PG&E, CleanAir Marine Power (CAMP) and Wittmar Engineering recently demonstrated cold ironing the first ship—APL’s 863-foot container ship the APL China—with a mobile, LNG-fueled shore-side electrical generator.
The APL China was powered at berth at the Port of Oakland by CAMP’s Dual Frequency Multi Voltage (DFMV) generator. PG&E provided the LNG (liquefied natural gas) and LNG equipment and technical expertise.
CleanAir Marine Power is a newly formed subsidiary resulting from the merger of CleanAir Logix (CAL) and Wittmar Engineering & Construction, Inc. Wittmar developed the modular DFMV generator in 2001.
Cold ironing is a process in which ships shut off their diesel-powered engines and use shore-based power for their electrical needs, preventing and/or significantly reducing harmful emissions during each port visit. At-berth ship emissions make up approximately 28% of all port emissions, according to Brad Whitcomb, vice president of customer products and services for PG&E.
The DFMV generator utilizes a trubocharged natural gas or LPG engine to generate either 50Hz or 60Hz and 380 volts to 480 volts so that it can be utilized with any ship that may call on a port complex.
The generator is mobile; positioning on the dock is not fixed, thereby accommodating ships of any length or configuration. Mobile LNG cold ironing offers quick connection to a significantly cleaner fuel source than marine diesel and precludes the need for installation of permanent infrastructure.
During the July 18, 2007 demonstration at the Port of Oakland, the APL China was cold ironed for eight hours. Natural gas provides significant emissions benefits and emits zero diesel particulate matter.
|Emissions Comparison, LNG Cold Ironing of APL China|
|Pollutant||On-board diesel power|
(0.5% sulfur marine diesel)
|LNG cold-ironing||% reduction|
|NOx||1,059 lbs||56 lbs||94.71%|
|CO||79 lbs||34 lbs||56.96%|
|PM10||15 lbs||.02 lbs||99.93%|
|CO2||42,651 lbs||24,430 lbs||42.72%|
Based on the success of the demonstration, the Port of Oakland is considering a plan that would use Wittmar LNG generators to cold iron every ship entering its port by 2010, 10 years in advance of CARB’s proposed regulations. In 2006, the Port of Oakland received 1,940 ship calls with an average stay of 18 hours.
An additional LNG cold ironing test is planned to take place at the Port of Richmond later this year.
The demonstration at the Port of Oakland—the-fourth busiest container port in the United States—was part of the ongoing development of technologies to meet emissions reduction targets set by the California Air Resources Board (CARB).