Update on the US Senate Energy Bill, Part 4; Coal-Derived Fuels Standard Rejected

19 June 2007
 SA 1628 would have established a coal-derived fuel standard with minimum levels of coal-derived transportation fuels required annually. Click to enlarge.

In debate on the energy bill, the US Senate on Tuesday rejected an amendment (SA 1628) that had been proposed on Monday that would have established mandatory levels of coal-derived fuels in the national fuel mix starting in 2016.

The Senate also rejected an amendment that would have established a loan program for Fischer-Tropsch fuels (SA 1614) and an amendment that would have provided wider state control of the siting and operation of LNG terminals (SA 1610). The Senate did approve the “NOPEC” amendment (SA 1519).

A table of the current status of amendments follows. Amendments with numbers in bold have been accepted; amendments with number stricken through have been rejected, tabled or withdrawn.

Proposed Amendments to Senate Energy Bill (amended H.R.6)
12 June 2007
SA 1505 Inhofe and Thune Gas Price Act
• Streamlines permitting process for “domestic fuels facilities” including refineries and alt fuel plants;
• Establishes a R&D and evaluation program for Fischer-Tropsch diesel and jet fuel “as a mechanism for reducing engine exhaust emissions”
• Provide financial assistance to commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol or CTL facilities on BRAC or Indian lands, with a Federal contribution of 80-100%
• Updating the hydrocarbon reserves classification system.

• Defeated 13 June by Yea-Nay vote of 52 to 43. Record Vote Number: 210
SA 1506 Stevens and Landrieu Energy Efficient Lightbulbs
• Establishes minimum lumens per watt standards for lightbulbs of not less than 30 by calendar year 2013 and not less than 45 by calendar year 2018.
• Authorizes a 6-year, $60-million lighting technology research and development program. • SA 1508 Bayh, Brownback, Lieberman, Coleman, Salazar, Lincoln, Cantwell, Kerry, Dodd, Kohl, Reed, Collins, Nelson Oil Savings Plan and Requirements. Directs the appropriate agencies of the Federal government to develop a plan to reduce oil consumption by: • 2,500,000 barrels of oil per day on average during calendar year 2016 • 7,000,000 barrels of oil per day on average during calendar year 2026; • 10,000,000 barrels per day on average during calendar year 2031 • SA 1508 agreed to in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 63 - 30. Record Vote Number: 209. SA 1509 SA 1552 Craig Geologic Mapping Reauthorization. Provides$640 million over 10 years (fiscal years 2007 through 2016) for updating and expanding geologic mapping of the US.
SA 1510 Cochran Increased Capacity of Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Raises the SPR to 1.5 billion barrels from current 1.0 billion barrels.
SA 1511 Murkowski Study of CAFE Standards for Commercial Trucks. NHTSA to conduct study of the anticipated economic impacts and fuel saving benefits that would result from vehicle fuel economy standards for medium- and heavy duty vehicles, as specified in the main body of the bill.
SA 1512 Murkowski Broadens the potential uses of funding proposed to support renewable energy projects in Section 215 of the bill.
SA 1513 Murkowski and Stevens Adds personnel hiring language to the Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline Act.
SA 1514 Kerry and Sanders Renewable Portfolio Standard.
• 5% minimum for 2009 through 2012
• 10% minimum for 2103 through 2016
• 15% minimum for 2017 through 2019
• 20% minimum for 2020 through 2030
• SA 1515 Sanders, Clinton, Kerry, Biden, Salazar Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Worker Training. Establishes a public program  and funds other initiatives that provide training for jobs that are created through renewable energy and energy efficiency initiatives with authorized funding of $100 million per fiscal year. SA 1515 agreed to in Senate by unanimous consent. SA 1516 SA 1533 Menendez Evaluate the effect the laws (including regulations) limiting the siting of privately owned electric distribution wires on and across public rights-of-way might have on the development of combined heat and power facilities. SA 1517 Menendez Expands the definition of “State”in the Energy Conservation and Production Act (42 U.S.C. 6862) to include the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. SA 1518 Menendez Prohibits oil and gas leasing in the Mid-Atlantic and North Atlantic planning area of the Outer COntinental Shelf. SA 1519 Kohl, Specter, Leahy, Grassley, Biden, Snowe, Feingold, Schumer, Coburn, Durbin, Lieberman, Boxer, Sanders NOPEC—“No Oil Producing and Exporting Cartels Act of 2007”. Makes it illegal under the Sherman Act for foreign cartels to limit production of oil, natural gas or petroleum products, or to set or maintain prices. The Attorney General can sue. Approved by Yea-Nea vote 70-23, 19 June. SA 1520 Cardin Establishes a “National Commission on Energy Independence” for the US. SA 1521 Biden Compact Fluorescent Lighting Grant Program. Establishes a program for grants to States for the distribution of medium base compact fluorescent lamps to households in the State. SA 1524 Salazar, Grassley, Obama, Harkin, Hagel, Lugar, Feingold, Clinton, Casey, Nelson (Nebraska), Brownback, Kohl, Kerry, Johnson, Tester, Cantwell, Thune, and Cochran Sense of Congress. By 2025, a US goal of 25% of total energy consumed should be from renewable resources, while the US continues to produce safe, abundant, and affordable food, feed, and fiber. Adopted by voice vote, 15 June. SA 1525 Sanders Standards for solar hot water heaters. SA 1526 Thune Extension and modification of renewable electricity production credit. SA 1527 Thune Extension of the ethanol tariff. Extends the tariff on imported ethanol through 2010. Proposed Amendments to Senate Energy Bill (amended H.R.6) 13 June 2007 AmendmentSponsor(s)Title and/or notes SA 1528 Bingaman, Domenici • Active coordination of the different Nanoscience Centers to maintain a globally competitive posture in energy storage systems for motor transportation and electricity transmission and distribution. • Any industrial participant active in a Energy Storage Research Center is to be granted the first option to negotiate with an invention owner, at least in the field of energy storage technologies, nonexclusive licenses and royalties on terms that are reasonable, as determined by the Secretary. • SA 1529 Bingaman and Domenici Annual reports on the quantity, type, and cost of each lighting product purchased by the Federal Government. SA 1530 Pryor Promotion of energy-saving performance contracts. SA 1531 Pryor Energy and water evaluations and efficiency measures for the Federal government. SA 1532 Thune Fast-track (180-day) approval of higher blends of ethanol for use in non-flex fuel vehicles for vehicles that receive a satisfactory review based on a study (also in the bill). SA 1534 SA 1565 Nelson Biofuels Investment Trust Fund. SA 1535 Cardin, Mikulski, Doss, Kerry, Reed, Kennedy, Whitehouse Siting, construction, expansion and operation of LNG terminals. Federal government cannot approve or disapprove an application for an LNG terminal without the express concurrence of each State affected by the application. SA 1537 Bingaman, Cardin, Reid, Salazar, Snowe, Durbin Renewable Portfolio Standard. A different timeline table and different end percentage: • 2010 through 2012: 3.75% • 2013 through 2016: 7.50% • 2017 through 2019: 11.25% • 2020 through 2030: 15.0% • SA 1538 Domenici, McConnell, Craig, Bennett, Crapo, Graham, Murkowski “Clean” Portfolio Standard. Amendment to SA 1537. • 2010 through 2012: 5% • 2013 through 2016: 10% • 2017 through 2019: 15% • 2020 through 2030: 20% • Defines clean energy to include nuclear generation, carbon capture and sequestration, energy efficiency or demand response programs. Tabled by a vote of 56-39, 14 June. SA 1539 Akaka, Murkowski, Snowe Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Promotion. development of power generation from waves, tides and currents. SA 1540 Carper, Biden Study of Offshore Wind Resources. SA 1541 Smith, Cantwell, Murkowski, Wyden National Ocean Energy Research Centers. SA 1542 Brownback Agricultural Byproduct Use Exposition. A trade-show for new products, such as plastics, carpets, disposable dishes, and cosmetics, produced by the entities from agricultural byproducts. SA 1543 Bayh, Brownback, Lieberman, Coleman, Salazar GEM Flex-Fuel Vehicle. Expands definition of flex-fuel vehicle to include M85 (85% methanol, 15% gasoline). Gasoline-E85-M85 = GEM. SA 1544 Casey Energy Security and Corporate Accountability Act of 2007. Targeted at oil companies. SA 1545 Enzi Some escape clauses for the Renewable Fuels Standard. (Drives price of food up, impacts deliverability of goods, etc.) SA 1546 DeMint Limitations on legislation that would drive up average fuel price for autos. SA 1547 SA 1586 Tester, Bingaman, Reid, Murkowski, Stevens, Salazar, Akaka, Sanders, Snowe National Geothermal Initiative Act of 2007. Declares a national goal to achieve at least 15% of total electrical energy production in the United States from geothermal resources by not later than 2030. Establishes an initiative to achieve that goal.$515 million from 2008 through 2012; sums as necessary 2013 through 2030.
SA 1548 Durbin Legislative branch fleet compliance with the efficiency sections of the bill.
SA 1549 Kohl, Feingold, Burr Use of highly energy-efficient commercial water heating equipment in Federal buildings.
SA 1550 Wyden, Chambliss Weighing Intelligence for Smarter Energy Act of 2007. Director of National Intelligence to submit to Congress a report on the long-term energy security of the United States.
SA 1551 Cantwell Federal Standby Power Standard.
SA 1556 Lincoln, Domenici, Pryor, Craig, and Landrieu Clarifies regulatory scheme for the application, transportation, or storage of livestock manure or poultry litter as energy or fuel production feedstock.
SA 1557 Klobuchar, Snowe, Bingaman National Greenhouse Gas Registry. Establishes a national greenhouse gas registry.
SA 1558 Obama Health Care for Hybrids. Federal government will reimburse automakers up to 10% of the total health care costs for retired autoworkers, with the caveat that at least 50% of the reimbursement is put research, development production and worker retraining for fuel-efficient vehicles. Program ends in 2017.
SA 1559 Hagel Energy-related Regulatory Reform.
SA 1560 Hagel Tax incentives for the production and conservation of energy. Includes special measures for cellulosic ethanol plants, ethanol pipelines, and coal-to-liquids facilities.
SA 1561 Kohl Establishes a Strategic Refinery Reserve. Refinery reserve represents excess production capacity that can be used in emergencies. Reserve refineries can be new or reopened closed refineries.
Proposed Amendments to Senate Energy Bill (amended H.R.6)
14 June 2007
SA 1562 Dorgan and Craig Domestic Offshore Energy Security Act.
• Opens up travel to Cuba in connection with hydrocarbon exploration and extraction.
• Expands the area for offshore oil and gas development, moving the limit to 45 miles from the coasts of Florida.
• SA 1563 Dorgan, Craig and Kerry Support for installation of E85 pumps at retail stations.
SA 1564 Tester Energy-Efficient Schools. Establishes a program to improve the energy-efficiency of, and use of renewable energy in, school buildings.
SA 1566 Warner Authorizes governor of Virginia to petition for offshore gas exploration and extraction 50 miles off the coast.
Rejected by Yea-Nay vote of 43-44, 14 June.
SA 1567 Bingaman and Domenici Demonstration program for cost-effectiveness of advanced insulation.
SA 1568 Bingaman and Domenici Coordination of planned outages of refineries.
SA 1569 Bingaman and Domenici Amends technical criteria for proposed Clean Coal Power Initiative.
SA 1570 Inhofe, Thune and Craig Pollution audits and reports. Requires detailed bi-annual audit of any funds of more than $100,000 disbursed by National Pollution Funds Center. SA 1571 Hagel Facilitate information sharing about and accelerate development of energy-related research. SA 1572 Salazar, Bayh, Brownback, Lieberman, Coleman, Cantwell, Lincoln, Clinton, Biden, Klobuchar, Durbin Electric-Drive Transportation Program. Promotes the development of plug-in electric vehicles, deploying near-term programs to electrify the transportation sector, and including electric drive vehicles in the fleet purchasing programs. Agreed to by voice vote, 14 June. SA 1573 Bingaman, Klobuchar, Reid, Cardin, Salazar Amendment to amendment SA 1537 (Renewable Portfolio Standard). SA 1574 Lautenberg Federal Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Establishes a Federal Emissions Inventory Office within the EPA. SA 1575 Voinovich, Carper and Inhofe Amends loan guarantee authority for commercial technology. SA 1576 Inhofe Program to accelerate use of geothermal heat pumps at General Services Administration facilities. SA 1577 Martinez Establishes a number of penalties and sanctions applied to persons who contribute to Cuba’s development of the undersea hydrocarbon resources off of its north coast. SA 1578 Menendez, Lautenberg and Dole Modifies amendment SA 1566 to require consent by states within 100 miles of the coastal waters of Virginia. Withdrawn, based on rejection of SA 1566. SA 1579 Obama National Low-Carbon Fuel Standard. Establishes a full lifecycle-based low-carbon fuel standard requiring reduction in average lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy of the aggregate quantity of fuels: • 5% reduction from baseline by calendar year 2015 • 10% reduction from baseline by 2020 • Reductions post 2021 are on a five-year basis and progressively lower than, but not higher than, previous years. • SA 1580 Bayh, Brownback, Lieberman, Coleman, Salazar Adds methanol to listing of renewable fuels. SA 1581 SA 1607 Gregg, Feinstein, Sununu, Kyl, Ensign Elimination of ethanol tariff. SA 1582 Martinez Encourages biofuel blenders to share credits with pipeline and common storage facilities. SA 1583 Martinez Accelerates waiver procedure for fuel blends. SA 1584 Martinez Categorization of certain blends of gasoline of not more than 3.7% oxygen, by weight, such that the gasoline is equivalent to E-10 gasoline. SA 1585 Lautenberg and Menendez State liability for costs incurred by other States as a result of oil or natural gas spill from offshore production. SA 1587 Brown Renewable Energy Innovation Manufacturing Partnership Program. Makes grants to eligible entities for use in carrying out research, development, and demonstration relating to the manufacturing of renewable energy technologies. SA 1588 Brown Development of a carbon labelling system for goods sold in the US. SA 1589 Brown Directs DOE to give financial assistance preference to higher-education for-profit partnerships involved in the development of liquid crystal, photovoltaic, and wind technologies. SA 1590 Brown Adds “institutions of higher education, and nonprofit hospitals” to local government buildings for receiving assistance. SA 1591 Brown Preference given to existing and former DOE facilities and sites for the conduct of projects and activities. SA 1592 Brown Emissions standards for watercraft and small spark-ignition engines. SA 1593 Isakson Amendment to alternative average fuel economy standard for low-volume manufacturers and new entrants. SA 1594 Durbin Study of establishment of a refined petroleum product reserve. SA 1595 Kohl Set asides for auto- and component-makers employing less than 500 people. SA 1596 Kohl Study of adequacy of refining infrastructure. SA 1597 Inouye and Dorgan Study of the adequacy of transportation of domestically-produced renewable fuel by railroads and other means of transportation. SA 1598 Inhofe Adds Gas-to-Liquids and Coal-to-Liquids to renewable fuels standard. SA 1599 Inhofe Study on modernization of the hydrocarbon reserves disclosures classification system of the Commission to reflect advances in reserves recovery from nontraditional sources (such as deep water, oil shale, tar sands, and renewable reserves for cellulosic biofuels feedstocks). SA 1600 Inhofe Evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch Transportation Fuels. Originally part of SA 1505, which was rejected. • Research and demonstration program to evaluate the air quality benefits of ultra-clean Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuel, including diesel and jet fuel; • Evaluate the use of Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuel as a mechanism for reducing engine exhaust emissions; • Submit to Congress recommendations on the most effective uses and associated benefits of those fuels with respect to reducing public exposure to exhaust emissions. • SA 1601 Inhofe Enables sale of additional credits by the Federal government to refineries, blenders, and importers at a price of$1.00 per gallon of gasoline equivalent to meet obligations under the renewable fuels standard.
SA 1602 Inhofe Transitional assistance for farmers who plant dedicated energy crops for a local cellulosic ethanol facility.
SA 1603 Brown Amends performance goals for Federal government:
• 20% reduction in petroleum use by 2015 (2005 baseline)
• 10% per year increase in use of alternative fuels by 2015 (2005 baseline)
• Fleet shall be 15% hybrid or flex-fuel by 2015 and 20% by 2020
• SA 1604 Schumer Updates state building energy efficiency codes and standards.
SA 1605 Schumer State requirements for energy efficiency.
SA 1606 Schumer In the absence of Federal determination or a standard for energy-efficiency of an appliance, no State standard to be pre-empted.
SA 1608 Corker Expands definition of clean fuel:
• not derived from crude oil
• as compared to conventional gasoline, lifecycle emission reductions of 2 or more air pollutants
• a 20% reduction in lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions compared to conventional gasoline
• SA 1609 Thune Report on electric transmission corridors.
Proposed Amendments to Senate Energy Bill (amended H.R.6)
15 June 2007
SA 1610 Cardin, Mikulski, Dodd, Kerry, Reid, Kennedy, Whitehouse, Snowe Expands definition of “Affected State” with respect to the siting, construction, expansion and operation of a liquefied natural gas terminal.
Rejected by Yea-Nea vote 37-56, 19 June.
SA 1611 Coleman Broadens requirements for cellulosic ethanol facilities receiving guarantees and gives priority to projects to be carried out in communities with a population of 25,000 or less residents.
SA 1612 Coleman Requires report on effectiveness and practicability of national use of higher ethanol blend (such as E-15 or E-20) to achieve the most efficient expansion of ethanol use.
SA 1613 Coleman Renewable Fuel Standard.  Sets expanded targets for renewable fuel standard along with more aggressive component requirement for advanced biofuels as part of that RFS.
• 2008: 8.5 billion gallons
• 2009: 10.5 billion gallons
• 2010: 12.0 billion gallons
• 2011: 12.6 billion gallons
• 2012: 14.2 billion gallons
• 2013: 15.8 billion gallons
• 2014: 18.4 billion gallons
• 2015: 23.0 billion gallons
• 2016: 26.0 billion gallons
• 2017: 29.0 billion gallons
• 2018: 32.0 billion gallons
• 2019: 35.0 billion gallons
• 2020: 38.0 billion gallons
• 2021: 41.0 billion gallons
• 2022: 44.0 billion gallons
• The advanced biofuel components required by the amendment are:
• 2012: 1.0 billion gallons
• 2013: 2.0 billion gallons
• 2014: 4.0 billion gallons
• 2015: 8.0 billion gallons
• 2016: 11.0 billion gallons
• 2017: 14.0 billion gallons
• 2018: 17.0 billion gallons
• 2019: 20.0 billion gallons
• 2020: 23.0 billion gallons
• 2021: 27.0 billion gallons
• 2022: 30.0 billion gallons
• SA 1614 Tester, Byrd, Rockefeller, Salazar and Bingaman Grant and Loan Program for Lower-GHG Coal Projects.
• Projects must deliver annual lifecycle GHG at least 20% lower than conventional baseline emissions
• At least 75% of the CO2 that otherwise would be released must the captured and stored
• Total reduction in carbon emissions not less than 75%
• $20 million maximum grant per project for up to 10 projects ($200 million total)
• $10 billion loan program • Rejected by Yea-Nea vote 33-61, 19 June. SA 1615 Collins, Cantwell, Snowe, Murray Abrupt Climate Change Research Program. Establishes an office within NOAA to carry out a program of scientific research on abrupt climate change. SA 1616 Durbin and Carper Requires State and metropolitan planning organization to publish a report describing use of Federal funds to reduce gasoline demand, lower household transportation expenditures, and increase mass transit. SA 1617 Tester Regulatory plan for the long-term geologic storage of carbon dioxide. Requires the President acting through the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality to develop a plan that includes elements such as performance standards; minimum sequestration times without leakage; maximum acceptable leakage; and certification standards. SA 1618 Inhofe Allows 100% tax deduction of expenditures for qualified 3D seismic data. SA 1619 Inhofe Eliminates taxable income limit on percentage depletion for oil and natural gas produced from marginal properties. SA 1620 Inhofe Increases tax exemptions for independent producers and royalty owners. SA 1621 Inhofe Increases phaseout threshold credit for producing oil and gas from marginal wells. SA 1622 Inhofe Expands the definition of “small refiner” from 75,000 to 100,000 barrels per day. Proposed Amendments to Senate Energy Bill (amended H.R.6) 18 June 2007 AmendmentSponsor(s)Title and/or notes SA 1623 Carper A schedule for the incorporation of fuel-efficient lean burn, hybrid or fuel-cell vehicles into the federal fleet. • 5% of new purchases in 2009 and 2010 • 10% in 2011 and 2012 • 15% per year after 2012 • SA 1624 Dole and Carper Specific inclusion of “flow batteries”. (Flow batteries are electrochemical energy storage devices, but unlike a conventional battery, the reaction occurs between two electrolytes rather than between an electrolyte and an electrode. The electrolytes are stored externally to the battery and circulated through the cell stack as needed.) SA 1625 Dole Report on oil and gas operations in Sudan with respect to which sanctions are applicable. SA 1626 Dole Replaces “oil consumption” with “reliance on foreign oil” in specification of reduction targets. SA 1627 Kohl and Burr Definition of highly efficient commercial water heaters. SA 1628 Bunning, Domenici, Enzi, Craig and Martinez Clean Coal-Derived Fuels for Energy Security Act of 2007. Defines mandatory levels of coal-derived fuels (comparable to renewable fuels standard, but for CTL). • 2016: 0.75 billion gallons • 2017: 1.5 billion gallons • 2018: 2.25 billion gallons • 2019: 3.75 billion gallons • 2020: 4.5 billion gallons • 2021: 5.25 billion gallons • 2022: 6.0 billion gallons • 2023 and beyond: maintains the 2022 ratio of 6 billion gallons to total fuel • Rejected by Yea-Nea vote 39-55, 19 June. SA 1629 Kyl Study of the feasibility and impact of renewable fuel and advanced biofuel requirements. SA 1630 Casey Modifications to weatherization assistance for low-income persons. SA 1631 McCaskill Renewable fuel pumps at Federal fleet refueling centers. SA 1632 Feingold State energy conservation plans. SA 1633 Feingold Modifications to biofuels incentives. SA 1634 Feingold Protection for small business. SA 1636 Menendez Study of the effect of private wire laws on the development of combined heat and power facilities. SA 1637 Landrieu Extension and modification of credit for new energy efficient homes. SA 1638 Feinstein and Bennett Schedule for energy management requirements for Federal buildings. SA 1639 Bingaman Modifications to parameters for carbon capture and sequestration. SA 1640 Graham and Dorgan Tax credits for hydrogen installation, infrastructure and fuel costs. SA 1641 Coleman Expansion of definition of processing for biofuels to include harvest and storage. SA 1642 Cantwell Modifications to definition of biomass harvesting. SA 1643 Cantwell Study of the marginal production cost of requiring use of flexible fuel mixtures in vehicles. SA 1644 Cantwell Study of smart grid system. SA 1645 Cantwell Limitation on radio frequency interference levels in the 902-928 MHz band, used by many in oil and gas exploration. SA 1646 Cantwell Requires on-board fuel economy indicators and devices beginning in model year 2012. SA 1647 Clinton, Sanders, Leahy, and Cantwell Net metering and interconnection standards. SA 1648 Wyden, Harkin, Landrieu, Salazar Assessment of carbon sequestration and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. SA 1649 Reed Energy efficiency residential guarantees. SA 1650 Reed Public housing capital fund. SA 1651 McCaskill Retail fuel fairness. Requires motor fuel dispensers that are newly installed or upgraded at any retail fuel establishment in the United States to be equipped with automatic temperature compensation equipment to ensure that any volume of gasoline or diesel fuel measured by the dispenser for retail sale is equal to the volume that such quantity of fuel would equal at the time of such sale if the temperature of the fuel was 60 degrees Fahrenheit. SA 1652 Hagel and Menendez A program for traffic signal coordination. SA 1653 Hagel Study of industrial applications of carbon dioxide. SA 1654 Hagel Loan Program for Coal-to-Liquid and Gas-to-Liquid Technologies. CTL or GTL facilities that produce at least 150 million gallons of liquid transportation fuel per year to be eligible for loan guarantees of up to 50% of the project cost of the facility that is the subject of the guarantee, as estimated at the time at which the guarantee is issued; or$100 million.
SA 1655 Hagel Study of industrial applications of carbon dioxide.

You know, after all this wrangling, I don't see a single amendment for a generalized carbon tax.

Didn't I read on GCC that China was backing off its Bergius type CTL because of environmental concerns? The BBC website says China has now overtaken the US for emissions. Another recent newsitem was that coal fired electricity for PHEVs rather than CTL saved about 5% in GHGs.

If there was a binding carbon cap then a litre of CTL would 'take out' 2.3 litres of petroleum based fuel. So when legislators fly around the countryside looking for an audience that could be less heating oil for pensioners.

The most recent episode of Emperor Fossil Theater

Meanwhile, The Independent reports that the Earth today stands in imminent peril and nothing short of a planetary rescue will save it from the environmental cataclysm of dangerous climate change. Those are not the words of eco-warriors but the considered opinion of a group of eminent scientists writing in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

Chuck Hagel seems to be stuck on a study of industrial applications for CO2, since he introduced two separate amendments with the exact same wording. Would carbonation of soda qualify?

NOPE C?? The Attorney General sues foreign oil for conducting BAU?

Y'know, Debeers has had a pretty tidy diamond monopoly for half a century or more, and hasn't had much trouble selling their products in the US via middlemen. Given that the world price for oil is a world price, about the only thing such a measure as NOPEC could do is harangue the Saudis into increasing production.

Where's the floor on crude prices so OPEC can't drop prices in order to kill competitors like they did back in the 1970s? Crude should be taxed if it drops below $50.00/barrel up to the$50.00/barrel price with the tax revenue earmarked for V2G PHEV development.

NOPEC 1519??? Only in the US would they consider litigating against an entire group of foreign nations. Good for a laugh.

Congress now has a 14% approval rating.(!!) Bush's approval might be sub-freezing, but Congress' are positively arctic. This is a record low.

When I read proposed legislation like this, the reasons are quite clear. It's worse than Dibbler's sausages-inna-bun.

Just wait until big oil sees the final bills and goes after their payback for the campaign contibutions to both parties. It will more of the same - pork laden bills with pet projects by ranking members that ultimatly does little to get us out of the middle east.
Hello - remember nothing really changes in DC. Until there is REAL campaign reform its business as ussual.
The only hope is the marketplace - real demand for a electric car that can recharge in an hour(lithium ion nano tube batteries) and move 4 humans comfortably and doesn't cost over 20k - its coming!
Thats the hope I have - Not from a bunch of lawyers in DC.

The comments to this entry are closed.