Ford Debuts Four-Cylinder EcoBoost Engine Family at Frankfurt; 1.6L and 2.0L I-4s to Start, Smaller Displacement Engine to Follow
|1.6L I-4 EcoBoost. Click to enlarge.|
Ford revealed further details of the upcoming four-cylinder versions of its turbocharged, gasoline direct-injected EcoBoost engine family (earlier post) at the Frankfurt Motor Show, prior to their first European production applications in 2010.
The all-new EcoBoost 1.6-liter and 2.0-liter (earlier post) I-4 engines combine turbocharging and direct-injection technology to deliver fuel consumption and CO2 emissions reduced by up to 20% versus conventional, larger-displacement gasoline engines with similar power output. At the same time, EcoBoost engines will deliver the off-the-line power and performance comparable to diesels.
The initial range of 4-cylinder Ford EcoBoost engines for the company’s European product range will launch in 2010 and use the SCTi (sequential charge turbo injection) for production models. The line-up will comprise 1.6-liter units for the all-new Ford C-MAX (shown at Frankfurt) and 2.0-liter units for the company’s large car range. An additional advanced, small-capacity Ford EcoBoost engine will be introduced later to expand the range of applications within Ford’s small and medium car line-up.
Ford has confirmed that its new 2.0-liter Ford EcoBoost engine will be available globally, launching in North America in 2010 and for its first rear-wheel drive application in the Ford Falcon in Australia from 2011. (Earlier post.)
With the 2.0-liter engine catering for applications of 200 PS and above, the 1.6-liter engine spanning the 150-180 PS range, and the small-capacity unit meeting the demand for engines in the sub-130 PS segment, over time we will offer a high-efficiency low-CO2 Ford EcoBoost engine for all of our major European vehicle lines.—John Fleming, Chairman & CEO, Ford of Europe.
Powertrain engineers have maximized the economy and emissions improvements delivered in Ford EcoBoost engines by creating a new combustion system which combines the benefits of three critical elements: high-pressure direct fuel injection, advanced turbocharging and twin independent variable valve timing. While each of these features has potential technical advantages on its own, deploying all three together brings significantly enhanced performance and results in a much more efficient combustion process across the full engine operating range.
At the heart of the combustion system is a high-pressure direct injection system which injects fuel into each cylinder in small, precise amounts at a pressure of up to 200 bar—the droplet size is typically smaller than 0.02mm.
Compared to conventional fuel injection, direct injection produces a cooler, denser charge, delivering improved fuel economy and performance. Like in a modern diesel engine, multiple injections are also possible per combustion cycle, which further enhances economy and emissions.
Variable valve timing on both intake and exhaust camshafts helps 4-cylinder Ford EcoBoost engines optimize gas flow through the combustion chamber at all engine speeds, improving efficiency and performance, particularly at part load.
Ford EcoBoost engines deliver the same strong low-end torque which has made the latest diesel engines popular, combined with refined and responsive performance across the full engine speed range.
This is made possible by using advanced turbocharger technology, with small, low inertia rotors that spin at speeds in excess of 200,000 rpm. The turbines are carefully selected to ensure that maximum torque can be achieved at 1,500rpm or lower, with the absolute minimum of delay when the driver wants quick acceleration in traffic.
The charge cooling benefit of direct injection plays an additional part in boosting performance at low engine speeds. Variable valve timing further enhances this through a ‘scavenging’ effect, which increases air flow through the engine and maximizes low-end torque.
Careful matching of the turbo ensures that Ford EcoBoost engines remain powerful and responsive at speeds in excess of 5,000rpm, providing a much wider spread of power than a typical diesel unit.
A key advantage of the Ford EcoBoost approach is the ability to downsize engine capacity, so that larger naturally aspirated engines can be replaced by much smaller units without sacrificing power output. The performance boost offered by turbocharging typically results in a 50% increase in torque, so there is a significant opportunity to downsize capacity while still providing a potential performance benefit.
The 1.6- and 2.0-liter Ford EcoBoost units are advanced lightweight, high efficiency engine designs which have been specially developed from Ford’s latest 4-cylinder engine families.
Both units have an all-aluminium construction, with sixteen-valve DOHC cylinder heads featuring twin independent variable cam timing. The engines have been refined for maximum operating efficiency with optimized lubrication system design and application of low-friction coatings.
The advanced combustion system design allows both engines to meet the most stringent global emissions requirements including the PZEV (partial zero emission vehicles) standard in California and the European Stage V regulations.
Production of the two initial Ford EcoBoost engines for European vehicles will be spread across two different locations within Ford’s powertrain manufacturing network. The 2.0-liter unit will be produced at the Valencia Engine Plant in Spain, while the 1.6-liter engine will be made at the Bridgend Engine Plant in the United Kingdom.
The future advanced small-displacement Ford EcoBoost engine will be produced both at the Cologne Engine Plant in Germany and at the new Craiova Engine Plant in Romania.
By 2012, the Ford plans globally to produce 1.3 million EcoBoost engines annually—750,000 of these in the US, where availability of turbo diesel engines in passenger cars is less widespread. By 2013, Ford expects to offer EcoBoost engines in 90% of its global product lineup.