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Missouri Opens First Hydrogen Refuelling Station

Missouri’s first hydrogen vehicle refuelling station opened in Rolla. Linde will supply gaseous hydrogen for the station, which is located at Missouri University of Science and Technology’s E3 (E-cubed) Commons development.

Linde is delivering, storing and supplying fuel cell-grade gaseous hydrogen for the station on behalf of the Gas Technology Institute, which has partnered with the university to supply the station. Linde also will provide technical support to GTI to ensure the safe and efficient performance of the refuelling system. GTI is headquartered in Des Plaines, Illinois.

The opening coincided with a stop along the Hydrogen Road Tour, a coast-to-coast tour of hydrogen vehicles organized by the US Department of Transportation, Department of Energy, and two industry associations: the California Fuel Cell Partnership and the National Hydrogen Association. Nine automakers are participating.

For the tour, Linde is supplying liquid hydrogen to fuel BMW’s Hydrogen 7 Series cars. The liquid hydrogen is produced in Magog, Quebec, where it derives the hydrogen from water using renewable hydroelectric power.



Yeah, wonderful. According to Google Maps, Magog, Quebec is just shy of 2100 km (1300 miles) from Rolla, Missouri by road. Since there's no hydrogen pipeline, how much CO2 (and other pollutants) would be expended to transport a load of hydrogen by truck? It depends on whether the H2 is transported as compressed H2 or LH2. Either has problems of its own (e.g. low volumetric quantity and high energy expense for liquefaction, respectively).

Was it just so that Linde could earn some green credentials by boasting production of the hydrogen using hydroelectric power? I think if someone did a rigorous analysis, one would find that generating the hydrogen on-site using established industrial processes (e.g. autothermal steam reforming of natural gas), the difference in the net CO2 output would not be so huge. If one really wants to be innovative and make an article worthy of "Green" Car Congress, bio-methane can be captured from the nearest municipal landfill or sewage treatment plant, and there you have a renewable primary energy source, and it's local to boot.

Henry Gibson

The hydrogen could have been generated locally from electricity and compressed locally by electricity that was declared to be renewable hydroelectric power, and it would have been cheaper to deliver the power over the grid; or one could declare it to be from more local hydro-power or wind power.

Even if the hydrogen were produced adjacent to a hydroelectric dam, if the electrical energy were taken from the standard grid, there is no guarantee that all of the energy for producing the hydrogen was from renewable hydroelectric power. If one uses hydro-electric power from the grid to produce hydrogen, at relatively low energy efficiency, this forces someone else on the grid to use gas or coal energy at high efficiency for operating their CFL. Fuel cell efficiency is also very low, many diesel engines can equal their efficiency at far less cost. Use the electricity in Canada to run a TH!NK car, and ship the saved gasoline to the US for a better profit.

The power could have been sent over the grid and used to charge ZEBRA battery cars with much greater HYDRO-TO-WHEELS efficiency. Any discussion about efficiency, as also is the case for solar cells, is premature considering the cost of fuel cell cars. Fuel cell cars will need either ZEBRA or Lithium batteries for peak power demands, including regeneration, and need them also so that the cars can be plug-in-hybrids.

Canada has very useful and easy to build CANDU nuclear power plants. Build several more nuclear power plants in Canada to absorb all of the load of Hydroelectric plants and coal plants while so disposed, and devote the entire output of hydroelectric plants to sell "renewable" hydrogen to the US.

Renewable has become a magic word for people and politicians to ignore the realities of energy and its use by people and industry. It is very much like the word natural.

Hurricanes, volcanic explosions, tsunami, earthquakes et cetera are natural, as are many inedible dangerous plants and infectious bacteria, but natural is listed on labels to imply good. Organic is a related magic word that has now been legislatively defined. All plants and animals used as food are organic by the definition of "organic chemistry", but most of the human world eats non-organic foods and is expanding un bounded.

A diet of solely legislatively-organic natural corn will expose you to possibly fatal deficiencies after a few months, but if the corn is treated with non-organic chemicals you will have much better health. These mineral chemicals can, if you are very devote, be made from organic cornstalks or trees. Then you can use organic-minerals.

Many pre-industrial countries, as in England, tried cellulostic fuels (forests) and eliminated most of the natural growth areas and had to turn to fossil fuels for industry and homes for expanded growth. Iceland was totally denuded of large trees. There is not enough land and water suited for growth of corn or trees in most countries, including the US, to fill most of their demands for automotive fuels, much less their total energy demands.

Hydroelectric dams with their lakes have inundated much more land area of farms or forests than all the owners of strip mines ever could even concieve of.

MUCH MUCH more energy is spent fighting solar energy with air-conditioners than will every be gained by the use of solar cells or even thermal solar collectors. Using solar heat collectors to reduce the air conditioning load is a much more economic use of money than solar cells. Mirrors, instead of shingles or solar cells could increase the available electrical supply more than the same area of solar cells at far less cost.

An Arizona hospital abandoned its thermal solar collectors when it could have at least saved much on air-conditioning costs by refurbishing them and operating them. Vacuum insulated solar collectors can supply most, if not all, of the hot water needs of hospitals and other businesses the whole year round. Large hot water tanks can meet the night demands. Coils in the earth underneath the hospital and its parking lots could store much heat for use in the winter and at night.

Nuclear power and hydrogen can be produced with much less land devastation than energy from hydroelectric dams or solar or wind machines. Nuclear heat is cheap enough to remove CO2 from limestone for use in making artificial hydrocarbon fuels. The lime produced can gather CO2 from the air or other sources and then be treated again to produce more artificial hydrocarbon fuels.

The current nuclear power plants could reduce the release of of CO2 to the air by supplying steam to ethanol plants or even heat to oil refineries. A CANDU reactor, instead of natural gas, is proposed to supply heat to extract oils from oil-sands in Alberta. Natural gas treated with steam from present nuclear reactors can produce hydrogen cheaply from natural gas and turn the resultant carbon monoxide and hydrogen into methanol without any release of CO2. Eventually Higher temperature advanced nuclear power plants could produce fuels directly through thermochemical decomposition of water and CO2. CO2 and hydrogen can be combined to produce methanol easily and ethanol or gasoline with much more difficulty. Much methanol was once used to make the gasoline additive MTBE.

Jet engine technology and perhaps barely modified engines themselves could be used in steam-turbo-compressors to compress high temperature steam to achieve even higher steam temperatures from existing reactors and newer similar designs for thermo-chemical processes of fuel production. Because of the higher possible speeds and a lesser desire for efficiency, these machines can be much smaller and cheaper than existing turbogenerators.

Methanol, not hydrogen, should be declared the automotive fuel of the future. The need for larger fuel tanks is much less than the size and weight of any proposed hydrogen tank, and the higher octane rating and efficiency will reduce the need for larger fuel tanks somewhat. Massive quantities of methanol can be stored in very ordinary containers for emergencies and will not degrade over time. Methanol made from biomass has a lower CO2 impact than ethanol from corn. The range of jet aircraft using methanol might be reduced, but the lower cost and possible higher efficiency and higher thrust operation might make the operation economical for most US flights. The efficiency of thrust generation in jet aircraft is a strange art. It is well known that even the injection of pure water can improve both thrust and efficiency while reducing NOX. The first commercial jets used water injection for higher thrust at take off. Fuel tanks and pipes cannot be made of aluminum! Methanol fire supression is easily done with water alone. Methanol combined with water can be used for deiceing.

Even now methanol is being used directly in fuel cells; if you really want fuel cells. I wanted them 50 years ago, just like I wanted fusion energy and fusion energy had been debated for ten years already by then. Now I want cheap plug in hybrid cars. ..HG..

Realilty Czech
Even if the hydrogen were produced adjacent to a hydroelectric dam, if the electrical energy were taken from the standard grid, there is no guarantee that all of the energy for producing the hydrogen was from renewable hydroelectric power.
You do not understand the meaning of "fungible". The rest of your post is full of similar mistakes and misunderstandings.

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