claimed environmental damage of the Prius is due to sulfur emissions from one nickel smelter in Sudbury, Ontario.  This smelter could easily be cleaned up, essentially reversing the argument.

JC

Rafael,

Your predictions are not my predictions for your new truck. How about an average price of gas over the next 8 years of $4.00/gal, with diesel at $3.75/gal? Historically diesel costs less at the pump, even with the added taxes in the USA. The premium for a Tier2/Bin5 diesel may be only $2000 in a 4 cylinder engine, and that's for immature technology. Also, this added cost may well be recouped at resale; any truck should last more than 120K miles. Now the difference in predicted fuel cost is well over $5,000.

More importantly, the diesel will have produced far less CO2, which makes it the green alternative. To make it a micro-hybrid would make our experiment all the more green. This would boost our savings further, even after the higher initial cost.

You say that fuel-saving technologies price vehicles out of the market, especially in combination. I think that any well heeled American with half a brain could see these differences in lifetime cost and environmental impact if they were appropriately presented on the Mulroney sticker.

There is a strong trend in the auto buying market whereby people of marginal income barely shop for new cars at all. The appeal of a new car is increasingly being tilted towards people of upper-middle class or better. The middle class buyers are now being squeezed by their variable rate mortgages in the USA, and will be shopping based on payments, not the purchase price. I would hope that appropriate car window stickering would help the middle class make the right choice for their pocket books. I believe that a bold environmental rating on the window sticker would be a positive factor in persuading all buyers to purchase the greener of the vehicles under consideration.

The GM V8 seems to be an excellent first step. Now let’s see if they move the technology down the line to make a 4 cylinder version.

mike

Green Destiny:
I didn't cite that study, Terry did. I was just pointing out that the normal operating procedure on this site and most others (on both sides of the issue) is that if someone brings up a study that disagrees with your point, it is automatically stated that the study has been "debunked." Maybe the study was debunked, maybe it wasn't. It doesn't matter to me either way.

PeakVT:
Sounds like you need a hug. I was under the impression that this site is about advances in green car technology. I guess if you want to get flexible with the meaning of the articles, you could tie in externalities, but I have yet to see that word in the title of the site. It says "Green Car Congress", not "Externality Congress." Duh.
You appear to be a sensitive guy. I didn't view anything I said as in insult, and I don't think any of it was. Even if it were, thick skin is a virtue. As far as arguments go, I don't have to make any - congress and the US voter make them for me.
And STFU? I'm going to go out on a limb and guess that you weren't wearing your logic hat when you typed that.

DS:
I don't drive a Hummer, but that's pretty much that way it works.

RL:
They could do what I did and move out of LA. I am not responsible for the choices they make, and the law places no burden on me to worry about their living conditions. The taxes I do pay and the charity I give from the company income are used to enhance their standard of living, but that doesn't mean I need to appreciably change my lifestyle, and the bottom line is that I don't have to. If it makes you feel good to worry about them and let them have a say in what transporation you use, have at it. I won't try to stop you, and I wouldn't vote for a law that does.

Rafael Seidl

Stan, JC -

I sincerely doubt EPA and CARB would reverse course and not permit SCR at this late stage. The recent EPA publication laid out fairly specific criteria that MB and others have agreed to meet. If they do to EPA's satisfaction, both it and CARB are widely expected to give the green light early enough to avoid blame for any delay.

---

Gasoline and diesel price vary quite a bit by grade, season and region. For the long-term trend, go to the following URL and select "View History" for the fuel grade or type you are interested in. Then, select "annual" or "montly" view, as appropriate. Below are the data for gasoline, diesel and ULSD.

As you can see, the national average retail price for both fuels is still below $3, so my estimates of $3.50/$3.80 *national* average over the next 8 years might not be that far off. Unlike No. 2 diesel, a gallon of ULSD - the grade you need for exhaust systems designed to meet T2B5 - actually does cost about 8% more than gasoline. Expect this premium to rise if and when diesel engines achieve a significant share of the LDV market. The premium is fair because diesel contains about 10% more energy per gallon.

In Europe, diesel is 10% cheaper than petrol in a number of countries - originally, a sop to farm interests. Small wonder that 50% of new LDV registrations feature diesel engines and, that refineries are having to import finished diesel from Ukraine and Iran.

http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_gnd_dcus_nus_w.htm

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U.S. All Grades All Formulations Retail Gasoline Prices (Cents per Gallon)
Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9
1990's 107.1 107.8 115.8 126.9 124.4 107.2 117.6
2000's 152.3 146.0 138.6 160.3 189.5 231.4 261.8

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U.S. No 2 Diesel Retail Sales by All Sellers (Cents per Gallon)
Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9
1990's 111.4 111.0 123.5 119.8 104.4 112.1
2000's 149.1 140.1 131.9 150.9 181.0 240.2 270.5

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U.S. No 2 Diesel Ultra Low Sulfur (0-15 ppm) Retail Sales by All Sellers (Cents per Gallon)
Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
2007 251.3 268.0 284.7 281.8

Patrick

Soccer mom makes use of tax advantages to pay for her SUV? hahaha...please show me where that is from the tax code.

Tax payers paid for your SUV? Care to elucidate?

You do realize it is a tax deduction and not a tax credit right?

So if you were a small business owner (which includes doctors, lawyers, and others who have to register as a small business) you could avoid paying taxes and taking the most ideal situation you could have 35% of your SUV paid for by not owing taxes...but this isn't a rebate where you pull money out of the US treasury, you just avoid taxes for the year when you buy the vehicle.

I don't know of too many soccer moms who are registering themselves as small business owners...and what income are they claiming the deduction for?

dsl987

@ Rafael Seidl

I do not believe that making a clean diesel to meet EPA regs will add an additional $3,000 to the price of a vehicle. Anyway, we shall soon see as Toyota and many others will soon be introducing new diesels to the US market. I am personally waiting for the 3.0L diesel version of the Tacoma.

Elliot

I think GCC is becoming popular enough to grab the attention of the automakers or the oil companies. A big enough deal for PR company Mike to make it on here to throw off discussions with inane statements, then to argue those as if he actually has a shadow of a point. GCC, ignore the corporate trolls, this won't be the last one you see. Don't let them destroy free discussion here, it's too important.

JamesEE

Elliot,

A few years ago a very smart venture capitalist in Silicon Valley said something I'll always remember. When there are two possible explanations, conspiracy or incompetence, always go with incompetence.

Anyway, your point about not stifling discussion is right on.

GDF

Amazing how many people here are willing to bash those of us that drive our big SUV's. Yes I own a Escalade ESV, GMC Suburban and a Dodge Durango. Guess what, I will never get out of my big comfy SUV's. With everyone in my family over 6' tall, I see no reason to crame them into a polluting battery powered Prius. You can drive your coffin on wheels. With the amount of Big rigs on the road, I see more accidents where the people suffer big time by trying to save a little gas driving those coffins then people who are in a big SUV. My family's quality of life is MORE IMPORTANT than your Saving Gas.

GO GM, Finally a quite quality Duramax for my next SUV. :)

Engineer-Poet

I'm over 6' tall also, and I get around fine in a 40-MPG Passat TDI.  I'll be able to afford fuel even if it reaches $10/gallon, but I doubt GDF will.  What happens to your family then?

Harvey

Rafael,

Carb & EPA haven't recognized SCR as the "only realistic" option for medium-large displacements. NOx adsorbers have been standard on Dodge's diesel pickups since January.

You refer to statements by MB and EPA. Looking on google the only MB news release is an overly-optimistic response to the EPA memo. The EPA memo was severe, indicating that a vehicle's emissions could be tested with zero urea in the tank. If a vehicle could pass at that urea level, there will be no problem. Otherwise: "If the manufacturer can prove to the EPA that their SCR system design will not run out of reducing agent in-use and thus not exceed the emission standards, we may determine that the design is acceptable and approve certification of the vehicle design."

Not exactly what I'd call acceptance of SCR. I do think they'll accept it, but they want the system to encourage the user to refill urea enough that it gets done, but they are scared of stranding someone in Death Valley in August because of an emissions system failure or because they ran out of urea. It seems to me that the EPA memo was designed to make the engine/vehicle manufacturers become the bad guys in this respect.

Green Destiny

@ Mike – unfortunately, the use of that kind of "logic" leads to a nihilistic state. Citing the “normal operating procedure”, as you say, does not amount to a hill of beans when analyzing the issue. On the other hand- the facts, and the judicious and learned use of them, is far more significant.

I’d suggest you use the latter when assessing the relative merits of “debunking”. There are significant differences, and if these differences don’t matter to you, well they should. They are the difference between right and wrong, truth and fiction, scientific study and propaganda.

These differences are largely why we are here. If it doesn’t matter to you, why are you here?

Stan Peterson

Harvey & Rafael,

I don't know about you but I could never authorize spending millions to retool a model changeover and commit to using a powertrain that has not received approvals. Time has run out as close as this month, when model changeovers start.

Without more certainty than what Harvey quotes, the comapnies can't go forward. If I did, and they said no; I would be fired, and furthermore I would agree with the firing. It could force the company to close those factories, and lay off thousands when they cannot build anyhting that can be sold off the assembly lines.

So what I said still goes. The reason the US will not have many, if any, T2B5 diesels in model year 2008, is that the committed better environment bureaucrats, those defenders of the environment...

DID NOT GET OFF THEIR A$$ES.

Heads should roll, but since they are government hacks, no one can get fired. Hmmn... ever wonder why the East Bloc environment is a disaster? Think about that, the next tiem you want some governnmental hack, to save the environment.

Patrick

GDF -

Your SUV won't save you if a "big rig" runs you down.

I see more accidents from aggressive people in SUVs trying to tailgate people and cutting in front of big rigs...while I safely drive defensively in my "coffin" which can easily out accelerate and drive circles around most SUVs on the road.

BTW- to me, my family's safety is more important than your family's quality of life (is riding in a big SUV really providing a greater quality of life than riding in a luxury sedan???).

Floatplane

Is it possible to have a civil conversation here?

Mike: I spoke to a Land Rover service manager about diesels from Land Rover North America and he said: a) He'd buy one in a heartbeat; b) their (upmarket) clients are less interested in diesel than the pickup truck crowd, it is an SUV after all; and c) (the clincher) they'd have to train all their mechanics to work on diesel engines too, and that's a cost they (LRNA head-office) didn't think was warranted.

fred@dzlsabe.com

Float-

The "clincher" has got to be one of the biggest red-herrings there is. Initially there is NO "working on diesels"...mfgs/dists would spend 5 minutes teaching a probably overworked LRover tech how to change a fuel filter and bleed the fuel system. If my experience with a diesel Saab with 85K now is any indicator, these motors dont break.

Patrick

fred,

With modern engines breakage is rare regardless of technology unless there is a fault in manufacturing which causes a recall (typically, unless you are Mitsubishi, then you just sweep it under the rug).

The only reason, in my opinion, why it seems brand X may "appear" to have deficiencies is how easy it is for one person out of 10,000 to post a visibly negative comment that spreads throughout the world (published on the internet) and few people who never have problems will bother with a rebuttal or post of their own claiming good experiences...people are quick to complain but slow to congratulate if it is "expected" for something to work like normal (doesn't it even seem odd that one would consider giving an auto maker a high five just because your engine lasted 100,000 miles without any problems in this day and age?)

ronbros

GM will also be building a 2.9L turbo diesel for passenger cars very soon, 280hp. let me see here!! way back around 1970 this save the world stuff came up, I said 50,000 yrs ago there were no humans, and 50,000yrs from today there will be no humans. Now I do believe that all this pollution problems will be worked out in time. FWIW back in the mid 90s Bill Gates made a comment that to cure auto pollution ,simply eleminate personal transportation.

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