USABC Issues Requests for Proposal Information for Four Energy Storage Projects for Hybrid, Plug-in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles
The United States Advanced Battery Consortium LLC (USABC)—an organization whose members are Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company and General Motors Company—is seeking requests for proposal information (RFPIs) for four projects related to advanced battery development for hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric and electric vehicles.
USABC’s four RFPIs, for consideration of contracts that will include a 50% minimum cost share by developers, include: a second phase of PHEV battery development; a re-engagement on the development of high energy-to-power batteries for EVs; development of advanced energy storage systems for high-power, lower energy-energy storage system (LEESS) for power-assist hybrid electric vehicle (PAHEV) applications; and a technology assessment of proposed advanced battery technologies for EV applications.
The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) was formed in 1991 to sponsor development of advanced high-performance batteries for Electric Vehicle (EV) applications. USABC has carried out a number of battery development programs, focusing on low-cost and long-life batteries with varying power-to-energy ratios. The RFPIs for advanced battery development are aimed at developers with electrochemical energy storage technologies that are capable of meeting or approaching the USABC long-term criteria for vehicle applications.
|USABC goals for advanced batteries for PHEVs. Click to enlarge.|
PHEV Batteries Phase 2. USABC has carried out a number of battery development programs, focusing on low-cost, long-life, high-energy, high-power technologies, including several programs, started in 2008, which addressed the development of plug-in hybrid batteries (Round I). With this request (Round II), the USABC intends to continue and extend development of these systems.
The USABC is currently working under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the development of high performance batteries. The intended R&D approach of this subcontract is to develop an advanced energy storage system based on state-of-the-art technologies in order to meet or surpass USABC baseline technical requirements. Although project goals can be set that approach but not meet all of the USABC goals, a credible plan toward achieving all the USABC goals must be provided.
All developers submitting proposals will be required to demonstrate that they have the potential to develop a commercially viable business, which can produce sufficient volumes to meet automotive requirements, and provide engineering and testing support to meet automotive implementation requirements. Research organizations with current, direct affiliations with businesses that derive a majority of their income from related product sales, will also be considered.
At the time of submittal, all developers will be required to have demonstration hardware and test results available for USABC inspection. Testing performed in accordance with the USABC battery test procedures is preferred, however not mandatory. Inspection and test of hardware by the USABC may be included in the selection process.
|USABC Goals for Advanced Batteries for EVs. Click to enlarge.|
EV Batteries. With this request, the USABC intends to re-engage development activity in the area of high energy-to-power ratio batteries, and specifically those which utilize a carbon-based material (graphitic or otherwise) as the negative electrode active material.
The intended R&D approach of this subcontract is to develop an advanced energy storage system based on state of the art technologies in order to meet or surpass the baseline technical requirements. Although project goals can be set that approach but not meet all of the USABC goals, a credible plan toward achieving all the USABC goals must be provided.
LEESS. With this request the USABC intends to issue new requirements that may expand the scope of potential technologies to include a range of electrochemical energy storage systems such as ultra-capacitors, hybrid battery capacitors, and batteries.
|USABC Requirements at End of Life for LEESS PAHEV. Click to enlarge.|
This RFPI is for the development of advanced energy storage systems for automotive applications that would not be pursued by industry alone due to high risks and uncertain or long-term outcomes. The objective is to design, develop, fabricate, deliver, and test advanced energy storage systems that will meet the USABC goals.
Achieving the USABC goals requires the development of advanced technologies utilizing high performance and low cost materials, incorporating advanced thermal management technologies in order to provide high power density and commercially cost effective systems.
Additionally, new technologies must be compatible with high-volume manufacturing; must ensure high reliability, efficiency, and ruggedness; and must simultaneously reduce cost, weight, and volume.
The perceived main technical challenges which should be addressed to improve automotive market penetration of energy storage systems are issues such as power density, self discharge rate, desire to leave the system charged during storage and still meet life expectancy, system complexity and the system cost.
USABC has sponsored research and development projects on symmetric carbon/carbon ultra-capacitors and electrochemical cells that have significantly reduced the gap between the goals and the state of the art technology. However, USABC says that it has become apparent that these technologies will not achieve the goals (especially in regards to cost) within the desired timeframe. Accordingly, USABC in encouraging proposals about systems employing hybrid and pseudo-capacitor technology.
The intended R&D approach of this subcontract is to develop an advanced energy storage system based on state of the art technologies in order to meet or surpass the technical requirements in Appendix A. Although project goals can be set that approach but not meet all of the USABC goals, a credible plan toward achieving all the USABC goals must be provided.
Limited scope projects which address specific cell or system shortcomings will also be considered: examples of such projects may include, but are not limited to, development of low impurity low- cost activated carbon, low- cost non-toxic electrolyte with good low temperature conductivity and low viscosity, low- cost high yield electrode processing and high voltage (>2.7V) cell life demonstration. The USABC encourages developers to propose any technology, ultra-capacitors and others, which may meet the cost and performance goals.
Any testing performed to demonstrate baseline performance and progress must be executed according to the Battery Test Manual for Power-Assist Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Rev. 1. The manual also provides a glossary of terms and procedures to properly interpret the goals. For example, a method is provided to calculate the available energy which takes into account specific discharge rates and power capability within the operating area, as well as the voltage limits.
Although not specifically listed among the goals, abuse tests will be performed according to the USABC Energy Storage Abuse Test Manual for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) Applications. Suitability for vehicle application must be demonstrated by meeting the criteria set forth in the manual.
EV Batteries Technology Assessment. As a precursor to the existing RFPI process, the Technology Assessment Program has been developed to evaluate the state of proposed technologies prior to consideration for a USABC Development Program.
The developer will be required to manufacture 36 cells or modules. USABC shall be provided with 18 deliverables for testing at a specified National Laboratory. The developer will test the remaining 18 deliverables in-house. Both sets of deliverables will be tested according to the same predetermined test plan.
The deadline for all of the RFPIs is 29 January 2010.
USABC is a consortium of USCAR. Enabled by a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, USABC’s mission is to develop electrochemical energy storage technologies that support commercialization of fuel cell, hybrid and electric vehicles.
Founded in 1992, USCAR is the collaborative automotive technology organization for Chrysler Group LLC, Ford Motor Company and General Motors Company. The goal of USCAR is to further strengthen the technology base of the domestic auto industry through cooperative research and development.