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Fiat Panda Aria Concept Car Features Downsized Engine, Hydrogen-CNG Blend Fuel and Stop-Start System

070903_f_panda_aria_01_800
Panda Aria concept.

Fiat will introduce its Panda Aria concept car at the Frankfurt Motor show later this month.

The concept car combines a new 0.9-liter twin-cylinder 80 bhp turbo engine from the new Small Gasoline Engine (SGE) family with a dual-fuel gasoline-CNG system designed to operate with a 70:30 mixture of methane and hydrogen. The twin-cylinder engine features Multiair electronic inlet valve control and is equipped with a stop-start device and coupled with the MTA (Manual Transmission Automated) gearbox. CO2 emissions are an estimated 69 g/km.

Sge
The Small Gasoline Engine (SGE).

The basic new SGE 2-cylinder Multiair turbocharged engine delivers a 20% improvement in fuel economy compared to the larger, 1.2-liter naturally aspirated engine on A-segment vehicles. In addition to advantages in terms of consumption, the twin-cylinder engine also results in a 20% reduction in weight and 25% in volume inside the engine bay compared to a 4-cylinder engine with the same power output.

The SGE engine family adopts a crankshaft balancing system that significantly reduces vibration and noise levels compared to other two and three cylinder engines.

The Multiair system controls the air flow without a throttle valve, and therefore with a greater degree of flexibility than mechanical timing systems. The electro-hydraulic valve activation technology is based on the insertion, between the camshaft and the engine inlet valve, of an amount of oil (high pressure chamber) that can be varied by a valve, which in turn is controlled by a specific electronic control unit.

Multiair
The Multiair electro-hydraulic actuation system (shown for a four-cylinder engine). Click to enlarge.

This allows the raising profile of the valve to be modified in response to the request for air from the engine and to the running speed. Different strategies can be employed (Early inlet valve closing – EIVC; Late inlet valve opening – LIVO; or Multi-Lift) to optimize combustion efficiency, with benefits in terms of power output, torque, consumption and emissions.

Air pressure upstream of the valves is always constant. This characteristic, combined with the high system activation dynamics (from partial load to full load in one engine cycle) allows the torque response of the engine to be increased without any delay, on both an aspirated and a turbocharged engine, increasing the ‘fun to drive’ factor.

On the Panda Aria the new twin-cylinder engine is combined with a dual fuel management system, with gasoline and a mixture of methane (70%) and hydrogen (30%); this solution also helps to reduce polluting emissions by guaranteeing more efficient, complete combustion.

The hydrogen-natural gas blend also makes it possible to increase the engine’s thermodynamic efficiency and to achieve combustion stability values that are better than those possible with methane alone, under certain operating conditions.

The stop-start system turns the engine off temporarily when the engine is idling and the vehicle is stationary, with fuel savings of up to 10% in the urban cycle. The instant the brake pedal is released or a gear is engaged, the system immediately re-starts the engine.

The stop-start system combined with the MTA gearbox ensures optimal management of gear changes and mechanical efficiency. The automated transmission lays the foundations of the management of the on/off status of the engine. By controlling the clutch, the system allows the internal combustion engine to be cut off from the transmission whenever traction is not needed and the engine can be turned off.

The interior of the Panda Aria is upholstered with natural fibers (cotton and linen), woven coconut fibre and biodegradable elements, while the exterior paneling is made of semi-transparent eco-resin and the structure is treated with opaque ‘totouch’ paint.

The car is fitted with experimental Pirelli tires with new compounds and new AOF (Aromatic Oil Free) textile weaves which guarantee limited drag but do not detract from dynamic safety performance (stopping distances and good handling on wet and dry roads).

A telematics system, based on the Blue&Me architecture, is wired to adapt to new infomobility services. It also incorporates original software which allows the consumption and emissions of each trip to be recorded on a USB pen drive, through the USB port of the Blue&Me system, so that the customer’s driving style can later be analyzed on a computer.

Resources:

Comments

Max Reid

Wonderful, they should sell it in countries like Argentina, Pakistan, Brazil, Italy which leads in CNG vehicles, with these type of vehicles Hydrogen fuel will also catch up.

Rafael Seidl

105hp out of 900cc is 118hp/L, which is quite good for a turbocharged parallel twin. The only other one I know of for automotive applications (cp. the transparent Rinspeed Exesis concept) is the Weber 750 MPE turbo rated at 81hp (111hp/L). Two-cylinder four-stroke engines are harder to boost than those with higher cylinder counts.

The Multi-Air system is quite ingenious as well. It's quite common these days to use hydraulic elements that automatically compensate for manufacturing tolerances plus wear-and-tear effects on the valve clearance. The objective is to keep the tappet or finger-follower pressed against the cam at all times, even when revving high.

Some systems go one step further and "abuse" these hydraulic compensation elements to achieve complete valve deactivation (for displacement-on-demand) or, a second opening of the exhaust valves (part of AVL's HCCI control strategy for SI engines).

This goes one step further still, but is applied only to the inlet valves. Total valve lift is the superposition of the tappet depression by the cam and, the height of the oil column in the compensation element. Depending on precisely when and precisely how much oil is injected into the elements, you can vary both valve timing and valve lift continuously. The key requirement here, in case you missed it, is very high precision.

The net effect is roughly comparable to BMW's purely mechanical Valvetronic system, which also does away the inefficient butterfly valve in the intake manifold by implementing part-load throttling via precise control of intake valve lift.

Note that each engine cylinder features a cam-driven piston for pressurizing the oil and an electromagentically controlled distibutor valve. The portion of the system that controls bleeding the oil back out of the compensation elements is not shown.

Completely camless electrohydraulic valve actuation has been around for a while, but cost considerations limited its application to R&D engines. One of the problems is that the energy used to open the valves cannot be recuperated when the valve closes. This is where this new Multi-Air system may be at an advantage, because most of the energy required for valve actuation is delivered by the camshaft and recuperated to it on the upstroke. The upshot is that the mass flow of pressurized oil through the compensation elements is much smaller than for a full camless system.

Rafael Seidl

Correction: Fiat apparently uses the Multi-Air system to achieve discrete steps in valve lift, rather than fully continuous control. This is not an inherent limitation, as the volume of oil admitted is a function of valve opening duration and the back pressure from the valve spring. Perhaps discrete steps simply proved easier to control robustly than a fully variable strategy.

This means that Fiat's Multi-Air system works more like Honda's Valvetec, Porsche's VarioCam and the one in Volvo's new inline six for transverse installation. All of these do still require a butterfly valve in the intake manifold to fine-tune engine throttling. They also require separate cam phasing elements, which Fiat does not.

Note, however, that the butterfly valve can be kept mostly open at all times. Fluid dynamic losses across it are high only when it's mostly closed, as it needs to be in low part load/idling with a conventional fixed-lift valvetrain.

Therefore, any system with discrete intake lift profiles achieves perhaps 80% of the fuel economy benefit of a fully variable one, at perhaps 50% of the cost. It also takes less time to switch between discrete lift modes, delivering noticeably instant power boost when revving up.

andrichrose

there is a perfectly enginered BEV version of this car on sale ( descretly)
here in northern Italy and Switzerland , Fiat do not want anyone to know of
this version which is in small scale production with a number of private
companies , but word has it , it could be built in full scale production
quantities for around 15000 euro !

conspiracy against the introdution of electric cars for the masses , nah
I must be dreaming!

DS

Oh Wonderful!
I hear there'll be a Hydrogen filling station coming soon to Lakehurst NJ.

Rafael Seidl

@ DS -

they have some left over from the Hindenburg?

On a serious note, hythane is nice and all but any time hydrogen comes into contact with metal you have to worry about hydrogen embrittling. That means using austenitic steals, special elastomers etc. not just in the vehicle but also for storage tanks, refuelling equipment etc.

Regular CNG works pretty well as it is, I see no reason for making life unnecessarily complicated. Italy has some domestic NG, the largest CNG fleet in Europe and an established distribution infrastructure.

The nice thing about using a two-cylinder engine is that you have more leeway to install heavy CNG tanks. One issue with subcompacts like the Panda is usually they're FWD, with the engine up front and the fuel tank in the back. Less weight up front and more in the back will affect weight distribution, possibly interfering with traction in the wet and when cornering.

I'm waiting for someone to figure out a way of incorporating a pressurized gas tank into the load-bearing structure of the vehicle (e.g. in the tunnel under the IP and between the front seats) and get the authorities to sign off on it.

itsme

"
On a serious note, hythane is nice and all but any time hydrogen comes into contact with metal you have to worry about hydrogen embrittling. That means using austenitic steals, special elastomers etc. not just in the vehicle but also for storage tanks, refuelling equipment etc
"

remember that "Stadtgas" was 50% of hydrogen
so they handled mixtures up to 50% of hydrogen already 100 years ago very well

Roger Pham

Thanks, Rafael, for the insightful explanation of this fascinating cam-powered electro-hydraulic valve mechanism.

I wonder about the vibration characteristic of a two cylinder inline engine and how can it be balanced satisfactorily to be used in a car? In a motorcycle, vibration (and noise) is not a big turnoff for an enthusiast addicted to power and speed...but in a passenger car...perhaps more finess is demanded?

Anyway, this is an ingenous execution of the most efficient and cost-effective fuel-miser that most Green Car enthusiasts would embrace.

Rafael Seidl

@itsme -

you gloss over the fact that there were numerous accidents involving synthesis gas, as it is known today. Many of these were due to burst pipes that had been embrittled by the hydrogen and/or rusted through. If the leak failed to ignite, the carbon monoxide poisoned anyone near it.

At the time, the embrittling mechanism was not understood and natural gas not yet available. Synthesis gas was simply a way of shipping partially burnt coal to cut down on particulate emissions.

Rafael Seidl

@ Roger -

two-cylinder engines do indeed pose two serious NVH issues:

1. The first is torsional vibrations of the crankshaft, which are transmitted to the wheels via the driveline and set up longitudinal vibrations of the whole vehicle. With just two power strokes per 720 degrees crankshaft having to deliver all of the torque, the problem is especially acute for boosted engines.

It is possible to isolate these crankshaft vibrations from the rest of the driveline with the help of a two-mass flywheel. Soft tangential mass-spring systems with dry friction dampers transmit just a fraction of the amplitude for excitation frequencies well above their resonance. At the other end of the crankshaft, at the front of the engine block, there is a separate damper. Its job is to protect the belt or chain driving the camshafts.

The traditional construction features one or more disk-shaped chambers filled with viscous silicon oil. The bulk of this fluid tracks the gross rotation motion of the crankshaft. The superimposed vibrations set up oscillating shear forces in the boundary layer. The heat produced us lost either to the ambient air or to the engine oil (if a timing chain is used).

The modern approach relies on a Sarazin pendulum to set up negative resonance at the lowest (and strongest) order of the crankshaft vibration, i.e. its rotational frequency times the number of ignition events per revolution. The natural frequency of a pendulum is proportional to the square root of "gravity", which in the case of a centrifugal field is in turn proportional to the square of the rotational frequency. Hence, a Sarazin pendulum can be designed to always dampen the first order of the torsional excitation without having to dissipate a lot of energy. Note that this only works well if the ignition timing is symmetric, which is the case only in the flat (boxer) and the parallel twin cylinder layouts.

Of course, all this magic merely makes a two-cylinder engine's torsional vibration tolerable in an inexpensive subcompact. Especially the low RPM, you may still experience uncomfortable droning noise in the cabin.

2. The second source of vibrations is due to free inertial forces and/or moments. Flat (boxer) layouts are best for two- and four-cylinder engines in this regard. They are also the easiest to rev, because there is no need for heavy counterweights on the crankshaft. Unfortunately, for four-stroke engines - the only ones that can meet modern automotive emissions - you need two timing belts or chains, two cylinder heads and two camshafts. This is expensive and makes the engine very wide. In addition, oil sloshing about in fast corners can be a problem, as can gas pulsations in the crankcase at high RPM.

For motorcycles, a favorite layout is the V-twin because its package can be mounted easily. However, it does suffer from both asymmetric ignition timing (i.e. it runs rougher) and rotating inertial forces.

An inline 2, with the cranks offset 180 degrees relative to one another, does not exhibit first order inertial forces. Only a single cylinder heat, belt/chain and set of camshafts is required. The layout does, however, produce a rotating free inertial moment and, the ignition sequence in a four-stroke is highly asymmetrical.

A parallel twin has a symmetrical ignition sequence but the vertical free inertial forces are twice those of a single-cylinder engine. To compensate, a third crank offset by 180 degrees is added in the middle of the crankshaft. Attached to it is either a hanging mass that is guided to oscillate vertically or else, a heavy lever with a fixed pivot point oscillating in a plane perpendicular to the crankshaft (cp. BRP Rotax 804). Either way, you also need a connrod.

In an inline three, you have rotating inertial moments of first and second order. Typically, only the first order is damped down with a compensation shaft rotating in the oil sump. Many Japanese kei cars as well as subcompacts like the smart fortwo and the VW Fox and Polo feature I3 engines with compensation shafts. The cost advantage to a small I4 is slight, however, except for diesels with their expensive injectors.

An inline four only exhibits vertical inertial forces of the second order (twice the crankshaft rotation frequency). Except for engines above 1.8L and destined for premium cars, an I4 can make do without any inertial compensation systems, which add cost, dead weight and reduce fuel economy. This, combined with adequate torsional vibration comfort, is why inline fours are so popular: for econoboxes, they offer the best compromise between power, comfort and cost. Only for very small per-cylinder displacements (below ~250cc) do the heat losses to the coolant become so severe that an engine with fewer cylinders is preferred.

***

All this explains why this new Fiat engine is so unusual. The low cylinder count reduces heat loss and internal friction. There are fewer valves in the cylinder head and the whole engine is much shorter, which means less metal has to be used for the crankcase and cylinder head. The new Multi-Air system reduces throttling losses and improves dynamic response, yet it only has to be applied to two cylinders rather than four. The optional turbo can be a regular single-scroll type.

On the other hand, there is the additional expense of the inertial compensation mechanism and the fancier torsional damping and isolation required. The weight and cost penalty of these should, however, be less than the gains made by using just two cylinders. The SGE should give Fiat a competitive edge in the rapidly emerging markets of Eastern Europe, Russia, China, India and elsewhere.

Roger Pham

Thanks again, Rafael, for the most helpful explanation on two-cylinder engine vibration reduction.

It seems, then, that the parallel twin configuration with third crank conrod weight balancing and Sarazin torsional damper is the most effective method of taming the vibration, making two-cylinder engine the most efficient and cost-effective power plant for economy cars.

Rafael Seidl

@ Roger -

I don't share your conclusion on cost-effectiveness. How many modern cars can you think of have four-cylinder engines, and how many with two-bangers?

Fiat is pushing the downsizing envelope with this design, for the sake of fuel economy and no other reason.

Rafael,
That was my initial impression (doubt) regarding how well vibration can be reduced in a 2-cyl engine.

It seems that inertial balancing with a third crank, as you've mentioned, can be quite good, although it remains to be seen how good torsional dampening can be, and whether this can reduce the torsional vibration and stress on the drivetrain down to the level of a 4-cyl engine, and how much this torsional dampening system will cost.

If, assuming that a 2-cyl engine can be made to run as smoothly as a 4-cyl engine of the same displacement and at the same cost, then the 2-cyl engine will be more fuel-efficient, and that "free" gain in fuel-efficiency without having to resort other more-expensive solutions like TDI, HCCI, GDI, full HEV, etc... will make it more cost-effective.

I'm partial to the Fiat solutions due to the ingenuity in the special valve control arrangement, and the use of dual fuels, gasoline and CNG, that can achieve the same mission objective regarding petroleum substitution as the PHEV's without the excessive cost and weight of the battery pack.

Roger Pham

The last posting was mine.

Rafael Seidl

@ Roger -

the BMW F800 motorbikes use a BRP Rotax 804 engine, a naturally aspirated parallel twin with inertial compensation. By all accounts, it does run very smoothly - for a bike engine. That may well be good enough for subcompacts sold in the rapidly emerging economies.

We'll have to see if Western consumers warm to the idea as well. A Fiat 500 with this SGE engine and a cone ring CVT would definitely be a good combo.

John Schreiber

This is an exciting engine development IMHO. Remember your first motorized vehicle? It really did not matter about NVH, it was so cool to move over a road without having to put out physical effort. For many purchasers of this vehicle, it will be orders of magnitude better than the way they are currently getting around. I had a Honda CX650 Turbo... 673cc 100HP. The engine was incredible, and vibration levels quite low, but under load you could really feel the BMEP working each time a cylinder fired. In cruise, however you could not tell it was a twin. This engine was a 52 or so degree V twin, and I always felt it would make an excellent powerplant for a kei car. I don't know if it had any dynamic balancing mechanism though. Fuel economy was excellent even though it only had 7.8:1 CR, no intercooler, and no feedback fuel system.

Mike_A

Rafeal,

Do you know of any updates with the cone ring cvt?

The concept looks great. when I went and looked I was a bit frightened off by the packaging?

Thanks,

Mike

T2

John re your CX650TC bike :

In 1982 Honda took their successful CX500 and replaced the stock carburetors with a fuel injection system and added a turbo to build the CX500TC.
Quoting from Honda's Heritage site "The challenge was to harness the irregular exhaust pulses of the CX's liquid-cooled, 497cc, 80* transverse V-twin powerplant. This was accomplished by creating the world's smallest turbocharger unit, a 2-inch-diameter turbine capable of spinning at 200,000 rpm to produce maximum boost of 18.5psi. The CX's peak horsepower was raised from 50Hp to 82Hp at 8,000 rpm.
The CX500TC was an able handler, with compliant suspension and confidence-inspiring stability at speed.
Ultimately, however, despite a displacement increase in the form of the 1983 CX650TC, the CXs (as did all their turbocharged counterparts) quietly disappeared from the landscape as Honda readied its new lineup of liquid-cooled V-4s."
In my notes I put the question - Why was that ?

Here we have a similar engine to the Fiat Aria's SGE and it got replaced with a non turbo four cylinder. Can you share some of the downsides to owning a twin turbo from your experience ?
I gather the CX650 was aircooled.
T2

Rafael Seidl

@ Mike A -

cone ring transmissions have been around for a century, but until recently they were limited to fairly low torque ratings by the available traction oils. For the most part, they were used in manufacturing equipment, e.g. certain lathes.

The transmission has been used with great success by the RWTH Aachen's entry in Formula Student racing. This is the European counterpart to the SAE student racing series in the US. Rumor has it that GIF is also collaborating with a major manufacturer on bringing the product to market, but I have no further details. It should be a lot cheaper to build, more efficient and much less noisy than the better-known belt-type CVTs.

If you have a broadband connection, you might want to download this very nice 140MB animation of how this transmission works:

http://www.ecurie-aix.rwth-aachen.de/downloads/krganimation.mpg

Key features of the cone ring transmission:

- adjusting the transmission ratio requires twisting the ring about the axis perpendicular to teh axes of symmetry of both cones. This only requires a 20W electric motor to control the motion, which is powered by the precession motion of the ring.

- once the cones and ring are in motion, there is no metallic contact, therefore no wear and tear on these part. The traction oil does need to be flushed and replaced every so many 1000kms.

- a regular dry clutch is sufficient to permit engine cranking. In theory, on of the cones could be split perpendicular to its axis, with the smaller part freewheeling. With proper position control of the ring during engine shutdown, you could then eliminate the clutch. GIF's design doesn't go that far, though.

- a worm gear mechanism permits precise control of the contact pressure between the cones and ring. This compensated for manufacturing tolerances and permits lower pressures when torque load is modest.

- like all CVTs, a cone ring transmission can support an integrated powertrain control strategy based on engine SFC. For improved ergonomic comfort, the accelerator pedal would signal power rather than torque demand, as is currently the case. The drivetrain ECU would then figure out the transmission ratio that allows the required power to be produced as efficiently as possible.

In practice, that means running at fairly high load and low RPM and sliding (rather than kicking) down whenever additional power is required. Engine revs will go up immediately, delivering instant acceleration. Generally, driver expect the engine note to rise in proportion to vehicle speed, so this "rubberbanding" takes a little getting used. Think of it as the "sound of efficiency".

Key drawbacks of the cone ring transmission:

- limited torque transfer capability (180Nm). However, the SGE engine should max out well below that, in the 120-140Nm range.

- like all CVTs, relatively poor transmission efficiency. I don't have hard numbers, but I'm guesstimating it might be somewhere in the 0.85-0.9 range. If so, the traction oil carter will need a heat exchanger to keep it cool. I'm notsure if that's really not necessary or if GIF just glossed over this fact.

- relatively high cost for the traction oil. Again, no different from belt-type CVTs.

John Schreiber

@ T2
I actually owned both the CX500T and CX650T, and the Yamaha 650T also. The 650 was a major improvement over the 500, as the engine management system was simplified and compression was increased from 7.2 to 7.8 to one, vastly improving off boost drivability.
The 500 would get 38 MPUSG avg and the 650 did 44 or better. The engines were water cooled, 4 valve cam in block pushrod designs. The Yamaha was aircooled and carbureted and not in the same class at all. I feel that the turbo bikes were a bit too heavy, and all could have used a 6th gear. Probably the reason that they were not successful in the market place was cost, and the fact that the motorcycle would accelerate from 60 to 100 quicker than from 0 to 30 so the performance was not useable for many riders. The excessive performance is the reason I no longer own a turbo bike, as I really do not care to try to ride for hours at 100+ mph. I would buy a 250cc turbo V twin based on the CX tomorrow if it weighed 400 lbs or less. The bike would still be able to exceed 100 mph and would likely get 55mpg, but it would not spin the rear tire in 3rd gear solo, or wheelie (4 inches) two up.

T2

@ john, thanks for that - it answers the question for me.

Now you've said it - it does seem obvious. I understand from what you say that the spooling up of the turbo cannot keep pace with the acceleration of the bike at low speeds giving less than spectacular performance. Any change of gear is going to momentarily reduce crankshaft rpm thus reducing exhaust gas flow to the turbo and exacerbating the problem , plus how many gear changes can you fit in the five or so seconds it takes to reach 60mph ? The higher inertia of the Fiat ARIA may make this less of a problem as it will give more time to row through the gears. I see now the paradox of turbos. They give their best with high gas flows which makes short shifting a bad idea but then you have set yourself up so that when boost does arrive in the latter part of the rpm range, suddenly it can be difficult to avoid shooting through redline.

Now with respect to the 52 degree you mentioned earlier. In the V twin this actually didn't come until 1983 in the form of the Shadow 750 (VT750C), a motorcycle that, according to Honda, changed the perception of V-twin custom cruisers by using an angle other than 90 degrees ! Please forgive the Honda hype and I acknowledge Rafael already covered part of this.

"To start with, V-twins of any angle other than 90 degrees often create a primary imbalance, which transmits bothersome vibration to the rider. The only method of reducing engine vibration is to fit counterbalancers, but these add weight, complexity and expense. Honda's design team came up with an alternative that would become a Honda hallmark, introducing a unique offset dual-pin crankshaft that achieved perfect primary balance. Thus was created the first perfectly balanced narrow-angle V-twin. The same dual-pin design was used for the 52-degree V-twin in the VT500 Ascot and VT500C Shadow 500.)"

Well that's my lot on "bothersome vibrations " I hope it hasn't been too er..um bothersome !

Hi Rafael,
You suggested a Fiat 500 incorporating this SGE engine together with a cone ring CVT would definitely be a good combo.

Well I would say that characteristics of turbos would seem to lend themselves even more to a series hybrid setup, and here's another poster agreeing with this viewpoint :

CLETT wrote - " Series hybrid can be better on the highway too because you can use an engine with a completely undriveable map but with sky-high efficiency at certain rpms. Can't be used with a gearbox but no problem at all in a series-hybrid !"

Taking what John has been saying relative to his turbocharged motorcycles the SGE with turbocharger may also prove difficult to drive optimally with a manual transmission for many people. My own investigations into series hybrids show that you need to avoid a torque droop at max revs for the sake of the electrical system.

In the Smart turbodiesel, for example, we have a most unusable engine map since there's a 32% roll off in torque as the speed increases 75% from 2400 to 4200rpm. This would require a similar empathetic droop in generator current as well, just at the point (maximum terminal voltage) where you would want full current the most. Any attempt to maintain rated current (by maintaining constant current draw from the traction inverter) would stall out the engine of course. Most modern gasoline engines droop around 6% in torque from maximum torque however from what I gather with a turbo we may be able to rely on maintaining max torque, and therefore maximum generated current all the way to redline.

It's too bad we don't know more details about Fiat's engine but we can enter the speculation dept.

If the SGE were to use 450cc cylinder dimensions similar to those of Honda's CRF450R bike namely 96 X 62mm and furthermore piston speeds are limited to a safer 18m/s then direct drive to a 9,000 rpm generator is possible. Figures on the closest suitable generator manufactured by Fisher Electric Technology are 30kw @ 7000rpm from a unit weighing 30lbs. A custom unit for 80kw @ 9000 rpm would come in at around 62lbs. Mass for mass that replaces a clutch and gearbox.

With more than 20 posts this has been an amazing thread I've read the whole thing several times to absorb much new information put up here. Thanks to Max, Roger, John and Rafael et al. Now I'm done.
T2

Tman

What about the Neander counter rotating twin crankshaft. It looks very balanced even for a single cylinder engine. Maybe some automakers should look into this. The Neander engine has 2 cylinders and an unusually large displacement of 1.4L.

The fiat engine is a little marvel. Something one would expect a company like Honda to have done first. The aim is more towards fuel economy like Rafael said. I was thinking if a V-twin engine could be dropped in a dodge neon, It would be very effective too.

T2


I believe I saw a Neander example in Cycleworld last year. This magazine quite a good read for hybrid fans who would like to know both the historical and current thinking in small engine design. Perhaps someone knows of a motoring publication likely to provide even more in depth info of the Panda Aria engine.

The Neander, I saw, has basically two crankshafts side by side geared together and the piston has two connecting rods feeding each. My question is - did the twin cylinder you referred to use a boxer style opposed ?
T2

stephanie

Wow, I have actually seen and been in this car, and I loved it. I love the new engine design that was created on behalf of this amazing car. It would be a very very very good idea to present this car to the people to the United States of America!!!

Raghunath

What is the CNG (Injector system)Engine standerd Cranking Time (Duration)

& How to reduce the cranking time.

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