Isuzu and Toyota to Develop 1.6L Diesel for European Market
23 August 2007
The first jointly developed engine resulting from the collaboration between Isuzu Motors Limited and Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) will be a 1.6-liter diesel with an aluminum cylinder block for use in Toyota vehicles sold in the European market.
Both companies will maximize use of their technological capabilities and expertise to develop and produce an engine with the world’s highest performance, according to a statement from Toyota.
Isuzu and TMC will begin discussions on the details of operations concerning development, production and supply of the diesel engine, but in principle, Isuzu will play the leading role. Production is scheduled to begin around 2012.
This marks the first product agreement following the signing of a memorandum of understanding last November for the two companies to begin studying the synergic effects of business collaboration to mutually utilize their management resources in the fields of R&D and production, and to supplement each other’s technological development. Toyota also took a 5.9% stake in Isuzu at the time. (Earlier post.)
Since then, the two companies have conducted investigations with the aim of reaching agreement on the specific details of the business collaboration.
The two companies intend to hold continuing talks over the creation of a comprehensive cooperative framework that will contribute to their mutual competitiveness and development over the long term.
This is exciting news! Toyota already produces a world-class 1.4 turbodiesel for the European market Yaris and Corolla.
However, claiming that this will be "an engine with the world's highest performance..." In terms of power and efficiency I surmise?
I hope this isn't a case of "lost in translation."
Any all-aluminum diesel (light weight) that can outperform Toyota's current world-class 1.4 diesel in terms of power, efficiency, and emissions will be something worth waiting for.
Bravo Toyota-Isuzu! Now if you could find it in your hearts to bring this new powerplant to the US market! I'll stand in line for a 60mpg biodiesel Corolla.
Just imagine if they married this new engine with their current Hybrid drive! +80mpg Prius with no expensive Li-ion batteries nor plug-in capability required. "Diesel-Hybrid"- kind of has a nice ring to it...
Posted by: DieselHybrid | 23 August 2007 at 09:18 AM
A diesel hybrid would only get about 15-20% better real world mileage than a similar gasoline hybrid, and maybe 47mpg new EPA... The efficiency advantage throttled diesels have over throttled gassers in traditional vehicles does not carry over to hybrids like the Prius that run practically at WOT most of the time. Peak BTE between small SI and CI engines is more or less the same AFAIK. The way diesel management is these days, the best bets for outstanding efficiency involves what VW has done w/ the 3L Lupo, 1L prototype, or even the 1.4L TDI powered Lupo with a manual trans.
Posted by: yesplease | 23 August 2007 at 09:32 AM
Good news indeed!
Their current 1.4 is rated 90hp (150lb ft) which is more than enough for the Yaris / Auris / Corolla etc. when the competetion, mainly the VW 1.4 TD unit offers 75hp in the Polo / Fabia / Ibiza / Roomster etc.
Also this Aluminium unit is rated approx 63mpg imperial.
I expect the new 1.6 will be around 130bhp with the same fuel efficiency. The ford unit that Volvo just re-tuned is a 1.6 with 110hp and gets about 62mpg. But this unit is about 6 years old now and I think Bosch have increased the injection pressures to around 2000bar from 1600bar in 2001, with 5 injections per cycle as per the Lexus IS220d / Avensis 2.2 D4D unit.
What do you think? bear in mind BMW have no problems getting 200hp from their 2.0D, god know what torque figures?
Posted by: gaz | 23 August 2007 at 10:05 AM
yesplease, VW's standard 1.9 TDi is around 43% efficiency and they claimed recently that the 1.2L TDi engine from the 3L peaked at just over 50% efficiency.
Compare that to the ~25-30% of a small SI engine, or 36% peak of the Prius 13:1 expansion engine.
Posted by: clett | 23 August 2007 at 10:17 AM
@ Yesplease -
in mixed driving, a very mild diesel hybrid - the only type that would be affordable - may be a few % better than a full-hybrid with conventional PFI gasoline engine. 15-20% better is rather optimistic.
However, don't compare MPG, i.e. volumetric consumption, between fuels! Instead, look at fuel *mass* consumption, CO2 emissions or fuel cost per mile.
If you drive mostly on the freeway, the diesel will be better. If you drive mostly in the city, the full hybrid will be better. One size does not fit all.
Posted by: Rafael Seidl | 23 August 2007 at 10:53 AM
80mpg should be achievable with a diesel hybrid. As you mentioned, the 3L Lupo nearly achieved this benchmark mielage figure without the benefit of hybrid assist (not to mention more frontal area and a less aerodynamic planform than the Prius Cd of 0.26)
Posted by: DieselHybrid | 23 August 2007 at 11:03 AM
Minimum fuel consumption for the 1NZ-FXE is roughly 230g/kWh and for the 1.9L TDI roughly 200g/kWh, which corresponds to roughly 40% and 41% BTE if my arithmetic is correct. At peak efficiency, which is where a hybrid engine should be, there is very little difference between CI and SI engines. If you have a BSFC map of the 3L Lupo I'd love to see it but in it's absence it's very likely that it's BTE is in the low forties imo, and definitely unproven that it's breaking into the fifties. That sounds more like the peak efficiency of heavy duty units. Regardless of whether or not the 3L's drag coefficient is a couple points higher than that of the Prius, it's reference area and weight are significantly smaller, as well as having less in the way of accessories like the AirCon, which is why it gets much better mileage than the Prius.
If anyone would like to continue this debate that's great, but please bring something concrete, from an SAE paper or similar source. Thanks.
I used the ~15-20% real world wrt the EPA adjusting for the difference in diesel's energy content when publishing mileage figures. Later I said it would probably get about 47mpg EPA compared to the 45mpg (IIRC) the Prius gets. Assuming an identical model with different engine setups of course. If you'll go over my post again the rest would be addressed similarly. ;)
Posted by: yesplease | 23 August 2007 at 11:45 AM
yesplease -- you made the claims, you bring the papers. But a few hints: if you dig around Toyota's website enough, you'll find they claim 37% peak efficiency for the Prius, 43% for the D4D, 32% for their Otto engines (yes I realize Toyota of Japan is not SAE). ORNL found that the Prius number is realistic, but it does not spend all of its time WOT. Minimum efficiency they measured was 25%, peak 36.5%. In a separate study, EPA found that the TDI peaked at bit over 41%. I suspect that the main difference between EPA's finding and Toyota's claim -- less than 2% points -- is fuel, since EPA was working with craptastic US D2 (CN 40), while the D4D claim was with probably Japanese (possibly EU) diesel. The 50% VW claimed in the 1.2 was with and IIRC optimized for high cetane GTL, in the real world it would likely drop to low 40s.
Posted by: cidi | 23 August 2007 at 02:27 PM
Here's a link to the *TDI BSFC map
And the Prius BSFC map
If you take into account the energy content of diesel at **~12-13% compared the difference in peak fuel used the difference in efficiency comes out to a little over 1% IIRC. Now that I've provided my sources via SAE papers I'd love for you to provide yours cidi! :)
*If you want the specific SAE paper I can dig around on my computer and find it.
**It actually varies depending on season/location/blend by as much as 4% iirc.
Posted by: yesplease | 23 August 2007 at 03:53 PM
Also, I think 37% eff for the Prius included the car's drivetrain losses while the two BSFC maps from the papers were done using the same testing method, however as always I may be mistaken. Do you have a source for the 1.2? I'd love to see it!
Posted by: yesplease | 23 August 2007 at 03:56 PM
Oh, and I just realized the peak BTE isn't exactly what would should be addressed since the engine will need to operate over a fairly wide range of power, even if the battery pack allows it to run at higher load less than at lower load more. So I'm guessing that both engines would be neck and neck more or less, with a slight advantage going to the 1NZ? The 25% you saw does not occur much if at all over the EPA cycles AFAIK since it's only at a steady state power level and a speed of 10 and 20mph over about a seventh of a mile. I believe it was done to generate thorough emissions maps as well. Which I guess goes back to what I said before about it...
Not that I'm rehashing what I already said or anything. :o
Posted by: yesplease | 23 August 2007 at 04:22 PM
Awesome news! The competition better get ready, as this truly will be an incredible engine.
Posted by: toyo | 24 August 2007 at 12:55 AM
Maybe for Europe, but the U.S. is all about CAFE.
I don't see how any manufacturer will meet the proposed future CAFE standards currently under discussion without some significant diesel options on everything from small cars through full-sized SUVs.
>Instead, look at fuel *mass* consumption, CO2 emissions or fuel cost per mile.
Posted by: | 24 August 2007 at 12:20 PM
Messed up on the Prius test -- it was Argonne, not Oak Ridge
TDI test Toyota's and VW's claims were mfr claims so I didn't bother saving the URLs.
Anyway, as Rafael points out, each has advantages in different regimes. Clearly a diesel hybrid would combine the best of both, and is technologically quite feasible. The one and only question is cost.
Posted by: cidi | 24 August 2007 at 02:57 PM
Yup, same BSFC graph mas o menos w/ the pdf from the osti site. Anyway, the only advantage a diesel hybrid would have would be more BTU for less cash based on US diesel prices, and the ability to run different biofuels. Over the usable power range both CI and SI engines are more or less equivalent in terms of BTE. Since diesel engines tend to cost significantly more than gasoline engines, and aside from a microhybrid that would allow for stuff like AC use when the engine is off and smart alternator charging, there's no significant difference in the efficiency of a full diesel or gasoline hybrid. I see no reason why a company would go with one. Other than a marketing gimmick, or because of biofuel compatibility.
Posted by: yesplease | 24 August 2007 at 04:20 PM
Anyway, to go back to my original point. There's no need for full diesel hybrids. We won't see some magical increase in mileage, aside from the caloric difference between the fuels, just because we have a diesel hybrid instead of a gasoline hybrid in the same platform.
Posted by: yesplease | 24 August 2007 at 04:22 PM
Its not only the motor which counts its also the overall design of the car - and that is why until today it is the aboutequal size Audi A2 1.2 from the Year 2000 is the worldwide Recordholder in fuel consumption and not the Prius2 . And the Audi does it without Hybrid . ( Audi CO2 81 G / Km Prius2 104 G / KM )
Posted by: C. Spangenberg | 24 August 2007 at 11:35 PM
Audi A2 1.2 from the Year 2000 is the worldwide Recordholder in fuel consumption
The "worldwide recordholder"? How gives out this award? By what standard is it given?
A2 1.2 TDI - 2.99 L/100km = 78.7 mpg (EU tests)
Honda Insight - 36.0 km/L = 84.7 mpg (Japan tests)
Nissan Altra EV - 29c/26h kWh/100 miles = 123 mpg (US tests)
Twike - 4 to 8 kWh/100 miles - 418 to 835 MPG (Europe)
Posted by: jack | 25 August 2007 at 06:37 AM
Try fitting 4 adults and their luggage in a Honda Insight!
My A2 managed 66mpg (imperial) at average 91 mph on autobahn with full load. Also carried full size washing machine in the back. Normal driving she gets 103 mpg (imperial) over 28 mile rush hour commute.
One chap over the pond has converted his Insight to ethanol for rally car use - but ethanol not a eco friendly as bio diesel per hectare in the car or per hectare of land use.
Posted by: | 28 August 2007 at 11:14 AM
Try fitting 4 adults and their luggage in a Honda Insight!
They fit fine in a Nissan Altra. Digression.
Care to amend your claim that the Audi is the "worldwide Recordholder in fuel consumption"?
Posted by: jack | 28 August 2007 at 12:35 PM
At 230 g/kw-hr for the Prius on 46.9 MJ/kg gasoline
and 200 g/kw-hr for the TDI on 45.8 MJ/kg diesel
BTEs are 39.3% for the TDI and 33.4% for the Prius.
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