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Bosch and Samsung SDI Co. Ltd. Establish JV for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries

Robert Bosch GmbH and Samsung SDI Co. Ltd. are establishing a joint venture to develop, manufacture, and sell lithium-ion batteries for automotive applications. The joint venture—SB LiMotive Co. Ltd.—will be headquartered in Korea, and will start operations in September 2008, with production beginning in 2010.

In connection with its automotive hybrid project unit, Bosch has established expertise in areas such as power electronics, battery management, electric motors, transmissions, or DC/DC converters. The main focus of Samsung SDI Co. Ltd. is the further development of lithium-ion batteries, which it already produces for a large number of manufacturers of laptops, mobile phones, and power tools.

Bosch and Samsung will each hold 50% of SB LiMotive, and be equally represented on the board of management and on the board of directors.

In 2007, Samsung SDI Co. Ltd. produced 376 million battery cells, in formats including cylindrical, prismatic and polymer types, primarily targeted at consumer and portable applications. Samsung uses different cathode materials such as cobalt aluminium oxide (LiNiCoAlO2, NCA) and cobalt manganese oxide (LiNiCoMnO2, NMC), for different applications.

Last year, Samsung reported work on developing an 8Ah prismatic lithium-ion cell with high current charge and discharge ability targeted for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. Samsung designed the power type Li-ion cell using manganese-oxide (LiMn2O4) for the cathode material, with carbon material for the anode.

Performance tests showed the specific power of the new cell was more than 2,000 W/kg at 80% SOC. Samsung built a 14.4V battery module with four cells in series and integrated battery management system (BMS). Ten of these modules were connected to create a 144V battery system with discharge power of more than 12.5 kW at 50% SOC.

In a presentation at the recent Advanced Automotive Battery Conference (AABC), Kiho Kim, Principal Engineer, Energy Lab, R&D Center, Samsung SDI discussed steps the company is taking to improve the low-temperature performance of its power cells for HEV applications.

The cell described here was a prismatic 32120 with 5.7 Ah capacity and a voltage of 2.8V-4.2V.

Samsung is also exploring the use of lithium vanadium oxide as an anode material. In another Samsung paper presented at AABC, Sung-Soo Kim, Principal Engineer in Advanced Battery Development, Energy Lab, said that Samsung has shown 18650 format cells using different vanadate formulations and two different types of cathode with capacities of more than 3,000 mAh.

Predicted 18650 cell performance with vanadium oxide anodes
Type A (4.35-3.0V)Type B (4.35-3.0V)Type C (4.35-2.75V)
Cathode LiCoO2 LiCoO2 Li(NiCoAl)O2
Anode Li1.1V0.9O230% Li1.1V0.9O280% Li1.1V0.9O230%
18650 capacity [mAh] 3080 3100 3150
0.5C average voltage [V] 3.73 3.67 3.53
Energy density [Wh/L] 695 688 673

In addition, the Li1.1V0.9O2 anodes are showing favorable thermal behaviors compared to existing materials, addressing safety concerns.



Happy to see yet another battery JV aimed at Li chemistry which will continue to bring cost per kWh down. While this formula states just under 700Wh/L another chemistry from Superlattice Power is claiming a whopping 936kWh/kg energy density (240Ah/kg.) If this movement continues we should see significant improvement in all-EV range by 2015 +- 200 mile/50% SOC.



The claimed possible energy density is 936 Wh/Kg which is very high. Even 50% (468 Wh/Kg) of that in a production unit would be a huge improvement over the current 100 to 140 Wh/Kg.

Anything over 400 - 450 Wh/Kg, at a decent price, would make practical PHEVs and BEVs possible.

This is more good news for 2001/12.

Henry Gibson

The ZEBRA battery has had an energy density of 100 wh/kg for a completed insulated battery pack for over ten years. It will operate in any climate. It can be cooled simply with the hottest desert air. The heat from the battery can be used in cold climates. Perhaps this might be done by TH!NK.

High power density is good for hybrid cars, but high power is not as important as energy for plug-in-hybrids. Power can be had from flywheels or ultracaps.

A completely mechanical flywheel system has been developed using the ToroTrak continuously variable transmission, the Flybrid? A version of the flybrid could be refitted to any large pickup truck and many other lorries and vehicles.

The maximum energy of a cylinder flywheel is identical to the strength of the material divided by its density.

Gas pressure tanks also rely on the strength of the material, but the density is not as important. In both cases the total weight is important in competition with batteries. Some energy is also stored in the compression of the gas, so it is not as clear how much energy can be stored in a pressure tank.

One company that was totally flywheel oriented for their Uninterruptable Power System now uses a combination of air pressure and flywheels with most of the energy comming from air pressure and heat. The weight of the tanks is not critical in stationary uses.

It is likely that gas-pressure-hydraulic-hybrid systems will be the cheapest hybrid system to produce for cars. But Parry People Movers has developed a high efficiency, very good performance low technology flywheel hybrid system for small rail passenger vehicles.

INNAS has recently developed hydraulic motors and even a hydraulic pressure transformer that have very high efficiency at all speeds. Their proposed HYDRID can halve the energy consumption of otherwise identical vehicles. ..HG..

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