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LandRover Introduces New Stop/Start System on Production Freelander

The new Freelander 2 TD4_e. Click to enlarge.

Land Rover introduced the Freelander 2 TD4_e featuring a new Stop/Start system at the Paris Motor Show. The Freelander 2 TD4_e is Land Rover’s most fuel-efficient vehicle to date and is the first production vehicle to incorporate technologies from the company’s program of engineering initiatives collectively named e_Terrain Technologies (earlier post).

On the standard EU4 cycle, the CO2 emissions of the Freelander 2 TD4_e are reduced by 8% (15 g/km) compared with the outgoing manual diesel Freelander 2 TD4 (from 194 g/km to 179 g/km). Fuel consumption improves from 7.5 L/100km (31.4 mpg US) to 6.8 L/100km (34.4 mpg US). In additional tests, Land Rover engineers measured fuel savings approaching 20% in heavy urban traffic.

These gains, coupled with the added benefits of the gearshift indicator light, software developments and efficiencies from low-rolling-resistance tires, make the Freelander 2 TD4_e the most fuel-efficient production Land Rover yet built.

The Stop/Start Freelander 2 is the first production vehicle to benefit from the massive £700 million [US$966 million] investment in sustainable technologies by Jaguar and Land Rover. From mid-2009, the Stop/Start feature will be included as standard on all Freelander 2 TD4 manual models, with no associated increase in list prices.

—Phil Popham, Land Rover’s managing director

Land Rover’s new Stop/Start system improves fuel efficiency in urban and stop-start driving. The vehicle automatically shuts down the engine in appropriate conditions. When the driver is ready to move off, the engine instantly re-starts. For the engine to shut down, the vehicle must be stationary, the gearbox in neutral and the clutch pedal raised. To re-start, the driver depresses the clutch and the enhanced starter motor engages the engine, ready for when first gear is selected.

The Stop/Start system is automatically activated each time the ignition is turned on, although there is a switch on to disable the system, if the driver so desires.

To reduce the engine shake associated with some diesel engines when stopping, the Freelander 2 TD4_e features controlled throttle closing and ramps down fuel in a smooth fashion, while the alternator is also turned off during the shut-down procedure, reducing load on the engine. A software feature change and revised engine calibration further aid smooth shut-off, while engine shake on start-up is reduced by the Freelander 2’s optimized engine-mounting strategy and inherent tuning.

The Stop/Start system. The engineering team developed a new heavy-duty starter motor, a new ring gear, a new dual mass flywheel friction control plate and an absorption glass mat battery for the system. The grease seals on the 2 kW starter motor have been enhanced significantly and new hard-wearing copper-tungsten contact material has been sourced and specified across the TD4_e range to enhance wear resistance within the starter solenoid.

An all-new ring gear is specified for all TD4_e models to cope with the increased frequency of starts. The ring gear is attached to the engine flywheel and comes into contact with the starter motor each time the engine is started. The new ring gear is manufactured from a harder grade of steel and contains more than 25% more carbon to improve durability.

Diesel-powered Freelanders with manual gearboxes have always featured a dual mass flywheel to ensure engine refinement at start, stop and low speeds. A new Polyetheretherketone friction control plate has been developed for the Freelander TD4_e. This is able to withstand seven times the pressure of the outgoing plate, to ensure greater levels of refinement under even greater start and stop demands.

New absorption glass mat technology has been developed, offering deeper discharge and recharge characteristics and reduces battery deterioration under much heavier usage. Fine glassfibre matting has been introduced to sit pressurised between the new absorption glass mat battery plates. This aids the battery’s longevity in two ways: by allowing the electrolyte to function normally under greater pressure and by providing mechanical support for the plates, reducing battery degradation.

A voltage quality supplies a constant voltage around the vehicle’s electronic components during a stop-start, ensuring that key services continue uninterrupted by the sudden outrush of amps from the battery. This technology is effectively a direct current converter, which can convert low voltages, such as that experienced during a stop, to a stable higher level for short but crucial boosts, ranging from one to five seconds in duration.

A battery monitoring system monitors the battery’s state of health to ensure that the Stop/Start feature functions reliably. The technology measures factors such as natural battery degradation, ambient temperature, charge and discharge activity and voltage, to make sure there is enough power available for an effective stop-start. If any of these factors show a low measurement, the Stop/Start feature is overridden and the engine will continue running until more battery power is available.

The Freelander 2’s brake system is specified with significant vacuum reserves, but these reserves can become depleted for a number of reasons, such as use of the brake pedal when the engine is switched off. Ultimately this would lead to vacuum reserves becoming exhausted, which would affect the brake servo’s operation and pedal loads, in some cases causing them to rise substantially.

To mitigate this, the brake vacuum sensor is specified on all Freelander 2 TD4_e models, and if vacuum reserves fall to a level that will affect brake pedal loads, the system overrides the Stop/Start function until the brake vacuum is replenished – ensuring brake pedal loads are maintained.

A number of changes have been made to the Freelander 2 TD4_e’s climate control system to help ensure occupant comfort and reduce misting during stop-start situations. One significant change is the introduction of an auxiliary water pump. On conventional vehicles, the water pump shuts down with the engine, but on TD4_e models, the introduction of the auxiliary water pump maintains the flow of coolant during engine shutdown, keeping a steady cabin temperature.

The climate control system monitors cabin temperature and maintains fan speed at a level that will protect the battery's state of charge when the engine is shut down. In extreme hot or cold conditions, extended stops, or if an occupant selects a higher fan speed during a stop, the engine will re-start if necessary to preserve occupant comfort.

Evaporator temperature, the factor that gives rise to screen misting, is also monitored and the enhanced climate control system will periodically cool the evaporator as necessary to mitigate misting during a stop-start. The system operates the windshield defrost shutter and, if the evaporator is wet, the shutter will remain closed for a few seconds after an engine restart until the vapour is dissipated, again mitigating windscreen misting.

Tata Motors acquired Land Rover and Jaguar from Ford earlier this year. (Earlier post.)



and to think this couldn't be implemented cheaply into their economy cars? the rich doesn't give a rats ass about saving gas you know...

- 25% more carbon
- new ring gear
- software controls
- Polyetheretherketone friction control plate
- "A voltage quality supplies a constant voltage around the vehicle’s electronic components during a stop-start, ensuring that key services continue uninterrupted by the sudden outrush of amps from the battery. This technology is effectively a direct current converter"
- so its a voltage quality?
- upgraded AGM battery
- auxiliary water pump
- and conditions when the engine disengages the stop/start system due to whatever reasons.

anything more than a grand is a waste of time since HSD is close to refining their costs, and IMA making a comeback with their parallel system.

Henry Gibson

All pumps, fans, compressors, needed for driving an automobile should be powered from a battery with highly efficient brushless DC motors. This alone will save much energy because the water pump and radiator fan can be optimised to cooling requirements. A separate pump for cab heating also reduces the power load on the engine.

The large battery is fully charged whilst the car is not in use if possible, and the battery is discharged to a low level before the engine computer allows it to be charged if absolutly necessary. As much braking energy as is possible is regenerated into this battery and the starting battery that is always kept full. For short trips gasoline is saved because the engine is not run for electricity or air conditioning or engine cooling etc.

Air conditioning systems can be frame mounted and welded hermetically sealed with no hoses and the excess pumping of the compressor at high engine speeds and the clutch load is eliminated. Cooling can be done with the car stopped in traffic until the large deep cycle battery is exhausted. A large, gear connected, integrated starter alternator can recharge the battery to operating levels at high power and then stop again. The starter and alternator should have been integrated into the flywheel. There is known technology to do this.

Large Lead+acid batteries are quite suitable. There can be and should be two batteries. A starting battery with built in ultra-caps as invented by CSIRO, and another battery, very large for regeneration. Negative foam plate and positive enhanced grid technology from Firefly should be used in these batteries. EFFPOWER bipolar plate packaging technology should be used. The two batteries can be directly connected to each other, while the alternator is running, through very high current MOSFETS or direct relay contacts.

It is now possible to use electrically controlled valves and these can make starting much easier and allow much higher efficiency operation by operating cylinders in a computer controlled fashion to optimise efficiency.

Adding a small "steam" turbine with high torque gearing to the engine can replace the starter motor entirely; at least for start-stop engine operation. Heat from the exhaust can keep steam hot for starting and for bursts of power. Vacuum dewar flasks can keep the water hot for long periods of time. The water will be condensed and reused.

Methods of extracting water from fuel engine exhausts are being used by several companies. Every pound of fuel used can produce about a pound of water. The use of the exhaust to make steam for steam assist also makes it easier to collect water from the exhaust.

The Kitson-Still had the first start-stop diesel engine used in a locomotive. The boiler was heated by a small diesel fire before the locomotive could be moved; then the diesel exhaust and cylinder cooling heated the boiler. The engine pistons were double acting with steam acting on the crankshaft side. It used only one fifth the weight of fuel that an equivalent coal-burning locomotive would have used for moving the same train, but coal was much less expensive than oil in England but not in California where the locomotive should have been built or sent instead of being scrapped during the world wide depression. Modern technology allows for a steam turbine to be used instead of steam pistons.

A combination, of a large number of Capstone turbines feeding exhaust gases through a steam boiler and a steam turbine, could be highly efficient. The steam turbine could directly drive the wheels. The Capstone turbines could drive electric motors.

A single Capstone turbine combined with a steam turbine may be a future good choice for this vehicle.

With modern technology there is no reason why this vehicle could not be equipped with a steam turbine for starting and power bursts. The engine need never to be started for creeping in traffic. The extra efficiency of the steam system is always available not just at starting. ..HG..


Hi Henry.

Many good ideas.

In this case what you say can be implemented on a vehicle with maybe a 10% penalty to overall vehicle cost but an overall fuel economy gain of probably 20-30% which would recover that cost over a couple of years.

However, as with most products, companies would not dare implement everything at once because initial engineering investment would need to be substantially higher in any one given year then others. Most companies work in a short sighted fashion, trying to beat previous year's gains. They would consider their bottom line fist, followed by ways to polishing their image for investors. This includes coming up with new things to make the company look like innovators now AND in the future, so they space technology out.
Industry is riddled with examples of gadgets and ideas that were implemented in a segmented fasion simply to keep people hooked, not because the technology did not exist or was not viable.
People just need to be less impulsive and refuse to purchase new toys unless they offer substantial improvements from previous models across the board. At least this is how I view things, because realistically most companies will try and take advantage of consumers unless someone pokes them in the ribs and asks them why they don't do more with their product?

Lets not also forget we could have had all electric steering, aircon and pumps decades ago, but electric stuff as you know does not break as much. And having products that don't require regular expensive maintenance also upsets another group of people.


Competition in the Marketplace, The laws of supply and demand. About as basic as dirt.
That's why we don't have steam powered cars - they cannot compete.
"Most companies work in a short sighted fashion, ... so they space technology out." Sounds a bit contradictory.
Companies provides the best percieved affordable value for the money as soon as possible to beat the competition.
If the public will pay for cup holders,35 mpg, 4wd, 400 hp or whatever, that's what a company will make, if it can compete with others making similar products.
To assume differently is ignorant.



Do you honestly believe that the Big-3 did not push, over sized, super heavy, V-8 trucks on many million users who never needed such gas guzzling dinaosaurs?

You certainly know the proper answer but you may not admit it, just as many million smokers still believe that they have not been had for so many years.

Please do not trust all those shrewed sale persons. You will end up with a 500 hp, 5-ton truck, smoke 3 packs a day and buy a 10-bedroom $2M house for you and your wife and load your credit cards to $100+k.


Of course the Big-3 pushed, over sized, super heavy, V-8 trucks on many million users who never needed such gas guzzling dinosaurs. Toyota pushed priuses on people who did not care about the math.

Yes, many million (but fewer each year I hope) smokers still believe that they will not die sooner but I am not sure they were had - they had a habit. You can’t really think that after the initial peer or ad pressure that started them smoking, they still think it's cool because Joe Cool says so? It is not mentally healthy to believe that all others but us are fools.

I do not trust, or even talk to those shrewd sale persons. Even at half price I will not end up with a 500 hp, 5-ton truck and neither I nor my Civic smoke.
But I do find it really tiresome to hear the constant dodging between:
1. “The big 3 MADE us buy gas hogs” (when “us” means all those other sheep, not us)
- And (when that doesn’t sell)
2. “The big 3 are incredibly stupid for making truck/SUV gas hogs but not little cars, hybrids or BEVs, until it’s too late. We should realize that trucks just recently passed cars for total sales and still (and even after the truck dumping is over) will be comparable, while hybrids are struggling to pass 6%?
The big 3 has tried many, many times to compete successfully in small cars but were not very successful for many reasons.


These sort of cars should be driven by farmers, builders and off-roaders, not as city runabouts. City slickers who ponce around town in these tanks deserve to be ridiculed.

Dan A

Just a moot point, hybrids haven't gone much past 3% of the market, and that was only for a couple of months.

The biggest reason why the big 3 didn't focus on small cars is because they had practically no profit margins (some were actually sold for a loss). If you're an automaker, what are you going to put your advertising/research funding into, a small car that you make $200 profit off of or an SUV/Pickup that you make $2000+ on. No contest. Now with the new UAW contracts, it actually may make it worth their time to sell small cars (I have my eye on the Chevy Cruz).

Reality Czech
A combination, of a large number of Capstone turbines feeding exhaust gases through a steam boiler and a steam turbine, could be highly efficient.
The reality is different.
  1. Capstone turbines have 26% maximum efficiency. Diesels can exceed 40%.
  2. Diesels have much better part-power efficiency than gas turbines.
  3. A steam system would not come close to making up for the extra losses.
Toyota pushed priuses on people who did not care about the math.
Reality is that the Prius works out very well when gas is $4/gallon or more, and Toyota had willing customers for every one of them. GM uses heavy discounts to push trucks on people who can't figure their future fuel costs.

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