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Electric Supercharger Can Enable More Extreme, Cost-Effective Engine Downsizing

Controlledpower
VTES electric supercharger. Click to enlarge.

UK-based Controlled Power Technologies (CPT) says that its switched reluctance motor-powered electric supercharger (earlier post)—VTES (Variable Torque Enhancement System)—is ready for production applications.

CPT suggests that configuring the high dynamic (10-90% rise time < 300 ms) VTES in series with a conventional fixed geometry turbocharger offers a combined transient effect which cannot be matched by other series air charging systems, and thus offers support for more extreme and more cost-effective—and therefore more broadly applied—engine downsizing.

Vtes3
VTES series boosting layout (upstream). Click to enlarge.

Guy Morris, CPT’s engineering director presented the latest findings of the company’s research, development and testing program at the 13th Supercharging Conference in Dresden, Germany (25-26 September).

Extreme engine downsizing typically means replacing a 2.5-liter engine in a full-size family saloon or MPV with a 1.2-liter turbo-charged engine, CPT says. Motorists, however, still have certain minimum expectations for vehicle performance. Boosting the charge of air into the engine by mechanical supercharging or exhaust turbocharging is the most effective way to satisfy this requirement, but only if sufficient low-speed transient torque is delivered quickly enough to meet customer expectations for vehicle drivability. The reference point remains the response time of the larger, naturally-aspirated engine that is being replaced.

In recognition of this requirement, customer correlated engineering evaluation of the more radical (>40%) downsizing solutions, necessary to deliver optimum CO2 reduction, emphasizes the need to maximize the “near instantaneous” (typically <0.5s) torque available through intake charge boosting. Until recently the only intake charging solution with the potential to deliver significant torque enhancement in <0.5s was a mechanical supercharger, either operating on its own or combined, for better overall efficiency, with a conventional turbocharger.

...With serial upstream boosting VTES enables a significantly downsized, conventionally turbocharged engine to deliver dramatically (>50%) enhanced low speed transient torque. Through the use of highly dynamic switched reluctance direct drive motor technology, CPT has been able to deliver a cost effective system with low application effort and minimal investment, thereby offering a genuinely quick to market alternative solution to this challenging problem.

—Morris and Criddle (2008)

Vtes4
Comparison of torque from a fixed geometry turbo (FGT) and a FGT with VTES in a 1.2-liter direct injection Otto engine. Click to enlarge.

CPT test data presented in the paper show that when applied to a radically downsized and down-speeded engine, the VTES technology significantly increases the initial transient response, delivering significantly more torque at low engine speeds, thereby enhancing a car’s low speed drivability characteristics. The combination of a highly dynamic electric supercharger, in series with a conventional fixed geometry turbocharger, also makes it relatively easy to optimize the overall response of the system, compared to other air charging methods.

The VTES system can also help reduce soot and particulate emissions from diesel engines, particularly when the driver accelerates at low engine revs, which, in turn, creates an opportunity to reduce the size and cost of the diesel particulate filter (DPF).

Fast response air-boost systems are essential for delivering radically-downsized engines. Even the most dynamically optimized turbocharger cannot deliver an air-side response approaching the fuel control capability of the latest injection systems. The consequence is ‘air limited’ combustion, which imposes many compromises on the engine developer.

Series boosting solutions are gaining popularity because of their extended low speed boosted air delivery capability, but their dynamic performance is still frustratingly linked to engine speed and air mass flow rates. The provision of a cost-effective electric supercharger, in series with a conventional fixed geometry turbocharger, offers a combined transient effect, which as yet cannot be matched by other air charging systems.

—Guy Morris

The VTES electric supercharger, which operates independently of engine speed, can significantly increase the air charge density over the first 10 combustion cycles of a low speed transient, thereby enabling real improvements in both transient torque and emissions performance. Fitted with a low inertia compressor, the supercharger accelerates from its 5,000 rpm idle speed to a maximum speed of 70,000 rpm in less than 0.35 seconds. The system is highly dynamic and the intake charge boosting and resulting torque enhancement is achieved very typically in less than a quarter of a second (250 ms).

Resources

  • G. Morris and M. Criddle (2008) “Transient Torque Enhancement and Emissions Reduction Potential of a Highly Dynamic Supercharger” [To request a copy of the paper, contact Dipl.-Ing. Carsten Guhr, Lehrstuhl Verbrennungsmotoren, Institut für Automobiltechnik Dresden - IAD Technische Universität Dresden.]

Comments

Henry Gibson

Yes this is a very good application for switched reluctance motors. They should also be built into the flywheel as a switched reluctance motor-generator and used to operate all other fans and pumps including the air-conditioner. APT uses a combined electric turbocharger for its larger OPOC engines. The ultimate is to get rid of the pistons themslves with turbines. ..HG..

clett

It's not recovering energy from the exhaust gas heat though.

Nick(Colorado)

Henry Gibson:

>It's not recovering energy from the exhaust gas
>heat though.

CPT does have a reluctance product that does that,
replaces alternator.

mahonj

It is all good - it is a question of cost and customer acceptance - will people be happy to drive a 1.2L minivan or saloon ?
I suppose it depends on the numbers.

There's life in the old ICE yet!

Mike Z.

I remember reading into electric turbos, and from what I found was that a traditional turbo is ~70 HP or so. So to electrify that would require a massive battery.

Healthy Breeze

So...electric turbo reduces turbo lag, and allows better low speed torque and more compact engine packaging...but needs a bigger battery...PHEV anyone?

Dunno...I suspect there're cheaper ways to do this, though.

Rafael Seidl

@ mahonj -

VW offers its 1.4L twin charger engine in a number of models. That design pairs a belt-driven Roots blower for immediate boost at low RPM with a large turbo for sustained boost at high RPM. The blower is disconnected by releasing a clutch at a point in-between. Expensive, but it sips fuel and makes for a light, compact prime mover.

So, Europeans at least would have no problem with a dual boosted three or four cylinder 1.2L engine. For US consumers, it might be more of an acquired taste. Then again, with gas still expensive and the economy in recession, it might just be what the doctor ordered. GM recently announced it will invest almost $400 million to tool up a plant in Flint (Michigan) that will produce an Americanized version of Opel's 1.4L ecotec engine and variants.

@ mike z -

this particular device would only be used to mask transient turbo lag and perhaps, to add a little oomph in sustained operation at low RPM. At higher RPM, the regular turbo provides adequate boost all by itself. The transmission for such a drivetrain would feature shift points designed to avoid sustained operation at low RPM (except for overdrive).

Ergo, this is just an auxiliary compressor, probably rated at less than 5hp. They recommend using a valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery but make do with 12V tension.

DS

Looks like a standard radial turbo-compressor. Wouldn't a Roots compressor better match the rpm range of an electric motor?

steve

This is probably an over simplified question, but why don't they just store some compressed air for the initial boost? Until the turbo gets past the lag?

sjc

I was going to comment on the compressor idea, but was censored yet AGAIN by type pad for a perfectly acceptable comment.

Neilen Marais

So why not just combine all into a turbonator....

In other words, a large turbo connected to a substantial electric motor. During transient acceleration the electric motor boosts the turbo up to speed quickly; during steady state operation the extra power that would be generated by an oversize turbo is recovered by the electric motor replacing/augmenting the alternator, or even providing motive power through a hybrid drive system. If practical, it should certainly be the most efficient way of recovering some of the power that would otherwise be lost through the hot exhaust gas, much like a combined cycle power plant...

Neilen Marais

Haha, actually it seems people are already working on this:

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?tp=&arnumber=830660&isnumber=18014

You won't be able to see the abstract on IEEE if you're not subscribed, but here is the salient portion:

The radial turbines and centrifugal compressors used in turbo-chargers achieve good performance only at relatively high speeds and being able to achieve these speeds is one of the main challenges in designing the brushless DC machine. Currently, typical speeds and powers are in the range of 100 to 140,000 rpm and 2 to 5kW. Applications include turbo-alternators to convert exhaust gas energy into electrical energy, motor compressors used for electrical supercharging or to supply compressed air to air-hydrogen fuel-cells, and configurations integrating turbine, compressor, motor and generator in one unit.

Rafael Seidl

@ sjc -

in my experience, TypePad may "censor" a post if it's very long, a given commenter has posted frequently in the last 24 hours or, if the comment contains too many words on a spam watchlist. That list appears to contain the names of companies and products.

There are probably other rules and heuristics, but please keep in mind that the whole thing is intended purely to curb blog spamming. Sometimes it makes mistakes, which is really annoying.

@ Nellen Marais -

the problem is that passenger cars have 12V grids designed for an aggregate load of perhaps 2kW. If a design calls for more power, you need either two grids at different voltages or, you need to bump up the one and only grid to a higher voltage. Both approaches are expensive and introduce reliability concerns - the engine bay is exposed to the elements including especially rain and slash water.

Integral Powertrain, a UK company, gets around this by combining an efficient centrifugal compressor wheel with a small compound hybrid transmission and a belt drive off the crankshaft. This decouples supercharger RPM from crankshaft RPM. The control circuitry is fed off the 12V grid and perhaps, the generator can do double duty as its alternator. However, the electric power flow require to support supercharging is strictly internal to the device.

MG

What about reliability and expected lifetime of something that spins at 70,000 rpm very often especially in slow traffic?
And how much does it cost to replace?

Rafael Seidl

@ MG -

modern automotive turbos can run as high as 220,000 RPM. The bearings are a critical component, usually hydrodynamic types with floating bushings are used. It's one of many reasons why turbos are manufactured by highly specialized outfits.

As long as turbos are cooled and lubricated with a generous amount of oil and, both gas flows are sufficiently free of particulates, droplets, acidic compounds etc. they can and do last for the life to the engine. For passenger cars, engine life expectancy exceeds that of the vehicle.

A key requirement is that oil flow continue for a cooling-off period of several minutes even after the ignition is cut. Other requirements include correct airflow management by design and maintenance. Chip tuning and inappropriate additives to oil or fuel can, in some cases, cause the turbo to over-rev and fail prematurely. Turbos attached to gasoline engines typically feature water-cooled jackets around the turbine volute, which makes them more expensive than those used for diesel. However, replacing a failed turbo is always expensive.

This compressor device is not exposed to hot exhaust gases, which makes it less susceptible to failure. Nevertheless, compression generates a significant amount of heat, as do electric motors and power converters. That heat has to be wicked away to keep temperatures and temperature gradients within tolerance at all times.

For devices with switched reluctance motors, the magnetic gap between rotor and stator has to be kept very small, so it's possible that the design features needle bearings rather than hydrodynamic ones. This generates a significant amount of high-pitched noise, as does the switched reluctance motor itself.

sjc

RS,

My message was short, non-political and non-personal, it used no keywords other than variable reluctance, boost and turbo. I do not know what caused TypePad to reject it, there WAS no reason, but it did anyway.

MG

Rafael,
Thank you very much, and welcome back!!
Your comments are highly appreciated.
MG

Jorge

@ Rafael,

Rafael, regarding modern car turbo-diesel engines,
in order to enhance the durability of the turbo,
is it recommendable to let the engine idle for about 2 minutes before stopping the engine ?

stephen knott

Why not recover the heat (thats wasted), drive a steam turbine (telsa) on a rankine cycle, connect the steam turbine to the supercharger and run the turbo with no lag at the most efficient RPM. ( build in a pressure reservoir in the system) This recovers the heat, does away with driving the turbo from the up stroke of the piston. An electric motor needs its power from a source, so why use all the waste heat and achieve the same benifits of the electric supercharger??

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D155 6502-12-2003
D355 6502-13-9005
D75 6152-81-8310
Ex200-1 1-14400-2100
Ex200-1
Ex200-2 1-14400-2720
Ex200-3 1-14400-2720
Ex200-5 1-14400-3320
Ex300-1 24100-1440C
Ex300-2/3 1-14400-3140
Ex300-3C/5 1-14400-3340
GT17 433352-0022
GT22 442187-6
GT2259 452214-0003
H1C 3538474
H1C
H1E 3545701
H2C 3519095
HC5A 3523850
HC5A 3524450
HC5A 3524451
HIC 3528777
HIE 3524034
HT3B 3522865
HT3B 3522867
HT3B
K03 058 145 703J
K03 058 145 703K
K27 53279706519
K27 5327 970 5203
K27 5327 970 6206
K27C 53279707120
PC200-3 6137-82-8300
PC200-5 6207-81-8210
PC200-6 6207-81-8331
PC220 6222-81-8170
PC300-3 6151-81-8400
PC300-5 6222-81-8210
PC400 6151-83-8210
PC400-3 6138-82-8200
PC400-5 6152-81-8210
RHB5
RHB6 8944183200
RHC6 114400-3320
RHC6/Ex220-5 24100-3340A
RHC7 24100-1460A
ST50 3032061
ST50 3032062
T04B08 465424-9002S
T04B11 408970-9002S
T04B15 409250-5002S
T04B19 409640-5004S
T04B25 409770-5018S
T04B26 409760-9002S
T04B32 409940-9007S
T04B42 465360-8002S
T04B49 465695-5001S
T04B51 465740-9003S
T04B71 465154-9003S
T04B80 409040-5010S
T04B90 409080-9009S
T04E12 466820-9006S
T04E13 466772-6002S
T25/T28
T28R
T3/T4
T-46 3018067
T-46 3018068
T-46 3026924
TA45 452188-0001
TA4502 465922-0003
TA4507 441398-0043
TA4507 466314-0004
TA4513 466818-0008
TA4521 466629-9002S
TA5101 466074-0011
TA5102 466076-0019
TA5111 465363-0001
TA5111 465363-0003
TA5112 452020-0003
TA5124 466102-0001
TA5125 454025-0001
TA5126 454003-0007
TA5127 466159-5003S
TA5129 452135-0003
TA5130 468132-0004
TA5131 466569-0001
TA5132 452154-0002
TA5133 454140-0001
TA5135 479027-0006
TB2209 466073-0005
TB25 452215-0002
TB2502 466480-0001
TB2504 466546-0004
TB2509 466974-0010
TB2510 466880-0030
TB2514 465555-0003
TB2518 466898-9007S
TB2525 465823-5002S
TB2527 465941-0001
TB2533 452022-0001
TB2535 465445-0001
TB2548 452044-0001
TB2550 465587-0002
TB2552 466700-0002
TB2556 452058-0002
TB2557 452047-0003
TB2559 452083-0001
TB2566 466491-0006
TB2580 703605-0001
TBP4 466679-0001
TBP402 452046-5002S
TBP404 466229-9001S
TBP408 465425-0001
TBP409 465427-0002
TBP412 452071-5003S
TBP417 466535-0001
TBP418 452085-5005S
TBP420 466533-5001S
TBP421 452046-0003
TBP444 702646-0004
TBP4501 454070-0001
TBP4802 465481-0001
TD06 49179-08730
TD06-17A 49179-02119
TD06H-14C 49179-00451
TD06H-14C 49179-00451
TD07-25A13 49187-00220
WA350-1 6138-82-8200
WA350-3 6502-13-9005
WA400-1 6207-81-8220
707342-0001 GARRETT TB25 CARBON SEAL KIT
701813-0001 GARRETT TB25 DYNAMIC KIT
468100-0000 GARRETT T04B TA3 KIT
407884-0001 GARRETT T12 KIT
702603-0001 GARRETT GT15 KIT
702604-0004 GARRETT GT15 GT17 KIT
702605-0004 GARRETT VNT GT20 GT22 KIT
468212-0000 GARRETT T18 KIT
468214-0000 GARRETT T18A KIT
468211-0000 GARRETT TV61 KIT
468416-0000 GARRETT TV94 KIT
49177-80410 MITSUBISHI TD04 FULL KIT
49178-89200 MITSUBISHI TD05 MAYOR KIT
49188-80200 MITSUBISHI TD08H KIT
MITSUBISHI TF035 WITH BACK PLATE INCUSIVE
TOYOTA CT9 AND CT12 KIT
TOYOTA CT20/CT26 DINAMIC KIT
TOYOTA CT20/CT26 CARBON SEAL KIT
TOYOTA CT12B KIT
3599641 compressor wheel turbo H1E
3526175 compressor wheel turbo H3
GT25R 471171-3
GT25R54
GT28R
GT28RS
GT3037S
GT30R 700382-12
GT32 4522203-1
GT3267 706705-0001
GT3267S 452233-5002S
GT35
GT3540R
GT35R

3003929
3003933
3004054
3005963
3012535
3012536
3012537
3012538
3014590
3018814
3018862
3023556
3028068
3047963
3047964
3047973
3054228
3275266
3275267
3016675
3016676
3047969
3047973
3047991
3047991
3054217
3054218
3054218
3054218
3054218
3054218
3054231
3054231
3054231
3054249
3054249
3054249
3054249
3275538
3275539
Москва
REPUESTOS SISTEMAS DE INYECIòN DIESEL
ELEMENTO Cabezales rotativos DPA
VALVULA cabezales EP VE
TOBERA Elemento Bombeante
EJE DE LEVAS Elemento tipo P
CABEZOTE Anillo De Transferencia
CARCAZA CENTRAL CYM INYECCION DIESEL:AUTOPARTES
DISCO DE LEVAS
VALVULA DE RETORNO PICOS INYECTORES
SOLENOIDE DE RETORNO
PLATO DE LEVAS TOBERAS
inyección Diesel y
inyección Diesel BOMBAS INYECTORAS
vst?ikovací trysky elementy do ?erpadel Elemento
CYM. Inyección Diesel Válvula
Injecteur
Porte injecteur
POSTO DIESEL LTDA

China Lutong Parts Plant offer: diesel fuel injection part,
diesel element, Lutong diesel , plunger, diesel barrel,
hydraulic head, cylinder/ distributor head, head rotor,
military truck part, hd90100,
nsn 2910008287176, m35 series, m series, caterpillar diesel,
pencile nozzle, 8N7005, military part,
military vehicle engine part,
armoured vehicle part, diesel part, diesle injector,
diesel injection,KOMATSU, TOYOTA, SUZUKI, NISSAN, MAZDA,
HONDA, HINO, cylinder head,hydraulic head, head rotor,
nsn 2910008287176, hd90100,
nsn 3040007223536, hd8821, military vehicle part, car part,
komatsu, diesel injector, diesel, pencile nozzle,
cylinder/ distributor head, ve-pump

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