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Volvo Introduces Next-Generation D5 Twin-Turbo Diesel Engine

Volvod5a
Volvo D5 twin-turbo diesel engine. Click to enlarge.

Volvo Cars is introducing an entirely new 2.4-liter 5-cylinder diesel engine in the Volvo S80. Sharing only the D5 badge and the 5-cylinder configuration with the previous generation, the new D5 is Euro-5 compliant and is more efficient than its predecessor.

Featuring sequential twin turbochargers, ceramic glow-plugs and piezoelectric fuel injectors, the new engine applied in the S80 delivers 205 hp (153 kW) of power and 420 Nm (310 lb-ft) of torque, with fuel consumption of 6.2 liters/100 km (38 mpg US) and CO2 emissions of 164 g/km.

The previous engine generation has undergone constant development in a series of stages and had reached the end of its potential. We therefore decided to start with a clean sheet of paper and harness the advanced technology to which we have access today. The result is even better than we dared hope. What is more, this engine has been developed entirely in-house at Volvo.

—Derek Crabb, Vice President, Powertrain Engineering
Volvod5b
The twin turbo system. Click to enlarge.

The D5 engine is made entirely out of aluminium, for low weight and good heat dissipation properties. Transverse cooling gives uniform cooling of the cylinder head and engine block. This promotes a controlled temperature throughout the engine and contributes to high reliability and long lifetime.

The two turbochargers are of different sizes and together deliver boost pressure of 180 kPa (1.8 bar), across a broad rev range. The smaller turbocharger is used primarily at lower revs. It reacts more alertly than the larger one and provides immediate response to quick throttle movements. At higher revs, the larger turbocharger takes over to provide more propulsion when accelerating at higher speeds. In addition to increased performance and reduced fuel consumption, the twin-turbo approach makes it possible to exploit the EGR system more efficiently than before.

By increasing the volume of the EGR cooler and equipping it with effective cooling fins, it has been possible to increase heat dissipation efficiency by 25%. This in turn gives the returning exhaust gases far lower temperature, thus reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to Euro 5 requirements.

The piezoelectric fuel injectors are used in combination with an 1,800 bar (180 MPa) injection system. The piezoelectric injector nozzles can deliver up to seven separate injection events during each operating cycle. Due to this speed and the high fuel delivery pressure, the injector nozzle can provide short pre-delivery injections even when engine revs exceed 3000 rpm, contributing to reduced engine noise.

The piezoelectric injector nozzle can also produce extremely short post-delivery injections of fuel after the main injection sequence. As a result, the particulate filter can be regenerated even when the engine is running at low revs.

The fuel pump is a high-pressure unit with two pump elements instead of three as in the previous D5 engine generation. This makes the pump spin more easily, thus reducing the load on the various components. A more easily driven pump also reduces fuel consumption.

Ceramic glow-plugs provide excellent starting properties. They are heated up extremely quickly and reach 1,000 °C two seconds after a cold start. Maximum operating temperature is 1,300 °C, about 30% higher than that of a conventional glow-plug. With ceramic glow-plugs, the engine can be started immediately without pre-heating, even at temperatures as low as -30 °C (-22 °F).

Instead of using an oil dipstick the driver is alerted via the information display when it is time to top up with oil. The system even specifies how much oil is needed.

The engine mountings have been further developed and tailored to suit the high torque levels. They are supplemented with a third torque rod to stabilize the engine during firm acceleration.

When the project got under way, our goal was to bring fuel consumption down to 6.4 liters/100 km in the Volvo S80, which after all is a relatively large car. As the work progressed we saw that we could beat that target and today we are actually down to 6.2. With an automatic gearbox we have been able to reduce the consumption with more than 8 percent, from 7.3 to 6.7, which is a significant improvement.

—Derek Crabb

The new five-cylinder diesel is the first engine from Volvo’s new project office for diesel engine development. The entire process from receiving the design brief to installing the first engine in a car took less than three years.

Comments

DieselHybrid

Great FE achievement for a rather large vehicle.

Let me guess... for EU consumption only?

We sure could use these when (not if) oil goes back over $100/barrel.

Peace.

Peter

I really hope this makes it to the US. The fuel economy is phenomenal for a car of this size and power. The fact that Volvo developed this engine itself gives me hope that Volvo could survive as independent car company if Ford decides to jettison it. On the other hand, why doesn't Ford take this engine and use it in its American market cars. Why not put this engine in a Taurus, Lincoln MKS or Explorer?

JosephT

"why doesn't Ford...use it in the US"

T2B5

no passey no playee

philmcneal

yeah so.... in regards to air quality in Europe... since they don't have the T2Bin5 standard does it mean their nasty air is the same as ours since we have a lot of SUVS to make up the lack of diesels sold here.

Stan Peterson

USA air quality is phenomenally better than the EU, and getting even better. EU V and EU VI correlate to very early US air emissions standards as of of the early 1980s.

Anything equivalent to US standards that are now in if full effect throughout the 50 states, are not even on the hypothetical EU drawing boards. So much for EU phony Greens. Federal standard were slower in implementation schedules, but have caught up, and the same rules are now fully promulgated and equivalent to the earlier implementing CARB rules.
Our air has come a long way, and is almost clean, except for a few special cases, due to geography, like the LA basin. Even there progress is substantial. CARB has turend ot regulalting lawnmowers, diesel locomotives, and visiting ships, where the federal rules are already tougher, thanks to Mr. Bush.

Proposed rules for the future in the EU project out to 2025, and they do not equal our in-force rules for toxic air emissions.

Instead they make a big deal about CO2, even as AGW via GHGs, gets increasingly discredited by new Science; and scientists jump off the "consensus ship" every day, in the light of the incoming evidence. Moreover the EU makes these rules with no intention of enforcing them; they never really have. The USA a Non-Kyoto signatory, has a better record in reducing CO2 than the EU, even as the EU rigged 1990 as the reference date. Kyoto was negotiated to chose 1990, to give them a leg up and head start, due to collapse of the communist empire.

Even if CO2 were a real problem, and I don't grant that possibility anymore, the USA and Canada are already BELOW ZERO in CO2 sequestration.
http://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/reference/bibliography/1998/sfan9801.pdf

We North Americans sequester more CO2 then we generate, and also sequester some of Eurasia made messes, blowing in from the Pacific.
Our prolific forests, and crop lands do it, in spite of our producing 25% of the World's goods and our high standard of living and energy use. Thank our far-seeing conservation and land use set-asides going back to Abraham Lincoln's creation of Yellowstone National park. And Teddy Roselvelt's effort as well. And all the wilderness and park lands created since then, by almost all Presidents and Congresses, and their Canadian counterparts.

philmcneal

WOW i thank you for the educated post, you have taught me! So any diesel i may get must have minimum stop/start and tier 2 bin5!

So does California still have more strict rules than the other states? I hear Canada wants to follow California standards eventually.

R52525 We5sbr5ch

Stan, Stan, Stan.

A historian you are not.
"Thank our far-seeing conservation and land use set-asides going back to Abraham Lincoln's creation of Yellowstone National park"

Yellowstone Park was created by a bill passed by the Senate and House early in 1872.. President U.S. Grant signed the bill,the "Act of Dedication" on March 1, 1872.
Had nothing to do with Lincoln, who was shot dead a half dozen years before Yellowstone was fully explored.

The CARB, "California Air Resources Board" has as its head, the governor of California, Arnold Schwartznegger. The CARB has always been ahead of US standards for air pollution and quality. CARB predates even President Regan. Nothing to do with Bush 1, Clinton, or Bush 2. So put your "Bush dagger" back in your toga, Brutus.

Rikiki

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